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Gender and Value Chains Writeshop by v830nK4j

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									        Embedding Gender in Value Chain Thinking:
             Concepts and Strategic Choices




Draft proposal for writeshop process and publication
Introduction
Agri-Profocus (APF) is a partnership of 26 Dutch donor agencies, credit institutions,
companies, training and knowledge institutions, with the goal to promote farmer
entrepreneurship in developing countries. In 2009 APF members initiated a learning
trajectory on gender in value chains. Gender has been on the agenda of many
organizations for a long time, both as a specific subject and in terms of
mainstreaming within various sectors/themes, including value chain development. A
number of key components are critical in approaching gender issues in value chian
development, such as: making value chain analysis gender sensitive; approaching
women as producers/farmers/traders; looking at domestic and international markets,
as well as at conventional and certified (Fair Trade, organic, Utz, Rainforest Alliance)
markets. A key objective of this APF learning trajectory group is to increase gender
sensitivity in the value chain work of its member organisations. Some guiding
questions include:

      Which aspects of value chain development contribute to women’s
       empowerment and gender equity?
      What are the implications for gender equity and women empowerment in
       different value chains?
      What are the entry points for addressing gender issues in value chain analysis
       and development?
      What are effective interventions for empowering women within the context of
       value chains (best and worse practices)?
      How can space for these alternatives be created and how can gender be put /
       kept on the agenda of organizations working on value chains?

These questions reflect the basic idea
behind the APF learning trajectory: how do
we conceptualize gender in value chains
(our understanding); what kinds of tools
and strategies already exist; and how can
we make choices as to which tool or
strategy to use. This figure captures the APF
approach visually.

Over the previous two years we have
progressed steadily in the action-learning
process on gender in value chains. A few
observations on the process so far are
recounted below.




APF 3-9203 100426                                                                     1
      Case experiences provide more depth to dialogue vis a vis gender in value
       chains. Documenting cases allows guiding questions to become clearer and be
       validated. Cases already collected can be expanded by looking at gender
       components (e.g. inclusion, power) at different points along the value chain
       (e.g. production – marketing – processing).
      International exposure and recognition for the APF initiative is significant.
       Spin off is demonstrated through, for example, the inclusion of gender in the
       APF Country Focus agendas. The online network has grown substantially,
       which allows the opportunity to engage more with the wider network and
       strengthen our conceptual framework as well as providing direction and focus
       on joint efforts and in systematizing experiences.
      The challenge of convincing colleagues (in our own organizations) as to the
       importance of bridging these fields remains. ‘Room for improvement’ perhaps
       lies in advocacy and policy work. We need to keep engaging with value chain
       and gender experts: this combination allows us to innovate.
      Practical resources for practitioners to engage on this topic, both in print,
       online and visually are required. This includes fact sheets and further
       development of navigation and access to literature and tools.

Many activities have fed the APF learning on gender and value chains: a framework
was developed to bring together the two fields (see Annex 3). Literature is being
steadily collected trough Delicious (http://delicious.com/tag/apf_gender) and a Ning
http://genderinvaluechains.ning.com/ centralizes APF discussions and tools.

At this juncture, the APF learning trajectory participants aim to document and
elaborate the learning to date through a writeshop process and preparatory meeting.
This process will allow reflection and further development of the issues at stake with
support and contributions from value chain and gender experts as well as
practitioners. The outcome will be a publication that captures the knowledge
developed from both realms.

Objectives
APF members - including ICCO, KIT, Oxfam Novib, Solidaridad, HIVOS, WUR, Both
Ends, SNV and Cordaid – are working on 17 real-life cases for action-learning. Ten of
these cases are also part of the Global Standards Initiative, which focuses on gender
issues in certified value chains and have been comprehensively documented by local
consultants and written up in 10-page reports.

Each case or set of cases has its own timeline and goals. A broad goal for this
publication is to consolidate the thinking to-date and progress conceptually vis a vis
value chains and gender. Two interlocking objectives frame the write shop process
and the book:

   1. Making the case. The rights-based argument focuses on the inclusion of
      women and empowerment of women and men (particularly the more
      marginalized) as a social imperative, with justice at its centre. The business
      argument asserts that addressing gender and equity issues improves the
      functioning of the chain (in practice) and enriches value chain thinking (a
      more theoretical aspect). Both rights-based argument and business
      arguments will be elaborated to justify focusing on gender in value chains.




APF 3-9203 100426                                                                        2
   2. Strategies and when to use them. Documenting, developing and analysing
      strategies for improving gender equity and inclusion in value chains is the
      second objective of the book. Experience to-date will be synthesized in the
      form of strategies for NGOs, policy-makers certification bodies and standard-
      setters to improve gender equity and inclusion in value chains. Analysis will
      elaborate the circumstances under which particular strategies should be used.

