# DME DME Worksheet 1 by PB5vXjdc

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```									 This spreadsheet implements many of the formulae in my Aviation Formulary. (http://www.best.com/~williams/avform.htm)
No significant effort has been expended on protecting against invalid inputs.
1.00 Released under the GNU GPL 12/30/00 EAW. No warranties apply!
1.01 Added sunrise/sunset and wind direction in "three GS" calculation. 1/16/01

Usage Notes:
Mandatory inputs are green, optional inputs are yellow, outputs are red. Intermediate results are hidden in uncolored co
and can be restored with Format|Columns|Unhide. The calculational work is done in Visual Basic modules which you can a
Units for input/output distances are set on each Great Circles sheet.
Input lat/lons as deg and minutes. For S latitudes and E longitudes enter the degrees as negative (not
N/E/S/W automatically.
The sheets are protected to prevent accidental damage- unprotect with Tools|Protection|Unprotect Sheet

Great Circles
Given the location of two points [lat1,lon1] and [lat2,lon2] compute the distance and bearings between them. Show the
and nadir of the great circle.
Optionally:
Compute the locations along the course at intermediate values of latitude, with along track distance (from 1) and the loca
Compute the locations along the course where it crosses specified parallels, with along track distance (from 1) and the lo
Compute the locations along the course at specified distances, with the local true course.

Great Circles 2
Given the location [lat1,lon1] and initial bearing, show the locations of the apex and nadir of the great circle thus def
Optionally:
Compute the locations along the course at specified distances, with the local true course.
Compute the locations along the course at intermediate values of latitude, with along track distance (from 1) and the loc
Compute the locations along the course where it crosses specified parallels, with along track distance (from 1) and the
Given a point, find the closest point to it on the great circle, with the along and cross-track distance.

Intersection
Find the points of intersection (5 & 6) of two great circles. Each circle is defined either by two points on it, or by a poin
bearing. In the latter case the point cannot be a pole. Choose the input type by entering 1 or 2 in the appropriate box.
The method used (http://www.best.com/~williams/intersect.htm) associates each great circle with a unit vector perpendicu
The intersections lie in the direction of the cross-product. Garbage will be produced if the two great circles are the same

DME-DME
Given two points at (lat1,lon1) and (lat2,lon2), find the points 3a and 3b at distances d13 and d23 from points 1 and 2

Rhumb
Given initial point (lat1,lon1) and a bearing, find the lat/lons of points on the rhumb line at given distances. These distan
the distance to the corresponding pole, where the rhumb line ends.

Wind
Unknown Wind
Find wind speed and direction, given true airspeed (TAS), ground speed, course and heading. Courses and headings
Speeds are in any (but the same) units.
Solve for heading and ground speed, given TAS, course and wind- the standard pre-flight planning problem.
TAS and wind speed from three ground speeds.
This is a way to get your TAS when the wind is unknown but you can determine your groundspeed (eg by GPS). Fly
120 degrees apart- eg 10,130 and 250 degrees. Note the three groundspeeds. From these one can obtain the TAS a
This is a way to get your TAS when the wind is unknown but you can determine your groundspeed (eg by GPS). Fly
120 degrees apart- eg 10,130 and 250 degrees. Note the three groundspeeds. From these one can obtain the TAS a
without knowing which is which! Hopefully the TAS is the larger of the two!) With exact data, the results are exact, i
wind. The method works best in light winds (say less than 20% of the TAS). As the windspeed increases, the method
sensitive to errors in the input. These are minimized if one of the three directions is chosen to be approximately downw

StdAtm
Find temperature, pressure, density and sound speed as a function of altitude for the 1976 US Standard Atmosphere. I
for the first two layers (up to 20km ~ 65617 feet). There are two tables, on the left for heights in feet, on the righ
Different units can be chosen by setting the switches at the top of the corresponding columns. Heights can be changed
rows.

Altitude
Pressure Altitude - what an altimeter indicates when set to 29.92"
Indicated Altitude- what an altimeter indicates when set to the local altimeter setting, equals true altitude at field
Field Elevation- the height above MSL of the altimeter setting reporting point.
True Altitude- height above MSL.
Density Altitude- height in the ISA (International standard atmosphere- see above) with the same air density.
Provides means of computing these quantities.

