20615Chapter 8_Energy in the Future and Renewable Energy Part 4

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					     ESC 305.01
Global Climate Change

      Chapter 8
 Energy in the Future &
   Renewable Energy
         Part 4
                WIND POWER
 The use of wind energy dates back to ancient times
  when it was employed to propel sailboats.

 Extensive application of wind turbines seems to
  have originated in Persia where it was used for
  grinding wheat.

 In Europe, wind turbines made their appearance in
  the 11. century and two centuries later became an
  important tool, especially in Holland.

 The first significant wind turbine designed
  specifically for the generation of electricity was built
  by Charles Brush in Cleveland, Ohio, operated
  between 1888 to 1900.
               WIND POWER
 The cost of wind power depends on;
- The cost of investment (the cost of the installed kW;
  around $1000/kW in 1997 & did not change much
  since then)
- Fuel costs
- Operating & maintenance costs
- Decomissioning costs
- Land costs

 At the end of 2007, over 94 GW (equivalent to 94
  large nuclear plants) were in operation throughout
  the world; Germany (22.2 GW), USA (16.8 GW) and
  Spain (15.5 GW).
 3.3 % of renewable energy from wind in OECD in
               WIND POWER
 There are major ecological arguments for its use;
- Wind power plants emit absolutely no CO2,
- The operation of wind turbines leaves behind no
  dangerous residues (like nuclear plants)
- Decomissioning costs of wind turbines are much
- Land occupied by wind farms can find other
  simultaneous uses (agriculture)

 On the other hand, some groups are opposed to
  wind turbines because of the danger they constitute
  to the birds that fly near the wind farms.
              WIND POWER
 Other environmental impacts;
- Visual
- Electromagnetic interference (radio, TV, radar
- Ecological ?? (direct loss of habitat is small)
- Noise (Wind turbines produce mechanical noise
  mainly from the gearbox and the generator, but the
  noise can be reduced by careful design and use of
  anti-vibration couplings)
The world’s wind power capacity grew by 31% in 2009, adding 37.5 GW
to bring total installations up to 157.9 GW. A third of these additions
were made in China, which experienced yet another year of over 100%
growth (
                WIND ENERGY EUROPE
Total installed capacity
by the year 2009,
76152 MW
Wind power plants in Turkey
         (Source: EMRA)
2007 – Hatay, Deniz A.Ş., 15 x 2000 kW = 30 MW
               WAVE POWER
 The ocean plays a similiar role in relation to the wind
  energy, which is transformed into waves far steadier
  than the air currents that created them.

 Wave power, like the wind power, is an indirect form
  of solar power. Since water has a higher density than
  air, much higher energy densities are realized.

 Many of the wave power devices prototyped so far
  would be placed a considerable distance from the
  shore and therefore it is probably the alternative
  energy technology with the least environmental

 According to WEC, 2 TW can possibly be captured.
Pelamis Wave Energy Converter
Pelamis Wave Energy Converter
             TIDAL POWER
 Tides can be utilized as energy sources through
  currents they cause or through the associated
  variations in ocean level.
• Aldo Vieria da Rosa, ‘Fundamentals of Renewable
  Energy Processes’, Second Edition, Elsevier, 2009.

• David Coley, ‘Energy and Climate Change’ John
  Wiley & Sons, Ltd., 2008.

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