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AP BIOLOGY SUMMER ASSIGNMENT: 2012-2013 DISTRIBUTED MAY, 2012 Instructor: Mr. Crispin A. Zanca Contact: email@example.com Required Material for Summer Assignment: Course Textbook: Biology 7th AP Edition Campbell and Reese, 2005 ISBN: 0-8053-6777-2 In order to get a strong start to the year, you are required to complete the summer assignment described below. This work will be briefly covered when we return in the fall. It is advised that you not wait until the last minute to begin the assignment, as it is considerable. The summer assignment is worth 250 points. It must be completed when you arrive the first day of school. There will be a test on chapters 1, 2, 3 & 5 at the end of the first full week of school. There will be a test on chapters 50, 52-55 at the end of the second week. There are three components to your Summer Assignment. 1. Read the textbook chapters: 1,2,3,5.(Themes and the Chemical Context of Life, 7% of AP Exam) and chap- ters 50, 52-55 (Ecology, 10% of AP Exam) 2. Writing answers to the two assigned Free Response (Essay) Questions Take an open book multiple choice test. Below are the details of the assignment 1& 2 above. Each part of the assignment should have its own section dedicated to it in a three hole binder with separations. This will make it easier to grade and it will make it easier for you when it is used as a review for the AP Exam. (35 points for organization and neatness) Read the eight assigned chapters in the textbook: While reading the textbook this will help you find the an- swers to the Learning Objectives for chapters 1, 2, 3, & 5. To help you understand the textbook, reading all the captions below the figures and diagrams is suggested. Write out (preferably word-processing) answers to all the objectives. Some may be answered in a full sentence. Some may need solid explanations. This is the bulk of your work load and the bulk of the points. Please number the answers to your objectives. (115 total points) Chapter 1- Introduction: Themes in the study of Life Chapter 2- The Chemical Context of Life Chapter 3- Water and the Fitness of the Environment Chapter 5- The Structure and Functions of Macromolecules For Chapters 50, 52-55 you should write the answers to the concept checks at the end of each chapter sec- tion and the self quizzes at the end of each chapter. Do these on your own at first and then check the an- swers in the back of the book. (mark and record how you did) (110 total points) Chapter 50- An Introduction to Ecology and the Biosphere Chapter 52- Population Ecology Chapter 53-Community Ecology Chapter 54- Ecosystems Chapter 55- Conservation Biology and Restoration Ecology 2. Free Response (Essay) Questions: Answer the two essays in a thoughtful and organized manner. Please refer to the sample answers provided for other questions. Do not write an introduction or conclusion; simply start answering the questions from the first sentence. Be sure to set the answers up as they are written (a, b, c, etc). (90 points) For Chapter 22 you should read the chapter and take the attached test as an open book test. FREE RESPONSE QUESTIONS FOR 2011 SUMMER READING 1) The unique properties (characteristics) of water make life possible on Earth. Select three properties of wa- ter and: a) For each property, identify and define the property and explain it in terms of the physical/chemical nature of water. b) For each property, describe one example of how the property affects the functioning of living organisms. 2) Using an example for each, discuss the following ecological concepts. a) Succession b) Energy flow between trophic levels c) Limiting factors d) Carrying capacity CHAPTER 1 THEMES IN THE STUDY OF LIFE Learning objectives: Inquiring about the World of Life 1. Briefly describe the unifying themes that characterize the biological sciences. 2. Diagram the hierarchy of structural levels in biological organization. 3. Explain how novel properties of life emerge from complex organization. 4. Describe the dilemma of reductionism. 5. Describe the two major dynamic processes of any ecosystem. 6. Name two characteristics shared by all cells. 7. Distinguish between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. 8. Describe the basic structure and function of DNA. 9. Discuss the goals and activities of systems biology. List the three research developments that have advanced systems biology. Explain the importance of regulatory mechanisms in living things. Distinguish between positive and negative feedback. Organizing the Diversity of Life 11. Distinguish among the three domains of life. List and distinguish among the three kingdoms of multicellular, eukaryotic life. 12. Explain the phrase: “life’s dual nature of unity and diversity”. Explain how evolution accounts for the unity and diversity of living things. 13. Describe the observations and inferences that led Charles Darwin to his theory of evolution by natural selec- tion. Explain why diagrams of evolutionary relationships have a treelike form. The Process of Science 15. Distinguish between discovery science and hypothesis-based science. Explain why both types of exploration contribute to our understanding of nature. 16. Distinguish between quantitative and qualitative data. 17. Distinguish between inductive and deductive reasoning. 18. Explain why hypotheses must be testable and falsifiable but are not provable. 19. Describe what is meant by a controlled experiment. 20. Distinguish between the everyday meaning of the term ‘theory’ and its meaning to scientists. 21. Describe an example that illustrates how science may be influenced by social and cultural factors. Distinguish between science and technology. Explain how science and technology are interdependent. CHAPTER 2 THE CHEMICAL CONTEXT OF LIFE Learning objectives Elements and compounds 1. Distinguish between an element and a compound. 