Sun
Calculate the time of local sunset given latitude, longitude and date. Depending on how far the sun is required to dip
the horizon, we have "official sunset", and the end of civil, nautical and astronomical twilight.
Enter the time difference to UTC (eg PST = -8 ) to get local time.
www.best.com/~williams/avform.htm)

te results are hidden in uncolored columns,
sual Basic modules which you can access with Alt-F11.

s negative (not the minutes). The formatting will show appropraite

ction|Unprotect Sheet

d bearings between them. Show the locations of the apex

g track distance (from 1) and the local true course.
ong track distance (from 1) and the local true course.

nadir of the great circle thus defined.

ng track distance (from 1) and the local true course.
long track distance (from 1) and the local true course.
track distance.

her by two points on it, or by a point and initial
ing 1 or 2 in the appropriate box.
at circle with a unit vector perpendicular to it.
if the two great circles are the same.

s d13 and d23 from points 1 and 2- if they exist.

at given distances. These distances cannot exceed

flight planning problem.

rom these one can obtain the TAS and windspeed (but
rom these one can obtain the TAS and windspeed (but
exact data, the results are exact, independent of the
e windspeed increases, the method becomes increasingly
s chosen to be approximately downwind.

he 1976 US Standard Atmosphere. Implemented
t for heights in feet, on the right for heights in meters.
g columns. Heights can be changed in the first two

ng, equals true altitude at field elevation.

e) with the same air density.

n how far the sun is required to dip below
Distance and bearing between points
deg           min                                  nm
latitude1                       N33:   57.0000   distance                    #NAME?
longitude1                     W118:   24.0000                              deg
latitude2                       N40:   38.0000   bearing 1->2                #NAME?
longitude2                      W73:   47.0000   bearing2->1                 #NAME?

UNITS                   maximum latitude           #NAME?    ######
nm=1 km=2 sm=3           at longitude              #NAME?    ######
1                minimum latitude           #NAME?    ######
at longitude              #NAME?    ######

Latitudes of point on GC                                                    deg       min
intermediate longitude         W111:    0.0000   intermediate latitude       #NAME?   ######
intermediate longitude         W110:    0.0000   intermediate latitude       #NAME?   ######
intermediate longitude         W100:    0.0000   intermediate latitude       #NAME?   ######
intermediate longitude          E80:    0.0000   intermediate latitude       #NAME?   ######
intermediate longitude         W120:    0.0000   intermediate latitude       #NAME?   ######

Crossing parallels
intermediate latitude           N36: 23.6597     intermediate longitude 1   #NAME?    ######
intermediate longitude 2   #NAME?    ######
intermediate latitude           N34: 0.0000      intermediate longitude 1   #NAME?    ######
intermediate longitude 2   #NAME?    ######
intermediate latitude           S34: 0.0000      intermediate longitude 1   #NAME?    ######
intermediate longitude 2   #NAME?    ######

Points given distance from 1 towards 2
nm
distance                         100             point latitude             #NAME?    ######
point longitude            #NAME?    ######
distance                        1000             point latitude             #NAME?    ######
point longitude            #NAME?    ######
distance                        2000             point latitude             #NAME?    ######
point longitude            #NAME?    ######
distance                        -100             point latitude             #NAME?    ######
point longitude            #NAME?    ######
km        sm
#NAME?     #NAME?

along GC
bearing    nm
#NAME?      #NAME?
#NAME?      #NAME?
#NAME?      #NAME?
#NAME?      #NAME?
#NAME?      #NAME?

#NAME?     #NAME?
#NAME?     #NAME?
#NAME?     #NAME?
#NAME?     #NAME?
#NAME?     #NAME?
#NAME?     #NAME?

#NAME?

#NAME?

#NAME?

#NAME?
deg       min                      maximum latitude            #NAME?     #NAME?
latitude1                     N42: 36.0000                   at longitude               #NAME?     #NAME?
longitude1                  W117: 51.9600                   minimum latitude            #NAME?     #NAME?
bearing from 1             51.0000                           at longitude               #NAME?     #NAME?
UNITS                    nm=1 km=2 sm=3
1
Points given distance from point 1
nm                                                            deg         min
distance                        5400                        lat                         #NAME?     #NAME?
lon                         #NAME?     #NAME?
distance                        1000                        lat                         #NAME?     #NAME?
lon                         #NAME?     #NAME?
distance                        2000                        lat                         #NAME?     #NAME?
lon                         #NAME?     #NAME?
distance                        -100                        lat                         #NAME?     #NAME?
lon                         #NAME?     #NAME?

