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EARLY MAN MARY AND LOUIS LEAKEY • Louis B. Leakey and his wife, Mary Nicol Leakey discovered the world’s earliest known human. • Leakey’s spent much of their time researching at Olduvai Gorge in East Africa. • 1959 Mary Leakey uncovered the skull of Australopithecus. This skull is of the earliest human and is 1.75 million years old. BEFORE HISTORY ARCHAEOLOGY AND ANTHROPOLOGY • The period before history- prehistory- is the period for which we have no written records. We know about prehistory from archaeological and biological information. • Archaeology studies the structure of past societies by analyzing the artifacts. The artifacts are tools, household items, weapons, buildings, artworks, religious figures, etc. • Anthropology focuses more on culture by studying artifacts and human remains-human fossils. DATING ARTIFACTS AND FOSSILS • One valuable dating method is radiocarbon dating. This method dates accurately up to 50,000 years old. • Thermoluminescence measures accurately up to 200,000 years old. • Biological methods such as DNA and blood molecule analyses also give us information about the societies of prehistory. AUSTRALOPITHECUS • Existed 3 to 4 million years ago • First full skeleton to be found intact. Nicknamed Lucy. • Discovered by Donald Johansen and Tom Gray. • Lucy had a brain the size of an orange • Lived under tree and ate berries • Died at age of 20. • She walked hunched over on her hands and feet. • Discovered in Eastern/Southern Africa • Hominids: Creatures that walk upright HOMO ERECTUS • Known as Upright Man • Second Phase • Fire was invented • Existed 1.5 million years ago • Tools were invented • Lived in hut made out of sticks. • Homo Erectus left Africa and moved to Europe and Asia. • Nomads: live in an area until all plant and animal life are eaten. NEANDERTHALS • Third Stage of Early Man • First discovered in the Neanderthal River Valley, Germany • Short and Stocky • Had arthritis • Wooly Mammoth • Used Stone Tools • First to bury their dead • Made clothing out of animal skin • Lived in Caves CRO MAGNON MODERN MAN • Neanderthals died out 20,000 BC due to fighting amongst each other. • Cro Magnon was the early phase of Modern Man what we are today. • Bow and Arrow invented • Cave Drawings used to communicate. • All races and ethnicities of people today are Modern Man. PALEOLITHIC WAY OF LIFE • Paleolithic Age is the time between 2.5 million to 10,000 years BC. • Referred to as Old Stone Age • Nomads • Hunters and Gatherers • Invention of the spear and bow and arrow for hunters TOOLS • This was considered technology to Early Humans • Created during Homo Erectus. • Flint was a hard stone used to chip away parts of another stone to create an edge. • Over time, tools became smaller • Bone needles were created to make nets, clothes, baskets, etc. • Tools were used to kill animals, cut plants, dig roots, and build simple shelters. ROLES OF MEN AND WOMEN • Women stayed close to camp to take care of the family. • Gathered nuts, berries, and grain • Men hunted large animals. • Women and men were equal and both worked together to make decisions. CREATING ART • Lascaux, France was the site of over 300 cave painting discovered in 1994. • Believed to have been painted from 25,000 to 12, 000 BC. • Animals painted were lions, oxen, owls, and panthers.
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