Frame for this Workshop by 3jF5su


									                   Frame for this Workshop
  Making the simple complicated is commonplace; making the
  complicated simple, awesomely simple, that's creativity

                                     Teach Less Learn More?

To be playful and serious at the same time is possible,
in fact it defines the ideal mental condition.
(John Dewey, How We Think, p. 218)
           Workshop Objectives
• Identify the key practices and skills of effective
• Use key facilitation techniques and tools
• Manage a range of disruptive behaviours in a group
  learning context
  Noted Gen Y characteristics - how do they play out in
    the classroom – what challenges are presented?


Have been referred to as a generation that has been ‘treasured’, considered
special since birth, and generally been more sheltered than its predecessors.
Product of a child-centred philosophy

                 (Howe and Strauss, 2009)
        Everything is Experience (& Perception)

       As human being we are stuck in a process of
       continuous Experience – even when sleeping

Given a choice, people seek experiences that are perceived as
pleasurable, novel, and pain reducing – because they satisfy
needs (Survive, Belong, Power, Freedom, Fun – from the work of William Glasser)
                    The Serial Position Curve

70         Primacy Effect

60                                                                Recency Effect

                                          von Restorff Effect



     0 1    2   3    4   5   6   7    8   9   10   11   12   13    14   15 16

                                     Position on List
              Psychological Effects

• Primacy Effect (the tendency for the first items
  presented in a series to be remembered better or
  more easily)
• Recency Effect (the tendency for the most recently
  presented items or experiences to be remembered
• Von Restorff Effect (the tendency to remember
  distinct or novel items and experiences)
  The Need for a Motivational Strategy?

 “..if something can be learned, it can be
    learned in a motivating manner” (p.23)

“..every instructional plan also needs to be
           a motivational plan” (p.24)
     (Wlodkowski, R. J., 1999, Enhancing Adult Motivation to Learn)
       Reasons for Active Learning

Learning is not a spectator sport. Students do not learn much just
by sitting in class listening to teachers, memorizing pre-packaged
assignments, and spitting out answers. They must talk about what
they are learning, write about it, relate it to past experiences, apply
it to their daily lives. They must make what they learn part of
       Arthur W. Chickering and Zelda F. Gamson, "Seven Principles for
       Good Practice," AAHE Bulletin 39: 3-7, March 1987
   Active Learning is NOT

Activity for Activity Sake
      Active Learning Methods and Tools
• Questioning
• Small group activities (e.g., cooperative learning structures,
  buzz groups, poster tours, etc)
• Case studies, Scenario-Based Learning, Projects and PBL
• Games, Role Play & Simulations
• Discussion/Debates
• Other Performance Tasks (experiments, troubleshooting, etc)
• Thinking Tools (e.g., Mind mapping, Plus-Minus-Interesting,
  Force-Field Analysis, Thinking Hats, etc)
                            Big Point...
A method is typically only a part of the overall instructional strategy –
it’s how a number of them are weaved together to create an experience
that results in student engagement and effective learning
A metaphor for Good Learning Design
  Variety & Novelty - Stories, Humour, Activities,
Examples – Woven through good Presentation Style
                What is SHAPE ?


A Heuristic for the design of creative learning experiences
                The Power of SHAPE
“We understand everything in human life through stories”
                      (Jean-Paul Sartre)

“Humour is by far the most significant behaviour of the brain”
                      (Edward De Bono)

“Learning activities are the best and most productive way
to learn”
                    (Lambert and Coombs)

“The meaning of your communication is the response
that you get”
                     (Bandler & Grinder)

“A fine example nurtures learners, enhancing their
concentration and effort”
 Using SHAPE to Shape the learning experience

• Stories told to provide context, understanding and emotional
• Humour used to achieve rapport and provide novelty
• Activities provided to integrate, apply and consolidate
• Presentation style employed (e.g., words, tone, body language
  – as well as observation and listening) to provide clarity,
  meaning and influence student attention, beliefs and
  psychological states
• Examples used to illustrate facts, concepts, principles,
     …and   use these Resources Creatively
Is this Facilitation?
Facilitation: Core Leadership Competency


   Mentoring   FACILITATION    Coaching

               Team Building
                           Timed Pair Share
Basic Theme:
In pairs, students share with a partner for a
predetermined time while the partner listens
carefully. Then partners switch roles

1 Teacher announces a topic and states         4 Partner B acknowledges what was
 the question/problem each student will          learned (e.g., “One thing I learned as I
 have to share on                                 listened to you was…”)
2 Teacher provides instructions on how to      5 Pairs switch roles: Partner B speaks;
  select partner and allocates time for task     Partner A listens
3 In pairs, Partner A speaks; Partner B        6 Partner A acknowledges learning
     A useful adaptation of this is to allow a THINK time before the sharing –
                            known as Think-Pair-Share)
                  Key Practices

•   Quick thinking        • Managing information
•   Sensory acuity        • Asking questions
•   Staying neutral       • Paraphrasing
•   Empathic listening    • Giving & receiving
•   Testing assumptions     feedback
•   Meaning making        • Staying on track
                          • Providing summaries
                      Use of Process Tools
One of the main tasks in facilitation is the effective generation and
management of information. Process Tools help to manage
information in a structured manner. It is important that the right tools
are used for the purpose in hand:

