Wood Harvesting in NB by a14VAWQt


									How we use and abuse our greatest natural resource
Leading question

What methods do we use to manage our
To identify and discuss forestry practices the
Provincial Government and private industry
use to manage the forests in New Brunswick
Harvesting Wood
There are essentially two different methods to harvest wood. These are:
Selective cutting and Clear-cutting.

Selective cutting — Forest harvesting in which only certain species or
sizes of trees are removed from an area, often for use as timber or to
make pulp for paper.

Under the heading of selective cutting there are also two sub-categories.

Shelterwood cutting is a method of forest harvesting in which up to
70 percent of trees are cut, leaving small patches of old growth standing
to provide seeds for regeneration.

Strip cutting is when only a long narrow strip of a selected block is
harvested, leaving many older trees to continue to grow and reproduce
on the land.
Harvesting Wood
Clear-cutting — Forest harvesting in which all of
the trees in the area are cut for use as timber or to
make pulp for paper.

This is the most common method of harvesting
wood. Approximately 90% of wood harvesting is
done in this manner. Large scale logging operations
often utilize this method of harvest.
Clear cutting
As mentioned above clear cutting
has been, and continues to be the
number one method of harvesting
wood in Canada, meaning that this
is not an uncommon view at most
large scale harvesting operations
across Canada.

In most cases after a clear cutting
operation occurs the ground is
either left to re-grow on its own, or
it is replanted.
Selective cutting
This is a selective
cut in it’s least
destructive form.
Notice that only a
few mature trees
have been
removed, and
much of the
canopy remains,
providing shade
for much of the
forest floor.
Selective cutting
Notice that not
all the trees
have been
removed from
this cut. Most
of what has
been left is
hardwood, and
these are left in
small clumps.
This is a take on
Selective cutting
This is an example
of a strip cut. The
cuts are made in
narrow, long paths.
The areas left fully
treed on either side
of the swath help to
provide partial
shade and new
seeds to the
recently cleared
Regeneration of a forest

Forest Succession: The gradual
supplanting of one community of
plants by another, usually as a
result of differences in shade
Regeneration of a forest
Each tree species has a particular tolerance to the
environment factors around it. For example, some trees do
well in full sun, while others require only indirect light to
grow well. Some trees do well in wet area, some thrive in dry
conditions. Soil composition may even determine which
trees are successful in a particular area.

When trees are removed from the forest, even in relatively
small numbers, the growth of new, smaller trees of different
varieties is greatly affected, and the overall make-up of the
forest and its inhabitants is changed over time.
A look at succession

  The following slides help to describe
  the process of forest succession in the
  average clear cut situation. Try to
  think of clear cuts that you have seen
  in your own experiences in the woods
  of New Brunswick. Do the animations
  make sense?
                         Imagine this as a recently clear cut forest. Pioneer
                         species are those that begin to grow rapidly following a
                         clear cut operation occurs.

Pioneer species quickly occupy a site following clearing. They grow rapidly
to compete with grasses and shrubs.
As the crowns of pioneer species close, seedlings from these trees are
unable to survive in the resulting shade.
Different species then begin to grow beneath the pioneers. The
      resulting undergrowth, or understory, is often dense.
As the short-lived pioneers near the end of their life spans, understory begin to
 take over the site. The result is a major change in plant and animal species.
Softwood begins to take over a hardwood dominated site as the short-
               lived pioneer crowns thin with aging.
Beneath the second successional stage species, that often form thicker
crowns than pioneers, new species that are even more shade tolerant
                       become established.
The process of succession continues until the most shade-tolerant species suitable for
                   the site (climax species) become established.
 Seedlings of highly shade tolerant climax species thrive in the shade of their
parents. Because of this, climax species will persist until disturbance sets back
         the succession process to the pioneer or some other stage.
Disturbances can include a number of events such as clear
          cutting, pest infestation, or forest fires.
The results of a forest fire in a
previously heavily shaded forest.
The results of the Pine Beetle
infestation in British Columbia.
The beetle attacks the pines,
killing them off leaving a dry and
dangerous landscape
The clearcut site looks barren immediately following harvest.
Similar area, two years following harvest, showing that grass has covered
   the site. Young pine seedlings are barely visible in the foreground.
At ten years following harvest young pine trees, that have sprouted from
    seeds present in the soil and spread by wind and wildlife, are well
  In early summer 1988, as today, much of Yellowstone park was
covered by aging stands of lodgepole pine. Many trees had been
killed by frequent outbreaks of the endemic Mountain Pine Beetle.
This condition led to the Great Yellowstone fire, 1988
Vast areas of lodgepole pine and other forest types were killed.
Eleven years later showed a landscape again dominated by lodgepole pine
            that had sprouted from seeds present in the soil.
Aspen harvest site one year following clear cut harvest.
A good site several years following harvest. 50,000 to 100,000 stems per
                       acre from stump sprouting.
   Mature aspen
stand. 65-70 years
old. Approximately
  200 stems/acre.
When reproduction of species with medium to high shade tolerance is desired
following logging, selective harvest or thinning methods can be used.
Pros and cons of forest management practices
Clear cutting                          Selective Cutting                           Shelterwood Logging
Pros                                   Pros                                        Pros
                                       – less disruptive to the forest             – clear cutting only part of an old
– less expensive as the entire area is environment than others                     growth forest
cut down all at once                   – harvesting only mature trees of           – small groups of seed-bearing trees
– provide wood at a more competitive desired size/type/quality                     are left standing so that their seeds
price                                  – less soil erosion and runoff into local   will regenerate the logged area
– safer for workers                    streams                                     – less disruptive to the natural
– company can choose which type of – no disruption of fish spawning areas,         environment than clear cutting the
tree to replant                        nesting areas and other wildlife habitat    entire area
                                       – less surge of nitrates entering the       – protection from soil erosion and
                                       water, increasing the growth of algae       runoff materials
                                       – no ground exposed to sun,
                                       increasing the warming of the area in
                                       the summer and cooling in the winter
                                       – less water loss from soil

