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									    The Center for Advanced Food Technology (CAFT) is a unique cooperative
    Industry/University/Government research center which aims to create and
    enhance application of scientific knowledge and technologies that address
                                                                                             Amaranth, Quinoa and Buckwheat in Processed                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Health Promotion Attributes of Foods
    the product, process, and manufacturing needs of the food industry.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     The research presented in this poster is part of a cluster
    For further information about CAFT’s Cooperative Research Program,
    contact Dr. Dennis R. Heldman, Director, Cooperative Research Program, at
                                                                                                  Foods: Advantages and Challenges                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          of projects with an objective to identify health-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            promoting compounds in foods and food ingredients,
    CAFT 732-932-8306 x255.
                                                                                                                                                                                S. Naqvi, İ. Şensoy, R. Rosen, C-T. Ho, and M.V. Karwe                                                                                                                                                      better understand the mechanisms of action of these
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            compounds, and quantify the influence of processing
                  CAFT is an initiative of the New Jersey Commission                    Amaranth and Quinoa                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 operations on the delivery and biological activity of the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            health promoting compounds.
                  on Science and Technology Center, Cook College,
                  New Jersey Agricultural Experiment Station
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Buckwheat
Background
                                                                                                                            Composition of selected grains
Amarant and Quinoa are:                                                                 Amaranth                                    Quinoa                      Buckwheat                  Corn     Wheat
                                                                                                                                                                                           (Yellow) (Durum)
- pseudocereals         - do not contain gluten
                                                                          Water      9.84                                            9.30                         9.75                     10.37         10.94
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Background
- super grains           - high lipid content
                                                                          Protein   14.45                                           13.10                        13.25                      9.42         13.68             Buckwheat is a dry fruit that belongs to the Polygonaceae Seeds have high content of unsaturated fatty acids
- rich in protein, essential amino acids                                  Fat        6.51                                            5.80                         3.4                       4.74          2.47             family.                                                        similar to lipids present in cereal grains.
They have excellent nutraceutical potential                              CHO+Fiber 66.17                                           68.90                        71.50                     74.26         71.13             Proteins of buckwheat have good supplementary value to the Phenolic compounds in buckwheat have been shown to
         Amaranth: squalene and tocotrienols                              Ash        3.04                                            2.90                         2.10                      1.20          1.78             cereal grains; high in the essential amino acid lysine; have   have antioxidative activity.
         Quinoa: saponins                                                                                                                                                                                                  92.3% of the value of nonfat milk solids and 81.5% of whole Buckwheat starch has higher amylose content (46%),
                                             Ref: USDA National Database for Standard Reference, Release 16-1.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           egg solids; reduces the plasma cholesterol level better than   water binding capacity and higher peak viscosity
 Amaranth oil is mostly unsaturated (53-95% linoleic and oleic, 0.3-1.3 % linolenic, and 2.2-5.4% stearic acid)                                                                                                           soy protein isolate; have antihypertension effects; are gluten
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          compared with corn and wheat starch.
 Squalene in amaranth oil has a chemo preventive effect on colon cancer.                                                                                                                                                  free: healthy alternative to wheat for celiac patients.
 Amaranth seed oil (6-8%) has a higher squalene than olive oil (0.2-0.5%).
 Amaranth is good source of b-tocotrienol (0.59-1.15 mg/100g) and g-tocotrienol (0.1-0.87 mg/100g).                                                                                                                       Objective
 Tocotrienols have been shown to be more effective antioxidants than tocopherols.
 Tocotrienols have cholesterol lowering effects.                                                                                                                                                                          To determine the effects of processing on phenolic compounds, and their antioxidant activity.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           To determine the anti-inflammation effects of buckwheat flour extracts on TPA-induced edema.
 Saponins in quiona - impart a bitter taste.
                       - emulsifying function and and hemolyzing effect on red blood cells
                       - capacity to reduce cholesterol level in blood serum                                                                                                                                               Materials and Methods
 Adenosine mono phosphate (AMP) is the first chemical patented that inhibits the bitterness taste by altering human
perception instead of flavor.                                                                                                                                                                                              Chromatographic analysis                                                                                                                                                                            Antioxidant activity assay
                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Buckwheat flour              Roasting/ Extrusion             Extraction                                                                       HPLC
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Extraction
Objectives                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Total phenolic assay
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Ground extrudates     (Methanol and Ethyl Acetate)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 (Methanol)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Grain Flour


