Firebuilding

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					                                    Fire Building
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:
 Know the different types of fires
 Know when to use each type
 Know how to make a good fire
 Know the different types of wood and what each is used for
 Know the different uses for each type of fire

MATERIALS:
 White board/flip-chart
 Markers (dry erase/sharpie)
 Wood

DISCOVERY:
 Do you all know what fires are for?
 What are the different types of fires and when do you use them?
 What are the two different types of wood?
 What are the three sizes of wood used in building a fire?

TEACHING/LEARNING:
 Fire is used for many things- heat, cooking, light, and signaling are some of the most
  common uses
 There are three sizes of wood that should be used when building a fire- tinder,
  kindling, and fuel
 Tinder=catches fire easily and burns fast- ex. Bark, wood shavings, dried pine needles
 Kindling=small dead twigs that are no thicker than a pencil- get enough to fill your
  hat twice
 Fuel= as thin as your finger or as thick as your wrist, should be dry and gathered from
  a wide area
 There are also two types of wood that are used when building fires
 Softwoods= pine, fir, cedar, spruce and other conifers (cone producing) trees
 Benefit of softwood is that they are easier to light and the flame will catch and grow
  sooner
 Problem with softwood is that it will burn too fast and smoke, leaving nothing but
  ashes
 Hardwood= oak, walnut, and maple are just some examples
 Benefit of hardwood is that it is long lasting when it burns and will leave a nice bed
  of coals for cooking
 Problem with hardwood is that it is hard to light and doesn’t spread as fast
 Start a fire off with a little softwood to get it going and then add the hardwood for
  durability and warmth
 The three main types of fires are the tepee, lean-to, and log cabin
 The tepee fire is used for light and sometimes signaling
 Because the fire is burning all around, it spreads the light evenly
 Set it up with some tinder in a small pile, then begin leaning the kindling against itself
    around the tinder in 2-3 layers leaving enough room for the match to get in to light
    the tinder. Repeat the same thing with the fuel in 2 layers thick enough so that the fire
    would burn easily. Light the fire from the bottom so the air flow will spread the
    flames upward.
   The lean-to fire is used for warmth because it points all of the heat in 1 direction
   It can be used when sleeping out under the stars or when camping alone or with one
    or two people
   Begin again with a small pile of tinder in front of a small log. Then lean some
    kindling over the tinder against the log about 2 layers thick. Then lean your fuel
    above the kindling on the log and light the tinder from the side.
   The log cabin fire is used for cooking and signaling
   The fire will leave a large bead of coals in a central area and will keep the coals
    heated.
   Start with a small pile of tinder and kindling between two logs. Then add your fuel in
    an alternating criss-cross pattern. You may choose to make a platform at the top with
    a small tepee on it to help the fire get going. Light the fire from the bottom, again so
    the wind and airflow will carry the flames upward.
   LEAVE NO TRACE

APPLICATION:
 Skill Game

EVALUATION:
 Go over any mistakes the patrol may have made during the skill game
 Recap on the types of wood and sizes
 Remind them of the leave no trace and fire safety

				
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posted:9/16/2012
language:English
pages:2