Latitude of point on GC
intermediate longitude         W111:    0.0000              intermediate latitude       #NAME?     #NAME?
intermediate longitude         W110:    0.0000              intermediate latitude       #NAME?     #NAME?
intermediate longitude         W100:    0.0000              intermediate latitude       #NAME?     #NAME?
intermediate longitude          E80:    0.0000              intermediate latitude       #NAME?     #NAME?
intermediate longitude         W120:    0.0000              intermediate latitude       #NAME?     #NAME?

Crossing parallels
intermediate latitude           N36:   23.6597              intermediate longitude 1    #NAME?     #NAME?
intermediate longitude 2    #NAME?     #NAME?
intermediate latitude           N34:    0.0000              intermediate longitude 1    #NAME?     #NAME?
intermediate longitude 2    #NAME?     #NAME?
intermediate latitude           S34:    0.0000              intermediate longitude 1    #NAME?     #NAME?
intermediate longitude 2    #NAME?     #NAME?

Along- and cross- track distance                 positive cross-track distance = right of course

latitude                        N44:   30.0000              closest latitude            #NAME?     #NAME?
longitude                      W110:   30.0000              closest longitude           #NAME?     #NAME?
latitude                        N43:   15.3500              closest latitude            #NAME?     #NAME?
longitude                      W115:   13.1569              closest longitude           #NAME?     #NAME?
latitude                        N34:   39.0000              closest latitude            #NAME?     #NAME?
longitude                      W116:   33.0000              closest longitude           #NAME?     #NAME?
along-GC
bearing    nm
#NAME?

#NAME?

#NAME?

#NAME?

#NAME?     #NAME?
#NAME?     #NAME?
#NAME?     #NAME?
#NAME?     #NAME?
#NAME?     #NAME?

#NAME?     #NAME?
#NAME?     #NAME?
#NAME?     #NAME?
#NAME?     #NAME?
#NAME?     #NAME?
#NAME?     #NAME?

distance
along      cross
#NAME?     #NAME?

#NAME?     #NAME?

#NAME?     #NAME?
Great circle #1
2 =1 defined by two points, =2 defined by one point and (true) bearing
deg           min
latitude1           N42:   36.0000
longitude1         W117:   51.6000
latitude2           N40:   38.0000
longitude2          W73:   47.0000
bearing            51.00
Great Circle #2
2 =1 defined by two points, =2 defined by one point and (true) bearing
latitude3          N44: 50.4000
longitude3       W117: 48.3600
latitude4          N40: 0.0000
longitude4       W110: 0.0000
bearing          137.00

Intersections
nm      km     sm                          nm      km
latitude5    #NAME?        ######    dist 1-5       #NAME? #NAME? #NAME?           dist 1-6    #NAME? #NAME?
longitude5   #NAME?        ######    dist 2-5       #NAME? #NAME? #NAME?           dist 2-6    #NAME? #NAME?
latitude6    #NAME?        ######    dist 3-5       #NAME? #NAME? #NAME?           dist 3-6    #NAME? #NAME?
longitude6   #NAME?        ######    dist 4-5       #NAME? #NAME? #NAME?           dist 4-6    #NAME? #NAME?

crs 1-5      #NAME?                  crs 1-6         #NAME?
crs 2-5      #NAME?                  crs 2-6         #NAME?
crs 3-5      #NAME?                  crs 3-6         #NAME?
crs 4-5      #NAME?                  crs 4-6         #NAME?
crs 5-1      #NAME?                  crs 6-1         #NAME?
crs 5-2      #NAME?                  crs 6-2         #NAME?
crs 5-3      #NAME?                  crs 6-3         #NAME?
crs 5-4      #NAME?                  crs 6-4         #NAME?
sm
#NAME?
#NAME?
#NAME?
#NAME?
UNITS       nm=1 km=2 sm=3                DME- DME Worksheet
1
deg       min     dist (nm)
latitude1        N43: 36.0000 120.0000
longitude1      W117: 51.9600
latitude2        N43: 28.0000 135.4500
longitude2      W114: 12.0000
brg 1->2     #NAME? dist 1->2 #NAME?
brg 2->1     #NAME?
latitude3a   #NAME? #NAME?
longitude3a #NAME? #NAME?
latitude3b   #NAME? #NAME?
longitude3b #NAME? #NAME?