To  investigate the effect of processing on squalene and tocotrienols in amaranth.                                                                                                                                            0.25 mL methanol extract
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              25 min. at 25 °C    Centrifugation                                                                        Absorbance                                                                                                                     Absorbance
To investigate whether Adenosine Mono Phosphate (AMP) can be effectively used to block bitter taste of saponins                                                                                                               0.25 mL Na2CO3                                                                                                                                                                                    200 mM                                        40 min at 25°C
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      (1300 g)                                                                     measurement                                                                                                                        measurement
in quinoa.                                                                                                                                                                                                                     4 mL distilled water                                                                                                                                                                              DPPH
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        at 725 nm                                                                                                                        at 515 nm
                                                                                                                                                                                                                               0.25 mL Folin-Ciocalteu reagent (diluted 1:1)
Materials and Methods
 Amaranth Flour – Barry Farm Amaranth Flour,                     GC: Varian 3400 Gas Chromatograph                                  Temp Profile:                             120oC       280oC,   Ramp =   10oC/min
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Results
                   Dist. The Barry Farm, OH                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Total Phenolic Assay
                                                                                                                                                                                 Hold: 280oC for 30 min                                          HPLC Chromatograms                                                                          14                                                                                             Effect of Processing on Antioxidant Activity

Chromatographic analysis                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     12
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2.5




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Trolox Equivalent/dry weight
                                                                                                                                                                                          250oC                  260oC




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   GA Equivalent/dry weight (mg/g)
                                                            Extraction                                                                                                           Inj T:                 Det T:                                                                                                                               10
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 2
Amaranth flour                 Roasting                                          GC                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              8




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          (mmoles/g)
                                                             (Hexane)                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            6
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            1.5

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 1
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 4


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 2                                                                                                          0.5



Results                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          0
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     White Flour, raw   White Flour,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        200°C 10 min
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Dark Flour, raw    Dark Flour,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         200°C 10 min
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 0
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Raw        Extrudate         Roasted


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Antioxidant Activity by DPPH Method on Selected                                              Effect of Extracts on TPA-Induced edema of mouse ears
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Grains
                      GC Chromatograph – Amaranth




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Trolox equivalent/dry weight (mmoles/g)
                                                                                                                                   Squalene Retention in
                                                                                                                                     Amaranth Flour
                                                                                                                                                                                      Anticipated Results for                                                                                                                                    2.5
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Weight of               Percent
                                                                                                                       35
                                                                                                                            Seed                                                      Quinoa:                                  Dark buckwheat flour (50 %       Dark buckwheat extrudate (50 %                                                       2                                                                                                           Treatment              Ear punches
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           (mg)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                inhibition

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Amylopectin)                       Amylopectin)                                                             1.5                                                                      1.   Acetone + acetone                                         7.05±0.06                 -
                                                                                                                                                                                      By improving sensory
                                                                                                                       30

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          2.   Acetone + TPA                                            16.95±0.31                 -
                                                                                             Squalene retention (mg)




                                                                                                                       25
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Raw                         Tdie 140 ºC, 425 rpm                                                            1                                                                    3.   Amaranth (0.5 mg) + TPA                                  13.61±1.22               33.7%
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          4.   Quinoa (0.5 mg) + TPA                                    13.86±1.73               31.2%
                                                                                                                       20
                                                                                                                                                                                      acceptability of quinoa                                                                                                                                    0.5                                                                      5.   BW-White (0.5 mg) + TPA                                  14.33±0.65               25.5%
                                                                                                                                                Roasted Flour   Roasted Flour                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             6.   BW-Whole (0.5 mg) + TPA                                  10.24±0.30               67.8%
                                                                                                                       15
                                                                                                                                      Flour
                                                                                                                                    unroasted   5 min, 150oC    7min, 200oC           extrudates, use of quinoa,                                                                                                                                     0                                                                    7.   Oleanoic acid (1 µmol) + TPA                             10.50±0.82               65.2%
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Corn Meal        Whole Wheat       Buckwheat        Buckwheat
                                                                                                                       10                                                             which is popular in health                                                                                                                                                                               White            Whole

                                                                                                                       5                                                              food stores will be widened.
                                                                                                                       0
                                                                                                                                                                                       Gain knowledge in                  Conclusions
                                                                                                                                                                                      efficacy of AMP in blocking
        Squalene standard                         Amaranth flour - unroasted
                                                                                                                                                                                      the bitterness.                      Roasted buckwheat flour exhibited an increase in polar and non-polar compounds whereas extruded flour
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           exhibited increase only in polar compounds.
Conclusions                                                                                                                                                                                                                Dark buckwheat flour has about four times more phenolic content than white buckwheat flour.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Roasting slightly reduced the antioxidant activity of dark buckwheat flour.
    Squalene retention constant through various amaranth flour roasting conditions                                                                                                                                        Whole buckwheat flour shows higher inhibition rate on TPA-induced edema of mouse ears compared to white
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           buckwheat flour
    Significant amount of squalene retained in roasted amaranth flour
    Recommended roasting – 200oC, 4 min

								
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