Satoyama (in Japanese)??: traditional rural landscapes in

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					Cultural service provided by Satoyama landscape
 and its role for the conservation of biodiversity

                 Takakazu YUMOTO
  Research Institute for Humanity and Nature (RIHN)
Satoyama (in Japanese) : (literally) village mountain
  =secondary forests nearby human settlements.
Satoyama: a heavily human-impacted ecosystem which people
have been repeatedly used, for harvesting firewood, making
charcoals, collecting litter and leaved-branches for manure,
obtaining wild plants and fungi for foods for several hundreds
years.
Satoyama: an ecosystem which has been modified by human being
for the purpose of obtaining provisioning services in sustainable
ways.
 Satoyama connotes not only the landscape itself, but also traditional
ecological knowledge (TEK) for obtaining sustainable ecosystem
service.
Satoyama landscape: a traditional rural landscape in Japan
  (not only secondary forest, but also including farmlands)
Satoyama landscape is characterized by a mosaic of different land
uses to obtain different types of ecosystem services. In the
Japanese Archipelago, paddy field cultivation began in the small
basin, alluvial fan and fluvial terrace, not in large delta. Owing to
tiny and fragmented topographic areas, monoculture has not
developed until recently.
As Satoyama provides various materials, people have intentionally
kept high diversity of useful plants and animals. Also, as Satoyama
is a mosaic of various land use and provides various habitats
including ecotone, unintentionally high biodiversity has been kept
too.
The area of secondary forest : 77,000 km2
(it accounts for 21 % of total area of Japan)
The area of agricultural use: 80,000 km2
                           第2の危機
 43% of total area is human-impacted landscape.

The human-impacted landscape accounts for
49% of hot spots for animals
(≥5 spp. of endangered species within 10 X 10 km)

And
55% of hot spots for plants
(≥5 spp. of endangered species within 10 X 10 km)
                                   (Hyogo Prefecture, 1960)
Satoyama landscape was the last habitat for Oriental Stork.
A mosaic of Satoyama landscape including agricultural lands as
well as sacred forests may have nourished Japanese sensibility to
nature: to love the landscape as a miniature garden, to love a
moderate mixture of nature and artifact, or to love delicate
differences and changes in nature. Such a Japanese sensibility is
represented as an art of gardening e.g. Katsura Rikyu Imperial
Villa, which shows a harmonic combination of nature and artifact.
Katsura Rikyu Imperial Villa (17th Century):
a mosaic of landscapes.
Katsura Rikyu Imperial Villa (17th Century):
paddy field behind is an essential element.
Shugakuin Rikyu Imperial Villa: built after Katsura Rikyu
Shugakuin Rikyu Imperial Villa: a mosaic of landscapes
                                    including paddy filed
How people made Satoyama landscape?




     People used small twigs and leaves for manure.
     “Illustration Guide to Zenkouji Temple (1849)”
A village of 100 families
(25 acre of paddy fields)
needed:

1) 250 ~ 300 acre of woodland
or grassland for fertilizing
their paddy field

2) 60 ~ 75 acre of woodland for
providing house -keeping fuel

Tokoro (1980)
                                  “Everyday cutting grass”
   Era
                  Vegetation changes in Kyoto Basin       Social changes

  Before Heian      Evergreen Board-leaved Forest
  ~8th century                                        Timber for construction
Heian, Kamakura
8th century~               Increasing Pines           Fire woods and manure

Muromachi, Edo,
Meiji                  Bare Hill and Pine Forest
15th century~                                             Reforestation

   1960’s                    Pine Forest
                                                          Fuel revolution

                   Pine Forest and Evergreen Forest

 After 1970’s        Recession of Pine Forest           Killed by nematodes



     Present        Evergreen Board-leaved Forest
Stand of Pinus densiflora




                            20
「洛外図」 (部分 1660頃、作者不詳) Grand View of Capital (ca.1660)
 長坂峠付近での鷹狩り(「上杉本洛中洛外図」 1540年代頃)
Falconry (hunting by hawks) in Grand View in Capital (ca. 1540)
Collecting fire
wood