•   Gathering/organising information (e.g., Process Flowchart, Force-
    Field Analysis
•   Generating new ideas (e.g., Brainstorming, Mind-Mapping, Get Real)
•   Group decision making (e.g., Plus-Minus-Interesting, Assumption
    Implication Tool, Evaluation Matrix)
•   Dealing with conflict (e.g., Thinking Hats, Building Common Ground)

    “Facilitation tools are simply a combination of words and lists that are
    organised around lines, circles, boxes, graphs and pictures. They are
    used to enable groups, to bring together ideas and make decisions.”
                       (Howell, J. L., 1997)



    Mind Map of Edward De Bono’s Thinking Hats
                                                    White Hat
         Blue Hat                                      Facts only
                                                       No opinions

                                                    Red Hat
         Green Hat                                      Feelings
                                                        Own view
    New ideas
                                                      Black Hat
  Yellow Hat                                               Negative
                     Mind Maps can promote all
                     types of thinking as well as
                     aid memory and learning
PLUS                  MINUS

               Force-Field Analysis Tool

This is a tool for generating and organizing information.
Through the use of brainstorming, identify:
   – the desired situation (where the change wants to go)
   – Identify the current situation (where things are now)
   – Identify factors that are supporting change towards the desired
     (give them a rating on how important they are)
   – Identify factors that are resisting change towards the desired situation
     (give them a rating on how important they are)
   – Identify ways to enhance the factors supporting change
   – Identify ways to reduce the impact of factors resisting change
   – Identifying if some of the resistors of change can be used against each
Current                      Force-Field Analysis                             Desired
Situation                                                                     Situation
               Potency: 5 4 3 2 1                        1 2 3 4 5 :Potency

      Forces driving change                         Forces resisting change


            The objective is to move the balance to the right, which can be achieved by:
            • identifying forces, their causes and strength
            • planning and acting to assist the driving forces
            • planning and acting to reduce the resisting forces
            • using some of the resisting forces against each other if possible
      Stages in Conducting a Facilitation

1.   Design & Preparation
2.   Starting the Facilitation
3.   Managing the Facilitation
4.   Ending the Facilitation
5.   Follow up on the Facilitation
                1.       Design & Preparation

• Identify the key purposes of the facilitation meeting (e.g.,
  briefing, exploratory/investigatory, decision-making, etc)
• Do necessary research and preparation (e.g., identify information
  that may help participants contribute more productively in the meeting –
  and send in good time. Note: try to keep it concise and provide brief notes
  of guidance/focus if necessary)
• Design the session (e.g., clear agenda, activities, process tools
  to be used, etc)
• The design must be sufficiently flexible to allow group
  members to set part of the learning agenda
   Understanding the Physical Environment
“The design and arrangement of meeting spaces convey a
message about the kind of activity and demeanour that are
appropriate to it and have a noticeable effect on those who
enter it”
                                  (Tuecke, 2005)

Three key physical elements must be considered and carefully arranged to
encourage participation in a meeting:
• The size and shape of various kinds of spaces in relationship to
  the group size
• The physical arrangement of the furniture
• The “feel” of the space as people walk into the room
        Utilizing Equipment & Resources

The use of equipment, learning aids, activities and specific
process tools is a powerful means of enhancing and structuring
the learning experience. Identify:
• What equipment and learning aids will facilitate the
   information to be presented
• What activities will engage the group to productively interact
   and generate important resources
• What specific process tools will help facilitate the
   management of information
              2. Starting the Facilitation –

     In starting the session, the first 5-10 minutes
     is crucial in setting the mood and preparing folk for
     the various activities that will comprise the programme

                              A bit like a
                              first date

You must convey the following
 The purpose and scope of the session
 Ground rules and expectations
 Any other group/situation specific information
              3. Managing the Facilitation:
                     Building Rapport
This involves a high level of competence in a range of
interpersonal communication skills, quick thinking and the ability
to be situationally responsive

      “Rapport is the ultimate tool for producing results
                      with other people”
                      (Anthony Robbins, 2001)
            The Power of Questions
“Questions are the primary way we learn virtually everything”

  “Thinking itself is nothing but the process of asking and
                    answering questions”

   “Questions immediately change what we focus on and,
                 therefore, how we feel”