brg 1->3a   #NAME?
brg 2->3a   #NAME?
brg 1->3b   #NAME?
brg 2->3b   #NAME?
Lat/lon given radial and distance- rhumb line
deg       min             Dist to
latitude1       N25: 47.5900         N. pole   #NAME? nm
longitude1     W80: 17.4300          S. pole   #NAME? nm
45.0000
bearing from 1
UNITS nm=1 km=2 sm=3
1

Points given distance from point 1
nm
distance        100                  lat       #NAME?   #NAME?
lon       #NAME?   #NAME?
distance        200                  lat       #NAME?   #NAME?
lon       #NAME?   #NAME?
distance        300                  lat       #NAME?   #NAME?
lon       #NAME?   #NAME?
distance        500                  lat       #NAME?   #NAME?
lon       #NAME?   #NAME?
distance        1000                 lat       #NAME?   #NAME?
lon       #NAME?   #NAME?
distance        2000                 lat       #NAME?   #NAME?
lon       #NAME?   #NAME?
distance        3000                 lat       #NAME?   #NAME?
lon       #NAME?   #NAME?
distance        4000                 lat       #NAME?   #NAME?
lon       #NAME?   #NAME?
distance        5000                 lat       #NAME?   #NAME?
lon       #NAME?   #NAME?
distance        5400                 lat       #NAME?   #NAME?
lon       #NAME?   #NAME?
distance        5425                 lat       #NAME?   #NAME?
lon       #NAME?   #NAME?
distance   5436.739                  lat       #NAME?   #NAME?
lon       #NAME?   #NAME?
Wind Triangles                 Units of speeds (knots, mph etc) do not matter as long as they are consistent.

Unknown wind

Course                         300 deg             Wind Dir             #NAME?
Heading                        305 deg             Wind Speed           #NAME?
TAS                            130
Ground Speed                   125

TAS                            130                 Ground Speed #NAME?
Wind Dir                        8.3 deg
Wind Speed                       15

Wind Dir                         60 deg            Headwind             #NAME?
Wind Speed                       20                Crosswind            #NAME?
Rwy Dir                          30 deg

TAS and Windspeed from three (GPS) ground speeds
The three headings must differ from each other by 120 degrees (eg 40, 160 and 280)

GS1                            130                 TAS                  #NAME?                       The results assume that the TAS is in fact greater tha
GS2                            140                 Wind Speed           #NAME?                       case, swap TAS and Wind Speed. This method beco
in the groundspeeds as the wind speed increases. Th
GS3                            140
known. However, if it (approximately) known, choosin
downwind minimizes the effects of measurement erro
HDG1                            40                 Wind Dir(from) #NAME?
HDG2                           160
HDG3                           280
assume that the TAS is in fact greater than the wind speed. If the opposite is the
TAS and Wind Speed. This method becomes more sensitive to measurement errors
ndspeeds as the wind speed increases. The wind direction is not required to be
wever, if it (approximately) known, choosing one of the three headings to be
minimizes the effects of measurement errors.
1976 Standard Atmosphere up to 20km (65617 ft)
0 C       1 psi             slugs/ft3
1 slugs/ft3       1 ft/sec                    0 C
1 F       2 in Hg            kg/m3
2 kg/m3           2 knots                     1 F
3 Hpa, mB       3 rho0            3 m/sec
UNITS                  4 lbs/ft2
UNITS
5 atm

