k h XLA nswer the following

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					                                     DO NOT HAND IN THIS PORTION OF THE TEST
Physiology 1                                        Test 3 - Part I                                     Fall 2000
1.   With the exception of immunoglobulins, most plasma proteins are synthesized in the
     a)    flat bone marrow
     b)    liver
     c)    long bone marrow
     d)    spleen
     e)    thymus
2.   Protein in plasma is the most abundant by weight but molarity is determined by the number of particles which
     is contributed to the most by ___________________ in plasma.
               +
     a)    Ca
     b)    glucose
     c)    hemoglobin
            +
     d)    K
              +
     e)    Na
3.   The heme portion of hemoglobin contains the iron molecules and is referred to as
     a)    a paraprotein.
     b)    a prosthetic group.
     c)    a protoprotein.
     d)    a pseudoprotein.
     e)    the pigment portion.
4.   Blood cells are derived from stem cells called
     a)    hemocytes.
     b)    pluripotent stem cells.
     c)    procytes.
     d)    thymocytes.
     e)    universal stem cells.
5.   The number of red blood cells is regulated by
     a)    erythrocyetin
     b)    erythrohometin
     c)    erythropoietin
     d)    erythropoten
     e)    erythrostatin

                       P X r4
          Flow = k ------------------
                         XL
Answer the following questions about Poiseulle’s equation above. The answers are a) True, b) False
6.   In P the important value is the absolute pressure and not the pressure difference between two points.
7.   Flow refers to net diffusion flow.
8.   The terms  and L are directly proportional to the resistance.
9.   The term      r4 is exponentially proportional to the flow.
10. The most important determinant of blood flow is P.




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Physiology 1                                             Test 3                                                Fall 2000

Matching: Using the figure below, match the tracing of the relative membrane permeability during the cardiac
action potential with the following answers to questions 11-13: a) potassium ion, b) calcium ion, c) chloride ion,
d) sodium ion, e) phosphate ion.




11. ______
12. ______
13. ______
      Comparisons: The answer is “a” if the answer on the left is the greater, “b” if the answer on the right is the
      greater and “c” if the answers are the same.
                                   Left                                                     Right
14.      Importance of parasympathetic nervous system in          Importance of sympathetic nervous system in
         regulating blood vessel diameter                         regulating blood vessel diameter
15.      Role of arterial baroreceptors in regulating venous      Role of arterial baroreceptors in regulating mean
         pressure                                                 arterial pressure
16.      The role of extrinsic factors in effecting the stroke    The role of intrinsic factors in effecting the stroke
         volume                                                   volume
17.      Increased venous return by increased ventilation         Increased venous return by increased skeletal
                                                                  muscle pump action




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Physiology 1                                          Test 3                                             Fall 2000

The answers to questions 18 - 22 are: a) True, b) False
18. The intrapleural fluid separates the pleural membrane from the thoracic wall _____
19. Ventilation is the exchange of air between the atmosphere and alveoli _____
20. The less compliant the lungs the less energy is required for a given amount of expansion _____
21. As the thorax enlarges then it moves slightly away from the lung surface and the intrapleural fluid becomes
    more subatmospheric, the lung wall is pulled in and air rushes in _____
22. About 3 % of the total body expenditure even during heavy exercise goes for breathing in healthy people
    _____
    In reference to the oxyghemoglobin dissociation curve the answers to questions 21 - 24 are: a) shifts the
    curve to the left, b) shifts the curve to the right, c) does not effect the shape of the curve
23. _____ decrease in temperature
24. _____ decrease in pH
25. _____ increase in 2,3-diphosphoglycerate
26. _____ carbonic acid saturation occurs
27. CO2 + H2O 
               -    +
    a)   HCO3 + H
         HCO3  H H2CO3
              -     +
    b)
    c)   H2CO3
         H2CO3  HCO3 + H
                       -  +
    d)
    e)   none of these
28. Vertebrates breath to
    a)   get oxygen.
    b)   get rid of carbon dioxide.
    c)   control plasma pH.
    d)   maintain the subatmospheric condition of the intraplural fluid.
    e)   maintain the mean arterial pressure.
29. Carbonic anhydrase is a(n)
    a)   structural protein.
    b)   enzyme.
    c)   allosteric protein.
    d)   hormone.
    e)   b and c are correct




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Physiology 1                                          Test 3                                        Fall 2000




30. Referring to the unlabeled diagram above having to do with oxygen and hemoglobin, what would be the most
    logical label for the X axis?
    a)   % oxyhemoglobin saturation
    b)   % saturation of hemoglobin with carbon dioxide
    c)   % saturation of hemoglobin with oxygen
    d)   partial pressure of oxygen in mmHg
    e)   the % oxygen tension in mmHg
31. The part of the curve indicated by the two arrows in the diagram above is called what?
    a)   acceleration phase
    b)   equilibrium phase
    c)   hemoglobin dissociation phase
    d)   plateau phase
    e)   saturation phase
32. The characteristic shape of the unlabeled diagram above is due to the fact that hemoglobin is
    a)   an enzyme.
    b)   a transport protein.
    c)   an allosteric protein.
    d)   a hormone.
    e)   respiratory pigment.
33. The rate and depth of ventilation (breathing) is based primarily on monitoring
    a)   oxygen.
    b)   hemoglobin.
    c)   carbon dioxide.
    d)   hydrogen ion concentration.
    e)   bicarbonate.
34. Which of the following is NOT a factor that stimulates ventilation during exercise?
    a)   proprioceptors
    b)   body temperature
    c)   circulating plasma epinephrine
    d)   baroreceptors of cardiovascular system
    e)   parasympathetic adrenergic pneumastic factor