薪採取(「上杉本
洛中洛外図」より)
       マツ葉を集める人々(「歴博甲本洛中洛外図」より)
Collecting pine needles in Grand Views of Capital (1520-1530)
                                     is
                                  ops
                                          Pollen analysis at Midoro-ga-ike,




                               an
                             al
                          ob
                                          Kyoto basin



                        cl
                         y
                         )



                     .C
                      P.
                    B.



                  bg
                  r




                                                 m
                                                     Pine forest in Grand View in Capital (ca.
     ep al y




               su
                )
              m




                                               ru
            (c

          us
           (c




                                            py
        th

        rc
       es




        s
                                                     AD1660)




                                            go
     nu
     ue
     at




                                          Fa
   Pi
   Q
   D

   D




          60
                                                     Villagers in Midoro bought the right of
          80
         100                                         grass harvest in Kibune (AD1599)
         120
         140                                         Bare hills and sparse pine trees in
ca     160                                           Grand View in Capital (AD1530/1550)
AD1660 180
   290                                     +
         200
  920
AD1030
         220
         240
AD640 260
 1310                                                    Foundation of Heian Capital
         280                                             (AD794)
         300
                20 40   20 40 60 80 100
                                                        Pottery kilns were made
                             (%)
                                                        (6-7th century)
Tricoloma matsutake (S. Ito et Imai) Sing. (Matsu-take: pine mushroom)
forming mycorhiza with P. densiflora .
 None has succeed to cultivate it so far.
Pine mushroom is one of the Japanese delicacies in autumn, the smell
is special. Scent of it is very relished in Japan and some other
countries in East Asia, but it adds only bad odor for people in other
region of the world. Pine mushroom is consumed only in East Asia.
Enlargement of a evergreen broad-leaved species and
decline of pine forests.

1961                 1975            1987            2004
 知恩院

               粟田山




清水寺
                清水山




       6.9ha                19.0ha          25.6ha          32.1ha
      12,222t(1941)




       ’30 :7,582t




                      ’50:4,985t

                                           Import:1,554 t (2007)


                              ’60:1,707t


                                                  Domestic: 51 t




Production and import of pine mushroom
          Tricoloma caligatum from Algeria




Stand of Cedrus libani in Algeria
                                             30
Tricoloma magnivelare from North America
      Host tree: Pinus spp., Tsuga spp.




                                           31
Ecosystem services: benefits to mankind provided
by ecosystem (Millennium Ecosystem Assessment)

        Provisioning       Regulating           Cultural

             Food              Climate           Spiritual
            Water               Pest            Recreation
             Fuel              Flood            Aesthetic
             Fiber                              Imagination
                            Detoxification
           Chemical                             Education
                            Sustainability
        Genetic resource                        Communal
                                                Symbolism




                            Supporting
                             Soil formation
                            Nutrient cycling

                           Primary production
A mosaic land use for obtaining various ecosystem services can be
found not only in Japan, but also in other regions in the world. It
is called as Satoyama in Japan, Maeul in Korea, Munoa in
Sarawak (Iban), Malaysia and so on. Especially regions with
subsistence agriculture based on paddy field have their own TEK
to maintain and utilize various plant materials in sustainable ways,
which lead to, more or less, the conservation of biodiversity
intentionally and unintentionally.
A message from Satoyama studies is not a nostalgic one “going back
to the past”, but a highly contemporary one: TEK in each region
and area for obtaining ecosystem services in sustainable way gives
us a hint for building new lifestyles of health and sustainability, and
for establishing a compatible way of biodiversity conservation and
utilization.
         Acknowledgements
• Members of RIHN project “A new cultural
  and historical exploration into human-nature
  relations in the Japanese Archipelago”
• Colleagues in Sub-global Assessment of
  Satoyama-Satoumi in Japan (Institute of
  Advance Studies, United Nations University)

				
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posted:9/16/2012
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