0          0               4                 1              2           1
ft            C      lbs/ft2           slugs/ft3 knots                  meter
Height       Temp    Pressure          Density   Sound Speed            Height
1575.42    #NAME?   #NAME?           #NAME? #NAME?                       15064
11111    #NAME?   #NAME?           #NAME? #NAME?                          333
-500    #NAME?   #NAME?           #NAME? #NAME?                         -400
0    #NAME?   #NAME?           #NAME? #NAME?                         -200
500    #NAME?   #NAME?           #NAME? #NAME?                            0
1000    #NAME?   #NAME?           #NAME? #NAME?                          200
1500    #NAME?   #NAME?           #NAME? #NAME?                          400
2000    #NAME?   #NAME?           #NAME? #NAME?                          600
2500    #NAME?   #NAME?           #NAME? #NAME?                          800
3000    #NAME?   #NAME?           #NAME? #NAME?                        1000
3500    #NAME?   #NAME?           #NAME? #NAME?                        1200
4000    #NAME?   #NAME?           #NAME? #NAME?                        1400
4500    #NAME?   #NAME?           #NAME? #NAME?                        1600
5000    #NAME?   #NAME?           #NAME? #NAME?                        1800
5500    #NAME?   #NAME?           #NAME? #NAME?                        2000
6000    #NAME?   #NAME?           #NAME? #NAME?                        2200
6500    #NAME?   #NAME?           #NAME? #NAME?                        2400
7000    #NAME?   #NAME?           #NAME? #NAME?                        2600
7500    #NAME?   #NAME?           #NAME? #NAME?                        2800
8000    #NAME?   #NAME?           #NAME? #NAME?                        3000
8500    #NAME?   #NAME?           #NAME? #NAME?                        3200
9000    #NAME?   #NAME?           #NAME? #NAME?                        3400
9500    #NAME?   #NAME?           #NAME? #NAME?                        3600
10000    #NAME?   #NAME?           #NAME? #NAME?                        3800
10500    #NAME?   #NAME?           #NAME? #NAME?                        4000
11000    #NAME?   #NAME?           #NAME? #NAME?                        4200
11500    #NAME?   #NAME?           #NAME? #NAME?                        4400
12000    #NAME?   #NAME?           #NAME? #NAME?                        4600
12500    #NAME?   #NAME?           #NAME? #NAME?                        4800
13000    #NAME?   #NAME?           #NAME? #NAME?                        5000
13500    #NAME?   #NAME?           #NAME? #NAME?                        5200
14000    #NAME?   #NAME?           #NAME? #NAME?                        5400
14500    #NAME?   #NAME?           #NAME? #NAME?                        5600
15000    #NAME?   #NAME?           #NAME? #NAME?                        5800
15500    #NAME?   #NAME?           #NAME? #NAME?                        6000
16000    #NAME?   #NAME?           #NAME? #NAME?                        6200
16500    #NAME?   #NAME?           #NAME? #NAME?                        6400
17000    #NAME?   #NAME?           #NAME? #NAME?                        6600
17500    #NAME?   #NAME?           #NAME? #NAME?                        6800
18000    #NAME?   #NAME?           #NAME? #NAME?                        7000
18500    #NAME?   #NAME?           #NAME? #NAME?                        7200
19000    #NAME?   #NAME?           #NAME? #NAME?                        7400
19500   #NAME?   #NAME?   #NAME?   #NAME?    7600
20000   #NAME?   #NAME?   #NAME?   #NAME?    7800
20500   #NAME?   #NAME?   #NAME?   #NAME?    8000
21000   #NAME?   #NAME?   #NAME?   #NAME?    8200
21500   #NAME?   #NAME?   #NAME?   #NAME?    8400
22000   #NAME?   #NAME?   #NAME?   #NAME?    8600
22500   #NAME?   #NAME?   #NAME?   #NAME?    8800
23000   #NAME?   #NAME?   #NAME?   #NAME?    9000
23500   #NAME?   #NAME?   #NAME?   #NAME?    9200
24000   #NAME?   #NAME?   #NAME?   #NAME?    9400
24500   #NAME?   #NAME?   #NAME?   #NAME?    9600
