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ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION

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									    ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION
                          Learning Objectives

    At the end of the lecture, students should be able to know:

    Out door air pollution.
    In door air pollution.
    Major industrial chemical products.
    Advantages & disadvantages of therapeutic drugs.

     i-OUT DOOR AIR POLLUTION
        o The sources of out door air pollution are-
    Combustion of fossil fuels.
    Photochemical reactions.
    Power plants.
    Waste incinerators.




    i-OUT DOOR AIR POLLUTION
    I-Combustion of fossil fuels- include:
    Mobile sources like motor vehicles.
    Stationary sources like power plants & factories.
    Barbecues and fire places.
    II. PHOTOCHEMICAL REACTIONS-
   Reaction of- oxides of nitrogen volatile hydrocarbons & ozone with atmospheric
    chemicals.

    i-OUT DOOR AIR POLLUTION
   III. Power plants
   Mills & factories release- sulphurdioxide.
   Aerosolized acid sulphate lead, acid rain.




    i-OUT DOOR AIR POLLUTION
   IV-Waste incinerators, industry & smelters cause release of- Acid aerosols Metals
    Mercury metals & Organic compounds (carcinogens).
   Methyl isocyanate was accidentally released, at Bhopal in 1984, resulting in 3000,
    deaths, due to pulmonary edema.
    ii- Major Indoor Air Pollutants
   These include:
         o Carbon monoxide.
         o Nitrogen dioxide.
         o Wood Smoke.
         o Radon (radio active gas).
         o Asbestos Fibers.
         o Bioareosols.
         o Indoor allergens.




     ii- Major Indoor Air Pollutants
   I-Carbon monoxide (gas):

   Low level can cause lethargy and myocardial ischemia.
   High level can cause poisoning, manifested as Headache, Dizziness, Loss of motor
    control & Comma.

    ii- Major Indoor Air Pollutants
   II-Nitrogen dioxide:
   Increased by the use of- Gas stoves, Kerosene, & space heaters.
   It can cause- Lungs diseases/ infections & Deafness (more in children).




    ii- Major Indoor Air Pollutants




    III- Wood Smoke:
   High concentration of wood smoke in poorly ventilated homes can cause respiratory
    infections in children.
   ii- Major Indoor Air Pollutants
   IV- Radon
   It is a very radio active gas ( decay product of uranium), present in soil in some areas.
   It also produced by alpha radiation & causes lungs cancer.
    MAJOR INDOOR AIR POLLUTANTS
   V- Asbestos Fibers:
   Used as non friable material in-
      - Pipe covers.
      - Ceilings.
      - Tiles.
      - Flooring.
   Repair, maintenance, and removal of asbestos containing material can increase fiber
    in indoor air, which can cause mesothelioma and cancer.
    II- MAJOR INDOOR AIR POLLUTANTS
   VI- Bioareosols:
   Aerosolization of bacteria causing pneumonia has been associates with contaminated
    heating and cooling system in public buildings.
    II- MAJOR INDOOR AIR POLLUTANTS
   VII- INDOOR ALLERGENS:
   These are associated with-
   Pets Dust mites Cockroaches Fungi & Molds.
   These allergens in poor ventilation can cause-
   Allergic rhinitis & Exacerbate asthma.




    Major industrial chemical products
     I- volatile organic compounds.
     II- Aliphatic Hydrocarbons.
     III-Petroleum Products.
     IV- Aromatic Hydrocarbons.
     V- Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons.
      VI-Plastic, Rubber and Polymers.
      VII- Metals.

    MAJOR INDUSTRIAL CHEMICAL PRODUCTS
   Volatile organic compounds, are used in Degreasing Dry cleaning Paint removers.
    They are stored like petroleum products in underground tanks, can contaminate
    under ground water supply.




    II- ALIPHATIC HYDROCARBONS:
   Include- Chloroform Carbon tetrachloride Methyl chloride.
   Readily absorbed via- Skin Lungs GIT.


    MAJOR INDUSTRIAL CHEMICAL PRODUCTS
    III-PETROLEUM PRODUCTS:
   Gasoline, kerosene, mineral oil and turpentine are- highly volatile.
   They can cause- poisoning in children.
   Excessive inhalation can cause-
     - Dizziness.
     - Central nervous system depression.
    MAJOR INDUSTRIAL CHEMICAL PRODUCTS
    IV- AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS:
   Benzene, toluene and xylene are used in-
     - Rubber and shoe industries.
     - Printing and paper coating.
   Benzene is a hydrocarbon can cause-
     - Bone marrow toxicity.
     - Aplastic anemia.
     - Acute leukemia.

    MAJOR INDUSTRIAL CHEMICAL PRODUCTS
    VI- PLASTIC, RUBBER AND POLYMERS:
   These are used world wide in-
      - Pipes.
      - Cables flooring.
      - Medical products.
      - Home products.
   It can cause-
      - Angiosarcoma of liver.
    TYPES OF THERAPEUTIC DRUGS
    THE TYPES ARE-
     a- Oral contraceptive (OC).
     b- Hormone replacement therapy (HRT).
     c- Acetaminophen.
     d- Aspirin (Acetylsalicylic Acid ).

    IV-THERAPEUTIC DRUGS
    A- ORAL CONTRACEPTIVES
   Estrogen alone or in combination with progestin is used world wide.
   Not associated with increased risk of breast cancer.
   Decrease risk of endometrial and ovarian cancer




    iv-THERAPEUTIC DRUGS
    b- Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT)
                 Premenopausal or post menopausal women use hormone replacement
                   therapy (HRT), either estrogen in combination with a progestin or a
                   natural estrogen alone.
   Reduction in menopausal symptoms are achieved, like-
     - Hot flushes.
     - Vaginal dryness.
     - Sleep disturbances.
    iv-THERAPEUTIC DRUGS
    c- Acetaminophen
   Commonly uses as-
   Analgesic and antipyretic.
   Therapeutic dose is- 0.5 gms.
   Toxic dose is- 15- 25 gms.
   Toxicity cause-
   GIT- Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea
   Liver- Jaundice, hepatic necrosis, liver failure
                & shock.
   Renal and myocardial damage can occur.
    ii-THERAPEUTIC DRUGS
    d- Aspirin (Acetylsalicylic Acid )
   Acute over dosage is accidental and suicidal in adult & children-
   Over dose is-
      - 2 to 4 gms by children
      - 10 to 30 gms by adult.
   It causes respiratory alkalosis which follows metabolic acidosis.
   Chronic aspirin toxicity occurs by-
   Use of 3 gms Aspirin daily (use to treat chronic inflammation).




    REFERENCES
   Robbins Pathologic Basis of Disease (Robbins Pathology)

								
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