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									   Beyond the Open Door:
Leveraging Institutional Change
 Through State Policy Reform



                                    Nancy Shulock
                                CCLDI Policy Seminar
                                    Foothill College
                       San Bernardino Community College District
                                University of San Diego
                         October 11-12, and November 2, 2007

         California State University, Sacramento
     Premises, Premises

            Education levels in CA must
            increase

            We know a lot about
            what works


            Policy can help – or hinder –
            best efforts
California State University, Sacramento
                                 Percent of Adults with an Associate Degree or Higher by Age
                                 Group—Leading OECD Countries, the U.S., and California

                                                         Age 25-34                                 Age 35-44                                  Age 45-54                                         Age 55-64
60
     53.3




                                 51.6




                                                             49.1
            47.0




50
                                        45.1




                                                                                        42.3




                                                                                                                                                                                                                42.0
                   41.4




                                                                                                                40.7




                                                                                                                                                                                                    40.7
                                                                                                                                            40.4




                                                                                                                                                                                                                  40.2
                                                                                                                                                                                                     39.4
                                                                                                                                                                        39.2




                                                                                                                                                                                                     39.0




                                                                                                                                                                                                                    38.3
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      36.5
40




                                                                                                                                                                                                         36.2
                                                                                               35.7
                          34.5




                                                                                                                                                                               34.1
                                                                    33.5




                                                                                                  32.9
                                               32.7




                                                                                                                       32.3




                                                                                                                                                                                      29.4
                                                                                                                                                   28.9
                                                                                                         27.3
30


                                                                                                                              25.2




                                                                                                                                                                                             23.2
                                                                                                                                                          21.5
                                                                                                                                     20.0
                                                      19.2




                                                                           16.4




20




                                                                                                                                                                 15.7
                                                                                  9.7




10


 0
       Canada                           Japan                       Korea                 Sweden                   Belgium                         Ireland                 Norway                      U.S.     California

                                                             California State University, Sacramento
          California Is Becoming Less
          Educated Than Other States
  (Rank Among States in % with College Degrees)



Age Group:     AA or Higher               BA or Higher
>64                       2nd                     5th

45-64                    11th                     10th

35-44                    21st                     16th
25-34                    30th                     23rd

        California State University, Sacramento
                 PPIC Report – May 2007
     Can California Import Enough College
      Graduates to Meet Workforce Needs?


 Projected shortage of college graduates for
  tomorrow’s economy
 Cannot solve through importing college graduates
 Must increase California college graduates
  substantially to avoid a diminished economic future



             California State University, Sacramento
Racial/Ethnic Gaps in Educational Attainment and
               Per Capita Income

  50%                                                                            $40,000
  45%
                                                                                 $35,000
  40%
                                                                                 $30,000
  35%
  30%                                                                            $25,000

  25%                                                                            $20,000
  20%                                                                            $15,000
  15%
                                                                                 $10,000
  10%
  5%                                                                             $5,000

  0%                                                                             $-
        Asian-Pacific          White            Black       Hispanic or Latino
          Islander

           Percent of Population Aged 25 and over With a Bachelor's Degree or Higher
           Per Capita Income


          California State University, Sacramento
                   Current Trends Must be Reversed
 Percent of Population Age 18-                         Disparities in CCC
    24 Enrolled in College                             Completion Rates

Asian/               60%                        Asian/               33%
Pacific                                         Pacific
Islander                                        Islander
White                43%                        White                27%


Black                32%                        Black                15%


Latino/              22%                        Latino/              18%
Hispanic                                        Hispanic
                      California State University, Sacramento
Distribution of Students at Three Public Segments

 Latino/African American                          All Other

           UC
                                                  UC
           5%
                                                 14%
     CSU
     19%



                              CCC                                   CCC
                                           CSU
                              CSU          22%                      CSU
                              UC                                    UC
                                                              CCC
                                                              64%

                CCC
                76%




                California State University, Sacramento
                 What Works

            College readiness
            Early success/basic skills
            Less work, more school
            Clear goals and pathways
            Intensive student support
            Resources
            Data analysis


California State University, Sacramento
Policy Can Impede Best College Efforts




             California State University, Sacramento
College Readiness – What We Know

     High school academic preparation –
      strong predictor of college success
     More remediation needed=>lower
      success
     Students in colleges with lower
      student preparation had less success
        19% v 28% completion
     Dual enrollment/early college are
      promising reforms
     Messages about the CCC are
      powerful (Bridge Study)
California State University, Sacramento
          College Readiness – Policies




 Conflicting messages about readiness
 Loudest message: ready or not…
 Financial disincentive to stress readiness
 Minimize dual enrollment




  California State University, Sacramento
                    Early Success/Basic Skills –
                          What We Know




 Mandatory assessment and placement are effective
 Immediate enrollment in remediation is best
 Academic momentum is important




           California State University, Sacramento
        Early Success/Basic Skills – Policies


      Assessment – not all students
      Placement – advisory only
      Delayed remediation if at all
      Minimal use of prerequisites
      No incentives for academic
       momentum



California State University, Sacramento
                       Less Work/More College –
                            What We Know