25000   #NAME?   #NAME?   #NAME?   #NAME?    9800
25500   #NAME?   #NAME?   #NAME?   #NAME?   10000
26000   #NAME?   #NAME?   #NAME?   #NAME?   10200
26500   #NAME?   #NAME?   #NAME?   #NAME?   10400
27000   #NAME?   #NAME?   #NAME?   #NAME?   10600
27500   #NAME?   #NAME?   #NAME?   #NAME?   10800
28000   #NAME?   #NAME?   #NAME?   #NAME?   11000
28500   #NAME?   #NAME?   #NAME?   #NAME?   11200
29000   #NAME?   #NAME?   #NAME?   #NAME?   11400
29500   #NAME?   #NAME?   #NAME?   #NAME?   11600
30000   #NAME?   #NAME?   #NAME?   #NAME?   11800
30500   #NAME?   #NAME?   #NAME?   #NAME?   12000
31000   #NAME?   #NAME?   #NAME?   #NAME?   12200
31500   #NAME?   #NAME?   #NAME?   #NAME?   12400
32000   #NAME?   #NAME?   #NAME?   #NAME?   12600
32500   #NAME?   #NAME?   #NAME?   #NAME?   12800
33000   #NAME?   #NAME?   #NAME?   #NAME?   13000
33500   #NAME?   #NAME?   #NAME?   #NAME?   13200
34000   #NAME?   #NAME?   #NAME?   #NAME?   13400
34500   #NAME?   #NAME?   #NAME?   #NAME?   13600
35000   #NAME?   #NAME?   #NAME?   #NAME?   13800
35500   #NAME?   #NAME?   #NAME?   #NAME?   14000
36000   #NAME?   #NAME?   #NAME?   #NAME?   14200
36500   #NAME?   #NAME?   #NAME?   #NAME?   14400
37000   #NAME?   #NAME?   #NAME?   #NAME?   14600
37500   #NAME?   #NAME?   #NAME?   #NAME?   14800
38000   #NAME?   #NAME?   #NAME?   #NAME?   15000
38500   #NAME?   #NAME?   #NAME?   #NAME?   15200
39000   #NAME?   #NAME?   #NAME?   #NAME?   15400
39500   #NAME?   #NAME?   #NAME?   #NAME?   15600
40000   #NAME?   #NAME?   #NAME?   #NAME?   15800
40500   #NAME?   #NAME?   #NAME?   #NAME?   16000
41000   #NAME?   #NAME?   #NAME?   #NAME?   16200
41500   #NAME?   #NAME?   #NAME?   #NAME?   16400
42000   #NAME?   #NAME?   #NAME?   #NAME?   16600
42500   #NAME?   #NAME?   #NAME?   #NAME?   16800
43000   #NAME?   #NAME?   #NAME?   #NAME?   17000
43500   #NAME?   #NAME?   #NAME?   #NAME?   17200
44000   #NAME?   #NAME?   #NAME?   #NAME?   17400
44500   #NAME?   #NAME?   #NAME?   #NAME?   17600
45000   #NAME?   #NAME?   #NAME?   #NAME?   17800
45500   #NAME?   #NAME?   #NAME?   #NAME?   18000
46000   #NAME?   #NAME?   #NAME?   #NAME?   18200
46500   #NAME?   #NAME?   #NAME?   #NAME?   18400
47000   #NAME?   #NAME?   #NAME?   #NAME?   18600
47500   #NAME?   #NAME?   #NAME?   #NAME?   18800
48000   #NAME?   #NAME?   #NAME?   #NAME?   19000
48500   #NAME?   #NAME?   #NAME?   #NAME?   19200
49000   #NAME?   #NAME?   #NAME?   #NAME?   19400
49500   #NAME?   #NAME?   #NAME?   #NAME?   19600
50000   #NAME?   #NAME?   #NAME?   #NAME?   19800
50500   #NAME?   #NAME?   #NAME?   #NAME?   20000
51000   #NAME?   #NAME?   #NAME?   #NAME?
51500   #NAME?   #NAME?   #NAME?   #NAME?
52000   #NAME?   #NAME?   #NAME?   #NAME?
52500   #NAME?   #NAME?   #NAME?   #NAME?
53000   #NAME?   #NAME?   #NAME?   #NAME?
53500   #NAME?   #NAME?   #NAME?   #NAME?
54000   #NAME?   #NAME?   #NAME?   #NAME?
54500   #NAME?   #NAME?   #NAME?   #NAME?
55000   #NAME?   #NAME?   #NAME?   #NAME?
55500   #NAME?   #NAME?   #NAME?   #NAME?
56000   #NAME?   #NAME?   #NAME?   #NAME?
56500   #NAME?   #NAME?   #NAME?   #NAME?
57000   #NAME?   #NAME?   #NAME?   #NAME?
57500   #NAME?   #NAME?   #NAME?   #NAME?
58000   #NAME?   #NAME?   #NAME?   #NAME?
58500   #NAME?   #NAME?   #NAME?   #NAME?
59000   #NAME?   #NAME?   #NAME?   #NAME?
59500   #NAME?   #NAME?   #NAME?   #NAME?
60000   #NAME?   #NAME?   #NAME?   #NAME?
60500   #NAME?   #NAME?   #NAME?   #NAME?
61000   #NAME?   #NAME?   #NAME?   #NAME?
61500   #NAME?   #NAME?   #NAME?   #NAME?
62000   #NAME?   #NAME?   #NAME?   #NAME?
62500   #NAME?   #NAME?   #NAME?   #NAME?
63000   #NAME?   #NAME?   #NAME?   #NAME?
63500   #NAME?   #NAME?   #NAME?   #NAME?
64000   #NAME?   #NAME?   #NAME?   #NAME?
64500   #NAME?   #NAME?   #NAME?   #NAME?
65000   #NAME?   #NAME?   #NAME?   #NAME?
65500   #NAME?   #NAME?   #NAME?   #NAME?
0 C       1 psi           1 slugs/ft3       1 ft/sec
1 F       2 in Hg         2 kg/m3           2 knots
3 Hpa, mB       3 rho0            3 m/sec
4 lbs/ft2
5 atm