In short the gender in value chains book will:
     Consolidate conceptual thinking on value chains and gender;
     Articulate well-founded business and rights-based arguments for addressing
       gender in value chains and explore the interrelation between the two
     Capture case examples of how gender is being addressed in value chains;
     Analyse the circumstances under which different approaches are successful;
     Synthesize experience to-date in the form of strategies for NGOs, policy-
       makers and standard-setters to improve gender equity/ inclusion in value
       chains.

A provisional structure for the book can be found in Annex 4.


Audience
The book is aimed at policymakers, NGOs, businesses (including farmer
cooperatives) and other organizations working with value chains in developing
countries. We aim to provide conceptual direction and practical examples of
strategies to addressing gender gaps as well as tools for analysing when to choose
one strategy over another. This book will provide insights into how to think about
and engage with the gender questions we face in value chain work.

Process

   1. Draft literature review. Based on ‘delicious’ and gender/certification
      literature compiled to date, KIT will draft the literature review chapter in
      April/May 2010. The APF framework (see Annex 3) will be further elaborated.

   2. Pre-Meeting (see Annex 2). In June 2010 (24 and 25), experts will be
      invited to work with the APF core group and gender colleagues for each
      organization. The objective of the pre-meeting is twofold. First, to elaborate
      arguments for bringing together these two fields. For this purpose participants
      will each provide a 2-page paper that captures their starting point
      perspective. Second, to discuss effective strategies for different practitioners
      to improve gender equity and inclusion in value chains.

       The output will be draft chapters covering rights-based and business
       arguments as well as clear criteria for case selection and to refine thinking as
       to the types of strategies worthwhile exploring further in the writeshop.
       The APF core group will then work together for an additional day to review the
       17 APF cases in preparation for selection as well as the draft framework and
       literature review.




APF 3-9203 100426                                                                    3
   3. Writeshop (see Annex 1). The writeshop will bring together practitioners
      (e.g. NGO staff, businesses, policymakers, producers, other value chain
      actors) to jointly write up cases that depict specific issues and strategies for
      addressing gender issues in value chains. The writeshop will take place in
      Kenya in November 2010.

   4. Finalization. The book will then be edited and prepared for publication in
      June 2011. Launches in several countries will follow.

Timeline
May 7th 2010                 Fundraising complete
May 31st 2010                Draft literature review (KIT) finalized
June 15th 2010               Participants pre-meeting to submit two-pagers
June 24-25 2010              Pre-meeting:
July 1st 2010                Decisions re: APF cases, authorship, venue etc. finalized
Summer 2010                  Scout/select cases and invite writeshop participants
August 15-October 31         Participants write draft cases
November 2010                Writeshop, near Nairobi in Kenya
December - May 2011          Editing and printing
June 2011                    Publication and launch




APF 3-9203 100426                                                                        4
Annex 1: Writeshop Process

A writeshop is a participatory workshop to write a book. The cases which are
selected in/through the pre-meeting will be represented in the writeshop. These
participants are assisted by a team of facilitators, resource persons (experts on
gender and/or value chains), editors, computer operators, artists and logistics staff.

The selected participants will document their experiences in draft and bring this
along to the writeshop. At the start of the writeshop, each participant presents the
first draft of his/her paper. The other participants have a chance to give comments
on the draft and suggest revisions. The facilitator allows as much discussion as
possible so that everyone can contribute their own knowledge on the topic. The aim
is not really to criticize the manuscript, but to improve it, add to it – and often to
remove unnecessary information – so that it fits the end product and is appropriate
for the target audience.




After his or her presentation, the participant will talk to an editor, who has also been
taking notes of the discussion. The editor helps to revise and edit the draft and to
ask for illustrations, usually line drawings from one of the artists, to accompany the
text. The edited text and the illustrations then go to a computer operator, who puts
them together as a second draft. The revised drafts are then presented again and
the audience can provide comments and suggestions for a second time. After this
series of presentations, an editor and artist(s) again help to revise the drafts.

Towards the end of the writeshop, the third draft will be discussed in a larger
audience which also includes other stakeholders like representatives from women
organizations, NGOs and policymakers. This discussion will not only enrich the
individual cases but also bring out overall lessons, adequate strategies and policy
implications that will feed into separate chapters of the book.

Within half a year after the writeshop, the final version of the cases and the general
chapters are completed, printed and distributed.