            (Anthony Robbins, 2001, pp.179-8)
   Questioning: Key skill set of Facilitation

A range of question types may be used, depending on context.
The following are the main types:
• Clear, Concise Questions covering a single issue to establish
   facts and position
• Challenging Questions to stimulate thinking (e.g., how does
   this work?; what has caused this?; what does this data mean
   to you?; on what basis can we make a choice?, etc)
• Focusing/Probing Questions to explore specific aspects of an
   issue (e.g., fact finding, feeling finding, tell me more,
   best/least, third party, magic wand)
    Being prepared for Questions or issues that
              participants might ask
• Are there issues that are potentially contentious?
• What are the points of contention or concern?
• What information can I make available
• Is there additional information I might need to get in
  preparation for the meeting
• Is there information that I cannot share, and how will I deal
  with questions relating to this
• What is my stance on these issues and on what basis
• Do any of the participants have a position (‘axe to grind’) on
  certain issues that may need managing
               Answering Questions 1
• Always look directly at the questioner and ensure that you let
  him/her finish
• Check your understanding with the questioner if necessary –
  be careful to make high inferences based on what’s said
• Use sensory acuity to observe the questioners tone and body
  language to see if his/her communication is calibrated
• If you sense that there is an hidden agenda – ask for further
  clarification and information relating to the questioners
• If you cannot answer a question – then don’t. Give honest
  reasons for your response (e.g., “I don’t know” or “It’s
  confidential at this point in time because…”
               Answering Questions 2
• If the question is complex, divide it into parts and decide how
  you are going to answer these parts
• Answer in as concise and clear a manner as possible, ensuring
  eye contact and calibrated body language. Long winded or
  rambling answers invite suspicion and ambiguity. So does
  poorly calibrated body language.
• Use sensory acuity to observe the questioners response
  behaviour to you – this will help you add/modify your
  response if necessary
• If the question challenges or identifies a weakness in your
  argument/position – this is an opportunity to build genuine
  rapport and trust – or blow your credibility. Its your choice.
  Qualities of Effective Active Listening

• Appropriate use of body language (personal
  space, posture, eye contact and facial
• Clarifying communication:
   – Reflecting observed feelings
   – Paraphrasing
   – Summarization
• Allow sufficient pause time to ensure the person
  has finished speaking (1-4 seconds approx)
            4. Ending the Facilitation

There’s two main things to achieve in closing a
facilitation session:
 A clear picture of what has been agreed, the
 necessary action to be taken, by who and when
 A positive (or as positive as possible) frame on what
 the outcomes are intended to achieve

   Don’t introduce Last Minute items or Ramble on –
   otherwise the Recency Effect is lost
         5. Follow up on the Facilitation

Follow up can be at the next session or in between sessions –
depending on what the agreed action is. But if things are not
followed up:
• Participants will not see the importance of the issues and
   actions that they are spending their time on
• This will lead to a lack of focus and motivation for subsequent

• NOTE: Even if some items lose importance or become
  redundant – at least let folk know that this is the case with
  justifications. Even apologize – if necessary
               Difficult Behaviours

Irrespective of how good a facilitator you are –
you will eventually get the whole range of
challenging behaviours…

These are???
             Difficult Behaviours
• Hostile and aggressive to you or other group members – can
  take a variety of forms (e.g., overt, covert, etc)
• Clams – never speaking (can be shyness or deliberate non-
• Very agreeable, but rarely do anything
• Always complaining – negative to everything
• Experts – think they are, and sometimes are
• Indecisive
                       Starting Frame
When confronted with unreasonable behaviour, adopt the
following frame:
• Be straight with yourself – have you contributed to the situation in
    some way (e.g., giving mixed messages, creating
    structures/activities that don’t work)
• Suspend judgement on the cause
• Don’t label the person in a negative way
• Don’t get uptight – or at least don’t let it show
• Use specific questions to help you understand the persons map that
    is resulting in the behaviour
• Use an appropriate strategy for dealing with the behaviour
                    Dealing with Resistance
The right approach for dealing with resistance always consists of two steps

Invite the resistor to express his/her resistance while you listen actively,
show empathy (body language stuff) and paraphrase (where
necessary). Use language like:

   “What happened last time that has led you to feel this way?”
   “How did it occur and what specifically went wrong?”

After all the main concerns have been acknowledged, ask questions to
prompt the resistor to suggest solutions to the barrier. Ensure the
questioning gets the resistor to think carefully. Ask things like:

   “What circumstances or support would encourage you to continue participating?”
   “What assurance will eliminate your concerns?”
  Managing Disagreement: Consensus Building

Why people disagree:
• Lack of Shared Information (e.g., not understanding what the
  other person is saying, unaware of certain information)
• Different Values or Experiences (Beliefs and perception)
• Outside Factors (e.g., personality, past history)

To build consensus, it is important to firstly understand the likely
basis of the disagreement, then use an appropriate approach
     Strategies for Reducing Disagreement
Lack of Shared Information:
•   Slow down the conversation
•   Encourage careful listening
•   Explicit sharing of information and explanations
•   Testing for shared meaning and comprehension

Different Values or Experiences:
• Isolate underlying values and perceptions
• Encourage the creation of alternatives that combine the
  values or create super-ordinate values (e.g., we need a
  working solution for now)
     Strategies for Reducing Disagreement

Outside Factors:
Requires an intervention that is deeper and needs to be solved
offline. It typically requires:
• Each party identifying and speaking about the issues, concerns, past
  actions that have led to a negative impact in working together
• Agree that each parties want to be able to work together better (not
  necessarily like each other)
• Agree strategy and ground rules for future working relationships
• Monitor and review practices and make necessary mutually agreed

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