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ESC 305.01 Global Climate Change Chapter 8 Energy in the Future & Renewable Energy Part 4 WIND POWER The use of wind energy dates back to ancient times when it was employed to propel sailboats. Extensive application of wind turbines seems to have originated in Persia where it was used for grinding wheat. In Europe, wind turbines made their appearance in the 11. century and two centuries later became an important tool, especially in Holland. The first significant wind turbine designed specifically for the generation of electricity was built by Charles Brush in Cleveland, Ohio, operated between 1888 to 1900. WIND POWER The cost of wind power depends on; - The cost of investment (the cost of the installed kW; around $1000/kW in 1997 & did not change much since then) - Fuel costs - Operating & maintenance costs - Decomissioning costs - Land costs At the end of 2007, over 94 GW (equivalent to 94 large nuclear plants) were in operation throughout the world; Germany (22.2 GW), USA (16.8 GW) and Spain (15.5 GW). 3.3 % of renewable energy from wind in OECD in 2002. WIND POWER There are major ecological arguments for its use; - Wind power plants emit absolutely no CO2, - The operation of wind turbines leaves behind no dangerous residues (like nuclear plants) - Decomissioning costs of wind turbines are much smaller - Land occupied by wind farms can find other simultaneous uses (agriculture) On the other hand, some groups are opposed to wind turbines because of the danger they constitute to the birds that fly near the wind farms. WIND POWER Other environmental impacts; - Visual - Electromagnetic interference (radio, TV, radar communications) - Ecological ?? (direct loss of habitat is small) - Noise (Wind turbines produce mechanical noise mainly from the gearbox and the generator, but the noise can be reduced by careful design and use of anti-vibration couplings) www.windenergypower.info The world’s wind power capacity grew by 31% in 2009, adding 37.5 GW to bring total installations up to 157.9 GW. A third of these additions were made in China, which experienced yet another year of over 100% growth (www.ewea.org). WIND ENERGY EUROPE Total installed capacity by the year 2009, 76152 MW Wind power plants in Turkey (Source: EMRA) 2007 – Hatay, Deniz A.Ş., 15 x 2000 kW = 30 MW WAVE POWER The ocean plays a similiar role in relation to the wind energy, which is transformed into waves far steadier than the air currents that created them. Wave power, like the wind power, is an indirect form of solar power. Since water has a higher density than air, much higher energy densities are realized. Many of the wave power devices prototyped so far would be placed a considerable distance from the shore and therefore it is probably the alternative energy technology with the least environmental impact. According to WEC, 2 TW can possibly be captured. Pelamis Wave Energy Converter Pelamis Wave Energy Converter TIDAL POWER Tides can be utilized as energy sources through currents they cause or through the associated variations in ocean level. READING • Aldo Vieria da Rosa, ‘Fundamentals of Renewable Energy Processes’, Second Edition, Elsevier, 2009. • David Coley, ‘Energy and Climate Change’ John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., 2008.
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