Public Lands

Document Sample
Public Lands Powered By Docstoc
					            Public Lands
• Historic View of U.S. Land Disposal
• Development of Agencies managing
Federal Lands
• Development of Policies Governing Key
Federal Agencies
• Alpine Lakes as a case Study
• Mt. Baker-Snoqualmie Forest Plan as a
case study
Key Questions to Consider Regarding
   Management of Public Lands
 1. Whose interests should be considered?
 How? Local residents versus distant
 interested parties?
 2. How to consider present values versus
 those of future generations?
 3. Should “people” be polled? Or just
 volunteer their input?
 4. Should planning be bottoms up or tops
 down?
 Key Questions to Consider Regarding
Management of Public Lands, continued
  5. Should Congress step in even more, or has
  it gone too far in prescribing management?
  6. Should lands be managed for cost-
  effectiveness or should non-economic values
  be the primary basis for management (e.g. an
  ecosystem perspective)?
  7. How should irreversabilties be
  considered?
  8? What other values should be considered?
                    Public Domain Relative to U.S.
                        Land Area Historically
                    2500
Millions of Acres




                    2000

                    1500

                    1000

                     500

                      0
                           U.S.   Public Domain   Current Public
                                                      Lands
        Division of the Public Domain

     Idaho

                                                 Appropriated by
                                                 1923
   Oregon
                                                 Reserved by
                                                 1923
                                                 "Vacant" Area in
                                                 1923
Washington



             0   20000   40000   60000   80000
                 Thousands of Acres
Division of the Public Domain,
      Percentage by State
        o




                                 Appropriated by
      ah
     Id




                                 1923
                                 Reserved by 1923
       on
        g




                                 "Vacant" Area in
     re
    O




                                 1923

                            “Vacant” today is mostly
          n
       to
     ng




                            managed by BLM
  hi
as




              0%   50%   100%
W
   Appropriation of the Public Domain, to 1923
                                   Thousands of Acres
                                        0   2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000


Private Claims Prior to U.S. Dominion


          Donation Land Act of 1850


                    Grants to States


     Grants to Railroad Corporations


                     Homestead Act                                            Washington
                                                                              Oregon
                  Timber Culture Act                                          Idaho

                    Desert Land Act


               Timber and Stone Act


                               Other


                         Cash Sales
U.S. Public Land Withdrawls
Land Under Federal Management –p. 54
     An Historic Perspective

• Closing of the Frontier
• The Teddy Roosevelt Era of Conservation
• Creation of the “National Systems:” USFS
and NPS
• More modern concepts:
  –Wilderness
  – National Recreation Areas
  – National Scenic Areas
  – National Wild and Scenic Rivers
    U.S. Forest Service: Key
    Management Directives
• Organic Act of 1897
• Multiple Use and Sustained Yield
      Act of 1960
• Resources Planning Act of 1974
• National Forest Timber
      Management Act of 1976
• Wilderness Act of 1964
• Clinton’s “Rule Making “ for
      Roadless Areas
The Latest Attempt to Revise Forest
         Planning Process
           National Parks
• Separate mandate for each Park
• General concept: Visitor use AND
preserve the values related to classification.
• Conflicts in management concept
• Current attempts by NPS to balance
management goals w/visitor use
BLM Lands - Largely Idaho and
          Oregon
  • Grazing by cattle & sheep a
       common use
  • Timber found on some of these
       lands (Mostly O&C lands)
  • Strong recreational values
  • An agency reluctant to embrace
       Wilderness, ecosystem
       approaches.
   The Wilderness Act of 1964
• The result of pressures from environmentalists from
       the 1930’s.
• Fought bitterly by agencies and industries
• Ordered reviews by federal agencies of lands
       suitable for Wilderness
• RARE I and RARE II
• Failure of Executive Branch Agencies to Propose
       Wilderness
• Omnibus Wilderness Bills for WA & OR; not yet
     for ID or MT
 Old Growth Forest
 In Olympic National
 Forest