Cons                                      Cons                                   Cons
– all trees are cut regardless of their   – costly because extra care / time     – specific areas of the forest
age, size or maturity                     taken to cut down trees                ecosystem are disturbed
– damage the entire forest ecosystem,     – costly to replace the trees          – microclimates will now vary in the
changing it to farm like conditions       – prices for the consumer would not be forest changing a variety of animal and
rather than a forest                      as competitive                         plant species habitats
– greater warming and cooling of the
area because there is no ground cover
changing the microclimate
– soil erosion and runoff of materials
into local streams and lakes
Silviculture – Re-growing the forest
Growing Canada's forests
Companies that harvest trees on Canada's public
forests must also ensure they are properly
regenerated. Silvicultural practices often address
ecological issues as well as timber production.
Natural regeneration is the most common silviculture
system in Canada where most of the forests are even
aged. Planting is also commonly used, but the results
are very different than what one would see in a
natural regeneration site.
Silviculture – Re-growing the forest

The most common trees planted in New Brunswick are: Black
Spruce, White Spruce, Red Spruce, Norway Spruce, Jack Pine,
White Pine, and Red Pine. Virtually no Cedar or Larch are
being grown and planted after harvesting occurs.
Silviculture – Re-growing our forest
When natural regeneration occurs, the results are often
similar to what was demonstrated above in the animation.
That is if the former cut is not managed. If it is managed
actions like thinning, or herbicide spraying may occur to
eliminate certain undesirable species.

When planting occurs the results are often a monoculture,
or an area with only one dominant species present. This is
often the desired outcome from the point of view of pulp and
paper companies, for example.
A clear-cut operation near Doaktown.
 1. Why do you believe clear cutting the most common
  form of harvesting in Canada? Support you answer.
 2. 70% of the trees are removed in most cases of
  shelterwood cuts. Why would a harvester leave such a
  seemingly random bunch of trees standing?
 3. The pioneer species (like seen on slide 13) are not
  shade tolerant, and thrive in full sun. They grow quite
  rapidly. What species are these most likely to be? Use
  the Trees of Knowledge book and your own previous
  knowledge to find the answer.
4. The new species that begin to grow in stage two of the
succession (slide 15) are more tolerant to shade. What
species are these likely to be? Find your answers as you did
for the previous question.
5. Why would there be a change in animal species throughout
the process of succession?
6. Which species are the third stage of succession likely to
7. Assuming that 50,000 stems occupied each acre of the
harvested site several years following stand establishment,
what happened to the other 49,800 trees?
 8. Which practice makes the most sense for: a) J.D.
  Irving, b) UPM-Kymmene, c)Philip Plume, d) Larry
  Gibbons. Explain why you figure each answer?
 9. Why would these species be the most commonly
 10. What are the drawbacks of a monoculture?
 11. This was a J.D. Irving harvesting operation. What
  do you think will happen to this clear cut? Will it be
  allowed to naturally regenerate, or will it become a
  monoculture, growing only one specific species?
  Explain your thinking.

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