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Physiology 1                                             Test 3                                               Fall 2000

Comparisons: The answer is “a” if the answer on the left is the greater, “b” if the answer on the right is the greater
   and “c” if the answers are the same.
                                     Left                                                    Right
35.        Tubular secretion being from peritubular capillary to   Tubular reabsorption being from peritubular capillary
           tubular lumen                                           to tubular lumen
36.        The ultraflitrate formed in Bowman’s capsule being      The ultraflitrate formed in Bowman’s capsule
           free of formed elements                                 containing formed elements
37.        The distal tubule leading into the descending loop of   The proximal tubule leading into the descending
           Henle                                                   loop of Henle
38.        The juxtaglomerular apparatus having to do with the     The juxtaglomerular apparatus having to do with the
           secretion of renin                                      secretion of erythropoeitin
39. Micturition is a _________________________ which can be altered by descending pathways from the brain
      a)       sympathetic spinal reflex
      b)       autonomic afferent reflex
      c)       somatic spinal reflex
      d)       parasympathetic spinal reflex
      e)       somatic cerebellar reflex
           +              +
40. Na filtered - Na reabsorbed =
                 +
      a)       Na excreted
                 +
      b)       Na secreted
                 +
      c)       Na egressed
                 +
      d)       Na exudated
      e)       none of these answers are correct
                                                                                                                +
41. In the kidney, water is reabsorbed by ____________________ and is dependent on the transport of Na and
      -
    Cl
      a)       primary active transport
      b)       secondary active transport
      c)       facilitated diffusion
      d)       passive diffusion (osmosis)
      e)       hygroscopy
      Comparisons: The answer is “a” if the answer on the left is the greater, “b” if the answer on the right is the
      greater and “c” if the answers are the same.
                                   Left                                                   Right
42.        The role of carbonic anhydrase in carbon dioxide        The role of carbonic anhydrase in oxygen transport
           transport
43.        ADH (vasopressin) effect on water retention             ADH (vasopressin) effect on sodium transport
44.        The response of ADH being all-or-none                   The response of ADH being graded
45.        Aldosterone increasing tubular sodium reabsorption      Aldosterone increasing tubular potassium secretion
46.        Parathyroid hormone acting upon calcium deposits        Parathyroid hormone acting upon renal tubular Ca
                                                                                                                         2+

           in bone matrix                                          reabsorption




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 Name:__________________________________________                      Objective   Problems   Essays        Total
                                                                          /40       /10        /25           /75
Physiology 1                                       Test 3 - Part II                                       Fall 2000

Problems: Show your work including unit cancellations, where appropriate. No work, no credit.
Percent = part/whole * 100
cardiac output (l/min) = heart rate (bt/min) X stroke volume (l/bt)
pulse pressure = systole - diastole (mmHg)
mean arterial pressure = diastole + (1/3 X pulse pressure)
minute ventilation = breathing rate (brth/min) X tidal volume (ml/brth)
alveolar ventilation = breathing rate (ml/min) X (tidal volume - dead space)

                          V(ml/min) x U (mg/ml)
Clearance of X (ml/min)= --------------------------
                                 P (mg/ml)
There are 60 minutes in an hour, 24 hours in a day.
V=urine volume/minute, U=urine concentration of substance X, P=plasma concentration of substance


1. If the cardiac output of someone is 7.84 liters/min and their stroke volume is 95 ml/beat? 2 points
2. What is the diastolic pressure of someone with a mean arterial pressure of 120 mmHg, and a pulse pressure
   of 75? 2 points
3. A person has a tidal volume of 520 ml/breath. Their anatomic dead space is 140 ml/breath. They are
   breathing at 13 breaths/min. What is the actual amount of air that is available to be exchanged in the alveoli
   per minute? 2 points
4. What is the clearance of a substance given the following data: a) urine production of 1,544 ml/day, b) the urine
   concentration of the substance is 0.38 mg/ml and c) the plasma concentration of the substance is 0.014
   mg/ml. 2 points
5. Each cigarette a person smokes shortens their life span. Based on the following information, how long is that
   time per cigarette (units should be minutes/cigarette)? Given that, in a certain population, smokers live an
   average of 65 years and nonsmokers 75 years how much time is taken off the smoker's life span per cigarette
   if they smoke an average of 2 packs a day starting when they were 15 years old? For you nonsmokers, there
   are 20 cigarettes in a pack. Assume 365 days/year. Show all your work including unit cancellations. 3 points
6. The radius of an arteriole is 0.25 mm. The radius constricts to 0.2 mm. What is the percent change in
   radius? What is the magnitude of the decrease in the flow given that all other factors remain the same? 2
   points




                                                                                                                    6
Physiology 1                                             Test 3                                             Fall 2000

Essays: These questions are expected to be answered using complete sentences and correct grammar.
Abbreviations should be defined the first time they are used.

1. Describe the extrinsic control of the stroke volume. 5 points
2. What is the major determinant of blood flow and why? Be very clear in your explanation. Use an example if
   necessary. 5 points
3. Finish the equation below and discuss its significance in respiration. 5 points
     C02 + H20 
4.   Describe the forces that effect the formation of the glomerular ultrafiltrate. 5 points
5.   Describe the physiological significance of the structure of the kidney including the tubular and vascular
     components of the nephron. Be sure to include a discussion of the renal portal system. 5 points




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