Writeshops are suitable for documenting practical illustrated information, in simple
language, where a large number of people each have important knowledge, but no-
one knows all about the subject. Documenting an experience can take a great



APF 3-9203 100426                                                                        5
amount of time. The process of writing, illustrating, reviewing and revising can be
long and dull. Writeshops can speed up and improve this process. Having the
resource people, editors, artists and other documentation tools together at the same
time and place makes this possible. It also allows for all participants’ contributions to
be included, taking advantage of the diverse experience and expertise of all present.
It allows ideas to be validated by a range of experts in the field. Members of the
intended audience or readers can help pre-test the text and illustrations during the
writeshop. In essence, each manuscript is reviewed dozens of times by key resource
people, all within the same short period of time.

The basic writeshop process was pioneered by IIRR in the Philippines and has been
adapted by related institutions. Altogether, the writeshop method has yielded more
than 30 user-friendly manuals on a range of topics. (This section is largely based on
Mundy et al., 2006)

Participants
Participants will include APF gender and value chains learning trajectory steering
committee, IIRR and donor/content partners. The steering group will identify
possible case studies based on the outcomes of the pre-meeting, which may include
already collected cases as well as new ones. Potential participants will be asked to
submit a one-page profile of their case, according to a pre-defined format, on basis
of which the steering group will select approximately 15 cases for actual participation
in the writeshop. The writeshop will involve approximately 35 people, including
editors, resource persons and facilitators as well as the participants.

The key criterion for case selection is that the case address an element of either the
rights-based and/or business argument as to the importance of integrating gender in
value chain thinking. The case must describe an experience that is mature enough to
be assessed and from which we can learn lessons. We strive to have a large variety
of cases, both in terms of geography and sector. Case selection must ensure a wide
diversity of experiences.

The writeshop is meant for practitioners – the people invited must be able to
document the case from their own first-hand experience. Resource persons with
analytical and writing skills will assist participants in documenting their stories. These
resource people have specific knowledge on gender and/or value chains.




APF 3-9203 100426                                                                       6
Annex 2: Pre-Meeting (2 days)

The Why and What of Gender in Value Chains

On June 24 – 25 2010 a pre-meeting will be organised to prepare the writeshop
process. The need for the pre-meeting is rooted in having a clear analytical
framework to be able to effectively invite and select case experiences to the write
shop and to steer the write shop towards capturing what ultimately will be developed
into a book on gender in value chains and related resources (digging into workable
strategies for gender in value chains).

Objective
The pre-meeting aims to come up with answers on the WHY and WHAT questions:
Why is gender in GVC important (the concepts) and what (the issues / questions) is
it about.

The HOW question, related to strategies we can apply to deal with those concepts /
issues, how these are actually applied, and what they amount to, is the core of the
writeshop itself.

The core of the pre-meeting is formed by a discussion among active and
knowledgeable value chain professionals from the Agri-ProFocus network on gender
in value chains, and international experts in this field. In other words it is meant to
bring together some of the front runners in the international gender in value chains
debate.

Output
By combining both gender and value chain expertise the meeting aims to produce:

      Well consolidated arguments on why gender in value chains is an important
       field of work bringing together both business and social equity rationales. The
       discussion will focus on where these arguments converge and differ and how
       we can bridge between them. As such we aim – in the pre- meeting - to draft
       the chapters on business and rights-based arguments for gender and value
       chains to be included in the book.

     From these arguments we will identify the key concepts that need to be
      addressed / are at play in gender in value chain work. The objective of the
      pre-meeting is to unpack / unravel these concepts and formulate underlying
      issues and strategies that should be included in the write shop process. As
      such we will use the meeting to - by exploring and comparing each others’
      experiences - jointly draw up a set of criteria to invite (case) experiences to
      the write shop.

In sum: the output of the pre meeting will be draft chapters covering rights-based
and business arguments as well as clear criteria for case selection and to refine
thinking as to the types of strategies worthwhile exploring further in the writeshop.




APF 3-9203 100426                                                                         7
Participants
A maximum of 20 participants are invited to the pre-meeting which include:
    APF members (2 representatives per organization combining gender and VC
      expertise): ICCO, Cordaid, KIT, Both Ends, HIVOS, Oxfam Novib, WUR
    2 – 4 international experts: Linda Mayoux (gender consultant) or Grania
      Mackie (ILO); Karin Astrid Siegmann (ISS). Suggested value chain experts
      are: Peter Knorringa (ISS); Gary Gereffi (Duke Univeristy); David Gibbon
      (DIIS); Stefano Ponte (DIIS).
    International members of the APF gender network: USAID (ACDI/VOCA),
      DISK and IFAD.

Preparation
The pre-meeting will be based on the earlier work done within APF on the conceptual
framework as well as bring in some of the ongoing experiences from actual cases.
Also a literature review will feed into it.