 1940




 1988


Source: Wilderness Society
Road Network Olympic National Forest 1988




                        Source: Wilderness Society
   The Fight Over Old Growth
Timberlands (Outside Wilderness)
  • Environmental Group Anger over failure of
  USFS (primarily) to classify lands leads to
  suits resulting in the Dwyer decision
  • The Clinton Forest Summit
  • The Clinton Forest Plan
  • And Clinton’s “rule” for National Forest roadless
  land…lands not classified but still in the “roadless”
  inventory - Bush & other attempts to undo this
  “rule.” Reaffirmed by Obama Administration
 Senator Dan Evans
 sponsored additions
  to the Wilderness
system in Washington
 and Oregon in 1984


The Alpine Lakes
 was the subject
   of separate
  legislation in
       1976
Note Small Share of BLM vs. its
      National Presence
BLM’s December Announcement to
   inventory BLM Wildlands
The Current
Political
Tussle in
The Congress
And Public
Land
Management
The Clinton
administration’s
attempt to
resolve
management
conflicts in
Northwest
National Forests

-Partially implemented
-Still controversial
           Public Lands: Generalized
                Allowable Uses
                                                   BLM
                       National Forests National Parks     Wilderness
Dispersed Recreation           x            x          x       x
Developed Recreation           x            x          x
Timber Harvest                 x                       x
Mining                         x                       x
Grazing                        x                       x       x
Wildlife Management            x            x          x       x
Hunting                        x                       x       x
Watershed Management           x                       x       x
Dams                           x                       x
Road Construction              x            x          x
Trail Construction             x            x          x       x
Special Cases: Where Congressional
       Mandates Break Down
 • Two Directions: Judicial and Legislative
 • Examples: (Results of Congressional Action)
     – Columbia Gorge National Scenic Area
     – Hells Canyon National Recreation Area with a
              Wilderness Core
     – Alpine Lakes Management Act
     – North Cascades Complex: Ross Lake and Lake
        Chelan National Recreation Areas
     – Lake Roosevelt National Recreation Area
Court Actions have usually led to Executive Actions or Legislation
  Symbols of Changing Values
       towards Timber
• Federal Lands Programs
• State Lands Programs
• Regulations on Private Timberland
  Management & Purchases of Private
  Timberlands
• Ecosystem Concerns (Salmon; Interior
  Ecosystem Programs)
Conflicts over logging by
USFS led to this study.

Study Team appointed
by President Kennedy
In 1963.

Composed of:
Secretary of Interior,
Secretary of Agriculture,
Their Representatives,
And a Fifth Member,
Who Essentially
Arbitrated the Study.

It can be a symbol of
changes in values towards
timber.
   National Park
     Service:

Two National Parks,
National Recreation
Area, and Expansion
Of Mt. Rainier N.P.

  Wilderness in
  Alpine Lakes
  And Pasayten
  U.S. Forest
   Service:

 No transfer of
 Jurisdiction to
 National Park
    Service

 Wilderness in
North Cascades,
 Alpine Lakes,
  Mt. Aix, and
Recreation Areas
   Study Team
Recommendations:

 North Cascades
  National Park

  Wilderness in
    Pasayten,
  Alpine Lakes,
    Mt. Aix.

   Mt. Baker
   Recreation
     Area

 (Most passed by
Congress in 1967)
  Changing Values
   Toward State
    Trust Lands


   Jointly funded
 by State Legislature
         and
Northwest Ecosystem
      Alliance
DNR’s Current Reassessment of Timber Harvest Levels
DNR’s Current Reassessment of Timber Harvest Levels




    396   536   662   411   817   781   Harvest volume by
                                        alternative
Efforts to Acquire and Manage
Private and Public Timberlands
February 2004 proposal
By Cascade
Land Conservancy
To protect 600,000
Acres of Cascade
Foothills Timberland

Endorsed by County
Executives in early
March 2004
Cascade
Checkerboard
Project:
Purchasing the
Northern Pacific
Railroad Land
Grant

At a price infinitely
above what they
paid for it!
The Shift from Extraction to Consumption

                                   With spending
                                   on goods and
                                   services in
                                   rural
                                   communities
                                   to support
                                   consumption
                                   of timbered
                                   landscapes,
                                   especially
                                   on public
                                   lands.
Following
slides are from
this recent USFS
document
          Recreation Trends




