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The Art of Public Speaking II

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The Art of Public Speaking II Powered By Docstoc
					Preparing a Speech
Speech Preparation

 Selecting a topic
 Determining your purpose
 Outlining
Selecting a Topic

• Subject you know a lot about



• Subject you want to know more about



• Brainstorming for topics
Finding a topic

• Question: What are the methods of
  generating ideas for speech topics?
• Free association (e.g. clustering, mind
  mapping)
• Reference search: e.g. browse through an
  encyclopedia, a database, or other reference
  work limiting yourself to a letter (e.g. b)
• Internet search
“Brainstorm”:
topics and subtopics
• The purpose of this activity is to illicit sub-
  topics under the two “umbrella” topics of Our
  Environment and Social Problems.
• The class is invited to suggest subtopics
  under each
Information from the Web

Example 1: A UK governmental site
Example 2: An knowledge portal on social
  problems and solutions
Environmental Concerns

 Air pollution/Water pollution/ Water shortage
 Waste/Noise /Sandstorms/Greenhouse effect
 /Global warming/Wild animal /Soil
 erosion/Ecological environment protection -
 ecological balance /Chemical
 pollution/Floods/Food security/Natural
 resources (Sustainable development)
 /Desertification / Waste and recycling……
      Social Issues


1.aging                      8.child labor
2.unemployment               9.racial discrimination
3.crime /violence            10.gambling
4.health care                11.juvenile delinquency
5.education for all          12.smuggling
6.equity (equal rights)      13.corruption
7. drug trafficking drug addiction/drug abuse
                             14.alcoholism
                             15.prostitution
                             16.domestic violence
                             17.the problem of the homeless
      Determining Your Purpose
• General purpose
   – To inform: to convey info. clearly, accurately, and
     interestingly
   – To persuade: to change or structure the attitudes or
     actions of your audience
• Specific purpose
   – Determining factor: audience
   – Focus on one aspect of a topic or one distinct idea
   – State your specific purpose in a single infinitive
     phrase (to inform my audience about….; to
     persuade my audience to….)
   – Make sure your specific purpose is neither too
     vague nor too general
   – The specific purpose statement should also avoid
     figurative language.
Example

• Topic:             Alternative-fuel vehicles
• General Purpose: To persuade
• Specific Purpose: To persuade my audience
  that the federal government should speed up
  efforts to develop alternative-fuel vehicles.
• Central Idea (gist, what you want your
  audience to remember after they have
  forgotten everything else):        Developing
  alternative-fuel vehicles will help reduce
  American dependence on foreign oil and will
  help reduce air pollution.
      More Examples

• To inform my audience that yoga is extremely cool.
• To inform my audience how yoga can improve their health.

• To inform my audience about the Civil War.
• To inform my audience about the role of African American
  soldiers in the Civil War.

• To persuade my audience that something should be done
  about medical care.
• To persuade my audience that the federal government
  should adopt a system of national health insurance for all
  people in the United States.
Questions to ask about your specific
purpose

• Meet the assignment?
• Can I accomplish the purpose in the
  time allotted?
• Is the purpose relevant to my audience,
  too trivial, too technical?
     Activities
• 1. The most valuable questions: Work in groups of
  four to generate questions worth discussing on the
  social or environmental problems. Each group
  should think of three questions to be put in the
  pool of questions later to be further discussed.
  Then the whole class vote for three most valuable
  questions.
• 2. Can any of the questions develop into a speech
  topic? Pick one of the topics and write the specific
  purpose of the speech.
Outlining the Speech

Two kinds of outlines used for your speeches:
1. The Preparation Outline:
  detailed outline used for the planning of the
  speech

2. The Speaking Outline:
  brief outline used for the delivery of the
  speech
Guidelines for the Preparation Outline I:


 • 1. State the specific purpose of your speech
 • 2. Identify the central idea; (What is the
   central idea?)
 • 3. Label the introduction, body, and
   conclusion;
 • 4. Use a consistent pattern of symbolization
   and indentation;
Guidelines for the Preparation Outline II:


• 5. State main points and sub-points in full
  sentences;
• 6. Label transitions, internal summaries, and
  internal previews;
• 7. Attach a bibliography;
• 8. Give your speech a title, if one is desired
Your preparation outline should look like this:


                       • Title

   • Specific Purpose: ….
   • Central Idea:….
      Introduction

• I.Main Point 1
• A.    Sub-point 1.1
• B.    Sub-point 1.2
   – 1.      Sub-subpoint 1.2.1
   – 2.      Sub-subpoint 1.2.2

• II. Main Point 2
• A.   Sub-point 2.1
     1.      Sub-subpoint 2.1.1
     2.      Sub-subpoint 2.2.2
• B.   Sub-point 2.2
• (Transition: e.g. “Let’s start with…”)
Body
• I.Main Point 1
• A.    Sub-point 1.1
• B.    Sub-point 1.2
   – 1.       Sub-subpoint 1.2.1
   – 2.       Sub-subpoint 1.2.2
      • a.          Sub-sub-subpoint 1.2.2.1
      • b.          Sub-sub-subpoint 1.2.2.2
• (Transition: e.g. “Now that you know…”)
• II.Main Point 2
• A.    Sub-point 2.1
   – 1.       Sub-subpoint 2.1.1
   – 2.       Sub-subpoint 2.2.2
• B.      Sub-point 2.2
• C.      Sub-point 2.3….
Conclusion


                     •
• I.           Main point 1
• II.         Main point 2
•
  • Bibliography (use either MLA or APA style)
Guidelines for the speaking Outline:

• 1. Follow the visual framework used in the
  preparation outline;
• 2. Make sure the outline is legible;
• 3. Keep the outline as brief as possible;
• 4. Give yourself cues for delivering the
  speech.
      List of statements
• There were 13 people at the Last Supper---Jesus and his
  12 disciples.
• One of the most common sources of superstition is
  numbers.
• In the United States, 13 is often omitted in the floor
  numbering of hotels and skyscrapers.
• The number 13 has meant bad luck as long as anyone can
  remember.
Identify which of the above statements is the main point
  and which are the sub-points and sub-sub-points.
Outline

• I. One of the most common sources of
  superstition is numbers.
  – A. The number 13 has meant bad luck as long
    as anyone can remember.
     • 1. There were 13 people people at eh Last
       Supper---Jesus and his 12 disciples.
     • 2. In the United States, 13 is often omitted in
       the floor numbering of hotels and skyscrapers.
  Homework Assignments

1. Prepare to talk about one social problem
   or environmental problem.
2. Decide on a speech topic on either social
   or environmental problems and write an
   outline.
3. Develop a speaking outline from your
   preparation outline.

				
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