Cases
The APF members are to bring in their experiences (i.e. link to cases they work on).
Each case holder is asked to write up (maximum of two pages) the essence of the
case experience so far focusing on:

      Arguments behind the cases;
      Involved users / stakeholders
      Issues dealt with and strategies applied
      Outcomes positive and negative so far.

Literature review
Based on ‘delicious’ and gender/certification literature compiled to date, KIT will draft
a literature review chapter in May 2010. All internet-accessible literature collected
will be made available on http://www.delicious.com/tag/apf_gender capturing name,
title and publication date plus a short excerpt. CIDIN students will work on a draft
annotated bibliography to support the literature review and will write use the write-
ups as excerpts on the delicious, where applicable. They will also re-organise the
current delicious.

Input international experts
Four international experts will each be asked to write a short (2 page) paper that
captures their perspective on gender and value chains, focusing in particular on the
arguments for bringing the fields together.

Wrap up: July 1st
After the pre-meeting the steering group will work together for an additional day to
review the 17 APF cases, develop writing guidelines for authors, and identify
potential participants. Agreements as to authorship, copyright, funding, venue, and
other practical matters must also be communicated by this time.




APF 3-9203 100426                                                                       8
Annex 3: Towards a Theoretical Framework
Many activities have fed the APF learning on gender and value chains at several
levels. Conceptually, through regular discussion and meetings, the steering
committee has begun to build a framework that brings together a model for value
chain analysis developed by the Royal Tropical Institute (KIT) and key elements of
gender analysis (see below). Over the past year, APF members have compiled 17
cases for action-learning, documented through brief overviews that describe plans
and actions underway: most of these are not yet well-documented. Literature has
been collected on a Delicious; and a ning and wiki centralize discussions and
learning. In addition, separate projects run parallel to the APF trajectory e.g. the
Global Standards Initiative, which is a collaboration between Oxfam-Novib, Hivos,
KIT and Solidaridad. These activities together provide a strong basis for learning and
understanding this complex theme.

The APF trajectory on gender identified four dimensions in gender and value chain
analysis: two that focus on the chain itself (thus – internal to the chain); and two
focus on the context in which the chain activities take place (external).


 Vertical integration into chain
                                                       Internal
 Horizontal integration into chain

 Gender dynamics in household and community
                                                       External
 Institutional context: rules, norms and values


The framework has been elaborated into analytical questions that aim to deepen
understanding:

 Vertical integration             What activities do women and men in the chain do?
 into chain                       What benefits do women and men gain?
 Horizontal                       Who determines the conditions under which these
 integration                       activities are done and benefits are gained and
 into chain                        distributed?
                                  How do changes in the first two dimensions affect the
 Gender dynamics in                gender division of labour, assets and decision-making
 household and                     within the household?
 community                        How do the changes in the first two dimensions affect
                                   the gender dynamics within the community?
                                  Which economic, political and social factors enable or
 Institutional context:            constrain women’s empowerment on the other three
 rules, norms and                  dimensions?
 values                           How do changes in the first two dimensions influence
                                   the institutional context?

The framework and guiding questions were used by consultants in the gender and
certification work to compare and analyse cases, with good results. However, a more
comprehensive theoretical framework needs to be developed with input from both
gender and value chain experts.




APF 3-9203 100426                                                                           9
Annex 4: Provisional structure for the writeshop book

Working title:
Embedding Gender in value chain thinking: concepts and strategic choices

NOTE: Throughout the chapters of the book, women’s and men’s stories and
experiences with gender issues in value chains will be included. These testimonials
will be short boxes that bring to life the issues, concepts and arguments developed in
the book though the words and experiences of the entrepreneurs, farmers, traders or
processors involved.

Introduction
   -    Background
   -    Framework used
   -    Writeshop process
   -    Structure of the book

Literature Review (drafted by KIT)
   - grey, academic and online literature available
   - derive guiding concepts

Making the Case (drafted at the pre-meeting with expert input)
   - Social justice argument
   - Business Case

Strategies
           i.     Damage Control
           ii.    Certification – gender standards
           iii.   Women-only chains and brands
           iv.    Sensitizing and involving men
           v.     Capacity development and leadership training for women
           vi.    Investing in technologies to support/ease women’s work
           vii.   Collaboration with local organization working on gender (PO level)

Choosing a strategy and showing their impact (cases)

Tools
   -    what tools are being used already or could be used to address gender?
   -    GALS
   -    Certification

What can tools do and what not? (cases)

Conclusions and recommendations




APF 3-9203 100426                                                                  10

								
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