2. Identify the four elements that make up 96% of living matter. Define the term trace element and give an example. Atoms and molecules 4. Draw and label a simplified model of an atom. Explain how this model misrepresents our understanding of atomic structure. 5. Distinguish between each of the following pairs of terms: a. Neutron and proton b. Atomic number and mass number c. Atomic weight and mass number d. Explain how the atomic number and mass number of an atom can be used to determine the number of neu- trons. e. Explain how two isotopes of an element are similar. Explain how they are different. Describe a biological application that uses radioactive isotopes. Electron distribution and chemical properties 9. Define the terms energy and potential energy. Explain why electrons in the first electron shell have less poten- tial energy than electrons in higher electron shells. 10. Distinguish between nonpolar covalent, polar covalent and ionic bonds. 11. Explain why strong covalent bonds and weak bonds are both essential in living organisms. 12. Distinguish between hydrogen bonds and van der Waals interactions. 13. Give an example that illustrates how a molecule’s shape can determine its biological function. Explain what is meant by a chemical equilibrium. CHAPTER 3 WATER AND THE FITNESS OF THE ENVIRONMENT Learning objectives The Properties of Water 1. With the use of a diagram or diagrams, explain why water molecules are: a. polar b. capable of hydrogen bonding with 4 neighboring water molecules c. List four characteristics of water that are emergent properties resulting from hydrogen bonding. d. Define cohesion and adhesion. Explain how water’s cohesion and adhesion contribute to the movement of water from the roots to the leaves of a tree. e. Distinguish between heat and temperature, using examples to clarify your definitions. Explain the following observations by referring to the properties of water: Coastal areas have milder climates than adjacent inland areas. Ocean temperatures fluctuate much less than temperatures on land. Insects like water striders can walk on the surface of a pond without breaking the surface. If you slightly overfill a water glass, the water will form a convex surface above the top of the glass. If you place a paper towel so that it touches spilled water, the towel will draw in the water. Ice floats on water. Humans sweat and dogs pant to cool themselves on hot days. The Solvent of Life 6. Distinguish between a solute, a solvent and a solution. 7. Distinguish between hydrophobic and hydrophilic substances. Explain how you would make up a one molar (1M) solution of ethyl alcohol. The Dissociation of Water Molecules 9. Name the products of the dissociation of water and give their concentration in pure water. 10. Define acid, base, and pH. 11. Explain how acids and bases may directly or indirectly alter the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution. 12. Using the bicarbonate buffer system as an example, explain how buffers work. 13. Briefly explain how the burning of fossil fuels may affect: a. Acid precipitation b. Ocean acidification (There is no chapter 4) CHAPTER 5 THE STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF LARGE BIOLOGICAL MACROMOLECULES Learning objectives The Molecules of Life List the four major classes of macromolecules. Distinguish between monomers and polymers. Draw diagrams to illustrate condensation and hydrolysis reactions. Carbohydrates Serve as Fuel and Building Material Distinguish between monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides. Describe the formation of a glycosidic linkage. Distinguish between the glycosidic linkages found in starch and cellulose. Explain why the difference is bio- logically important. Describe the role of symbiosis in cellulose digestion by animals. Lipids are a Diverse Group of Hydrophobic Molecules Describe the building-block molecules, structure, and biological importance of fats, phospholipids, and ster- oids. Identify an ester linkage and describe how it is formed. Distinguish between saturated and unsaturated fats. Distinguish between cis and trans fat molecules. Name the principal energy storage molecules of plants and animals. Proteins have Many Structures, Resulting in a Wide Range of Functions Distinguish between a protein and a polypeptide. Explain how a peptide bond forms between two amino acids. List and describe the four major components of an amino acid. Explain how amino acids may be grouped according to the physical and chemical properties of the R group. Explain what determines protein structure and why it is important. Explain how the primary structure of a protein is determined. Name two types of secondary protein structure. Explain the role of hydrogen bonds in maintaining secondary structure. Explain how weak interactions and disulfide bridges contribute to tertiary protein structure. List four conditions under which proteins may be denatured. Explain how chaperonins may assist in proper folding of proteins. List and briefly describe three complementary approaches to determining protein structure. Nucleic Acids Store and Transmit Hereditary Information List the major components of a nucleotide, and describe how these monomers are linked to form a nucleic acid. Distinguish between: pyrimidine and purine nucleotide and nucleoside ribose and deoxyribose 5 end and 3 end of a nucleotide Briefly describe the three-dimensional structure of DNA. Explain how DNA or protein comparisons may allow us to assess evolutionary relationships between spe- cies.
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