 Full-time correlates with higher success
 In CCC, four times higher success rates if
  enrolled full-time in at least half of terms
 Full-time increases engagement, social
  integration
 Working > 15-20 hours = lower GPA, fewer
  credits, less persistence
       California State University, Sacramento
                     Less Work/More College –
                             Policies



 Affordability = low fees (not true!)
 Low use of Pell (15% v 25%)
 Low receipt of state grants (3% v 14%)
 Steer away from loans (6% v 17%)
 Eroded Cal Grant value
 No institutional aid other than fee waiver
 80% CCC students work – avg. 32 hours
       California State University, Sacramento
Clear Goals and Pathways – What We Know

                 Higher aspirations => higher
                  attainment
                 “Commitment” – goal of
                  credential and enrollment in
                  formal degree program – increases
                  retention
                 Market rewards credentials
                 Earn lower credential => more
                  success at higher credential
                 More financial aid if enrolled in a
                  degree program
       California State University, Sacramento
Clear Goals and Pathways - Policies


      Minimal counseling
      Minimal program designation
      Matriculation policies weakly
       enforced – e.g. academic plans
      Credentials not emphasized or
       structured in sequence
      No transfer AA



 California State University, Sacramento
                           Student Support Services –
                                What We Know



 Intensive, intrusive, integrated support services
 Student engagement – faculty/peers
 Orientation courses




          California State University, Sacramento
                     Student Support Services - Policies




 Constraints on providing support services
 Pit academic affairs against student affairs in budgets
 Faculty-student interaction outside class devalued
 Define much of student services as outside the core
 Voluntary orientation courses


               California State University, Sacramento
                 Resources – What We Know




 Quality programs and services cost $$
 Effective remediation costs $$
 Rational people respond to financial
  incentives




    California State University, Sacramento
                            Resources – Policies




 Low funding per student
 Low fee revenue – big factor in low funding
 Colleges don’t keep fee revenue
 FTES-based funding – prevents reform
 Major inefficiencies


        California State University, Sacramento
                Funding for Higher Education, 2006-07
                                  c
$30,000

$25,000

$20,000

$15,000

$10,000

 $5,000

    $0
                  UC                    CSU                 CCC

      State and Local Appropriations per FTES   Fee Revenue per FTES




                California State University, Sacramento
                          Expenditures per FTES –
                          Selected WICHE States

$14,000
$12,000
$10,000
 $8,000
 $6,000
 $4,000
 $2,000
   $-




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                    California State University, Sacramento
              Tuition/Fees in 50 States


$6,000

$5,000

$4,000

$3,000

$2,000

$1,000

  $-



         California State University, Sacramento
               Fees are a Source of Revenue


        United States




34%
                                              Median Household Income
                            State and Local
              50%           Tuition/fees
                            Other


  16%
                                              All CA        $49,739
                                              residents
         California                           CCC           $49,805
                                              dependent
33%
                            State and Local
                                              students
                            Tuition/fees


 7%
              60%           Other
                                              CCC indep.    $29,013
                                              students

                 California State University, Sacramento
                 FTES-Based Funding
                   Prevents Reform



  Fee policy
  Categoricals and regulations
  Late registration
  Few course prerequisites
  Fee waivers without conditions



California State University, Sacramento
                     Inefficiencies




 Regulations, categoricals, reporting
 Restrictions on local control of budgets
 District-centered, not student-centered,
  allocations




        California State University, Sacramento
          Use Data – What We Know



 What we measure, we improve
 Student success higher in colleges that use
  data to evaluate student outcomes




        California State University, Sacramento
                             Use Data - Policy


ARCC success measure
   nothing on students with <12 units
   no breakdowns by race/ethnicity
No data on who needs remediation
No consistency in “levels” of basic skills
No ability to track orientation or learning
 community courses – systemwide
No data on academic programs
         California State University, Sacramento
                   What is a Leader to Do?




1. Advocate for changes in POLICY
2. Keep it about the STUDENTS
3. QUESTION long-standing assumptions




       California State University, Sacramento
   Some Policy Reform Priorities

 Assessment/Placement/Prerequisites
 Financial aid policies to
    Encourage full-time enrollment
    Address full costs of college
    Encourage Pell Grants and loans
    Encourage forward progress
 More structure to pathways/degrees
 Budget flexibility; less regulation
 Reduce share of budget from 3rd week FTE

  California State University, Sacramento
 Is it About the Students?

 Or about FTES?
     Late registration
     Limited use of prerequisites
     Lowest fees regardless of income
 Or about districts?
     Distribution of resources
 Or about other stakeholders?
     75/25 rule
     Categorical programs


California State University, Sacramento
                    Some Assumptions
                       to Question

 Success cannot be measured by completion
 Policies to reward completion will hurt
  disadvantaged students
 Prescriptive policies for students are harmful
 Fees are a barrier to access
 The state can, should, and will give us the
  resources we need
 We’re doing as well as we can until then
        California State University, Sacramento
                   Leaders can help colleges
                     move faster along the track
                     to success.

                   The future of California
                     depends on its community
                     colleges.




California State University, Sacramento
California State University, Sacramento

								
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