0               3                 2              3
C      hPa mB            kg/m3   m/sec
Temp    Pressure          Density Sound Speed
#NAME?   #NAME?           #NAME? #NAME?
#NAME?   #NAME?           #NAME? #NAME?
#NAME?   #NAME?           #NAME? #NAME?
#NAME?   #NAME?           #NAME? #NAME?
#NAME?   #NAME?           #NAME? #NAME?
#NAME?   #NAME?           #NAME? #NAME?
#NAME?   #NAME?           #NAME? #NAME?
#NAME?   #NAME?           #NAME? #NAME?
#NAME?   #NAME?           #NAME? #NAME?
#NAME?   #NAME?           #NAME? #NAME?
#NAME?   #NAME?           #NAME? #NAME?
#NAME?   #NAME?           #NAME? #NAME?
#NAME?   #NAME?           #NAME? #NAME?
#NAME?   #NAME?           #NAME? #NAME?
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Pressure altitude from indicated altitude etc.

Indicated altitude      1000 feet       Pressure Alt          1000
Altimeter Setting      30.15 in Hg      Altimeter Setting    30.15
Pressure Alt         #NAME? feet        Indicated altitude #NAME?

Density altitude from pressure altitude and temperature
Pressure altitude       8000 feet
Temperature (C)           18 C
Density altitude     #NAME? feet

Density altitude from indicated altitude, altimeter setting and temperature
Indicated altitude      7906   feet
Altimeter Setting      29.82   in Hg
Temperature (C)           18   C
Density altitude     #NAME?    feet

True Altitude

Indicated Altitude      8000   feet     Indicated Altitude    8000   feet     Indicated Altitude     8000   feet
Field elevation         5000   feet     Field elevation       5000   feet     Field elevation        5000   feet
OAT                        5   C        OAT                      5   C        OAT                       5   C
ISA deviation              4   C        True Altitude      #NAME?    feet     Temp at field            15   C
True Altitude        #NAME?    feet                                           True Altitude        ######   feet

It is not easy to get an accurate true altitude (actual altitude above MSL) from an altimeter. You need
to know not only the pressure at some point of known elevation below you (satisfied by having the local
altimeter setting), but also the vertical profile of the air temperature between that point and your aircraft.
Setting the altimeter to the local altimeter setting compensates for non-standard surface pressures.
The altimeter then reads "indicated" altitude, which would be true altitude only if the temperature profile
was that of the "standard" atmosphere. Deviations of the actual air temperature from standard causes the
pressure to change with altitude at non-standard rates. In the end, what matters is the vertically
averaged deviation from standard temperature, "isadev". This could be obtained from a radiosonde
balloon sounding, if one were available- one would then use the first of the three calculation methods
to obtain true altitude.
In the second column, the only available temperature is the OAT at altitude, and the assumption is made
that below you, the lapse rate is standard (ie 2C/1000' as in the standard atmosphere).
In the third column, one also has the temperature at the field (the altimeter setting location) available,
and the temperature is assumed to vary linearly with altitude.
To the extent these latter assumptions are correct, the result will accurate...
causes the

Sunrise and sunset

deg          min
Latitude          N40:    54.0000 Date       06/25/90
Longitude         W74:    18.0000 Timezone         -4

sunrise             sunset
UTC         local   UTC    local
Official     #NAME?       #NAME? #NAME? #NAME?
Civil        #NAME?       #NAME? #NAME? #NAME?
Nautical     #NAME?       #NAME? #NAME? #NAME?
Astronomical #NAME?       #NAME? #NAME? #NAME?

```
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