Source: USFS RPA Assessment
Timber Production Trends
Capability to process trees by d.b.h.
     (diameter breast height)
Dramatic Change in growth vs.
          removals
    Alaska: The Division of the
         Public Domain
• Statehood is recent: 1959
• History is very different in division of the
public domain. Very little passed into private
ownership prior (or after statehood)
• 375 million acres of land (only 150 thousand
intensively settled); only 7 million considered
good land for settlement by SCS
• Federal dominion over this land challenged
at statehood
    Alaska: History Left the North
         More or Less Alone
• Only 20 years separate 1846 boundary settlement in
the NW w/ “Sewards folly.”
• Same laws were applicable to Alaska in the 19th
century for appropriation of Public Domain
• Gold Rush of 1897
• Fisheries development
• World War II strategic development
• Federal stewardship of Native groups
• Statehood in 1959
• Oil discoveries in the North
Congress Provides a Framework
     to Carve Up Alaska
• Statehood Act of 1959: Grants 104 million of 375 million
        acres to the state
• Constraints on state selection:
    – “national interest” lands (80 million acres)
    – native corporations (44 million acres)
• Massive opposition from Alaskan Congressmen to
        Constraints
• A ten-year timetable for classification
• Election of Ronald Reagan (opposed to classifications)
        pushes President Carter to create by presidential
        proclamation federal national interest lands.
• New Congress ratifies (mostly) Carter designations.
      The Key Role of the North
    Cascades Study Report of 1965
•   Appointed by President Kennedy in 1963
• Assessed federal lands from Mt. Rainier to Canada, and
made 20 recommendations for management change.
• Key were: establishment of North Cascades National
Park, the Pasayten Wilderness, expanding Glacier Peak
Wilderness, Wilderness in the Alpine Lakes, Mt. Aix
Wilderness, and Wild and Scenic River Status for the
Skagit River.
• In 1967 Congress passed legislation creating North
Cascades National Park, expanding some Wilderness Areas
(Glacier Peak), adding land to Olympic National Park, but
omitted the Alpine Lakes in this legislation.
        Alpine Lakes Case Study
• Our backyard Wilderness and Recreational Area
• Illustrates in ’s the complexities and
contested nature of public lands.
• The bottom line from this case study:
               The Fight Is Never Over
 • This case study paints a picture that is created,
       and recreated all over the Northwest, and the
       Nation.
         Alpine Lakes Chronology
1946 USFS Designates Alpine Lakes Limited Area
1963-65 North Cascades Study Team
1967 Alpine Lakes Protection Society Established
1968 Central Washington Cascades Study Team Established
1971-1973 USFS Alpine Lakes Land Use Study
1975-1976 Congressional Hearings on Legislation:
       HR 3977 Environmental Group Proposal
       HR 3978 Industry Proposal
       HR 7792 USFS Proposal
July 12, 1976: President Ford Signs Legislation
1977-1981: USFS Prepares Management Plan
Timber Industry &
Motorized Recreation   Environmental
                           Groups
 Alpine Lakes Chronology, cont.
1981-today: dealing with the checkerboard land
ownership pattern
       - The Cascade Checkerboard project
1991 - Wilderness overuse
1980’s to present: funding of recreation in the wake
of timber sale revenue declines
1980’s to now: how to acquire inholdings
? Sustenance of interest by groups with an ax to grind
re: these lands - timber, recreation, now residential
development, relation to growth management, other
environmental issues?
             Recent Issues
• Middle Fork Road Reconstruction
• Kittitas County subdivisions & forest land
  rezoning
• Pratt Trail
• Wilderness Additions (Reichert & Murray)
• ORV programs – east of the Cascades
• New Forest Plans
• Road and trail damage due to storms
• Funding problems for USFS
Alpine Lakes Chronology, Cont.
          The Fight is Never Over
The fight from the perspectives of all the multiple users
of public lands.

The fight from the agency perspective

The fight from the perspectives of elected representatives.

The fight from new and unpredictable interests.

Coping in the new millennium?

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Tags:
Stats:
views:9
posted:9/16/2012
language:English
pages:61