schaefers 2A2 by bO8D5fks


									Ch. 2 Characteristics of Culture
  The Concept of Culture
  Culture is Learned
  Culture is Shared
  Culture is Based on Symbols
  Culture Gives Meaning to Reality
  Functions of Culture
  Culture and Change
  Ethnocentrism and Cultural Relativism
        What is Culture?
Superstructure: A culture’s worldview,
including morals and values, oftentimes
grounded in religion

  Social structure: The rule-governed
  relationships—with all their rights and
  obligations—that hold members of a society
  together. This includes households, families,
  associations, and power relations, including
              Infrastructure: The economic
              foundation of a society,
              including its subsistence
              practices and the tools and
              other material equipment used       The Barrel Model
              to make a living.                      of Culture
What is Culture?
  The beliefs and behaviors of a society
     Culture consists of abstract ideas, values, and
      perceptions of the world that inform and are
      reflected in people’s behavior
  Culture is the lens through which we view our world, it
   “invents” our reality

 Iceberg example…
Culture is like an
Culture is Learned
 Rather than inherited biologically
 Enculturation: The transmission of culture from one generation to the
 Mammals in general display cultural behavior (I.e. we all have the urge
  to eat/sleep, but when we do/with whom/in what order is determined
  by our social relationships). With humans, our social rules are more
  varied and complex.
    Ex: Social animals…Lions, dogs, chimpanzees… (Chimp Culture)
      If animals display cultural behavior as do we, should we also view
       animals through an Anthropological perspective? Sub disciplines of
        Primate Behavior and Animal Communication deal with this question.
Culture is Shared
 By members of a society and produces behavior that is
  intelligible (able to be understood) to other members of
  that society
 Society vs. Culture
    Society: An organized group or groups of interdependent people
     who generally share a common territory, language, and culture and
     who act together for collective survival and well-being.
        There can be no culture without a society, there are no known human
         societies that do not exhibit culture.
        Cultural Anthropologists focus on the Cultural aspect of society. The
         study of society itself is Sociology (very closely related discipline to
         Cultural Anthro).
  Cultural variation between subgroups in societies that share an overarching
      Ex: Ethnic group (A type of subculture).
        People who collectively and publicly identify themselves as a
         distinct group based on various cultural features such as shared
         ancestry and common origin, language customs and traditional
           Ethnicity: The expression of the set of cultural ideas held by an
             ethnic group
  Pluralistic Society: A society in which two or more ethnic groups or
   nationalities are politically organized into one territorial state but
   maintain their cultural differences
    Sometimes can lead to some pretty nasty misunderstandings…
     Ex: Yearning for Zion Ranch Texas, Warren Jeffs, Polygamy
     Ex: Branch Davidians, Waco Texas
     Ex (book –pg 33): Shetland pony seller Salt Lake City/Tongan B-day
Culture is Based on Symbols
 What are some symbols of U.S. pop culture? What do they
Cultures Change
 In response to environmental or societal pressures.
   Ex: North American apparel
     Capitalism, need market growth = fashion changes constantly.
      Ideas about what is “proper” always evolving.
           Compare to ancient Egypt: ~3,000 years style of dress pretty much the
            same. No capitalism, instead a Theocracy. Balance, harmony,
            emphasis on sameness and repetition of cycles.
   Ex: New symbols emerge or are invented to convey
    changed cultural meanings
       Ex: Religion Osiris + Zeus = Sarapis
For Tuesday
 Write a 1 paragraph response each for DeVita chapters
  4, 15, & 22, using 2 terms from Cultural Anthropology
  Chapter 2 in each story.
 Prepare for Chapter 2 Quiz

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