24.0 Analyze the interaction between
environmental and natural resource sciences
Products from commercial trees
Nuts and fruits
Oils, decorations, extracts
Resins, gums, turpentine
Mulch, tannin, drugs, oils, dyes
Veneer, charcoal, pitch, pine oil
Paper, paper products, wall boards
Lumber, bolts, timber, wastes, ties
Forest Regions of the United States
Northern Coniferous Forest
Softwoods, between Canada and the U.S. borders are soft and
hardwoods. Region has swamps, rivers, lakes and marshes. The
climate is cold, this is the largest forest in North America. Trees
that dominate are evergreens and pulpwood trees. Species of
importance include white spruce, Sitka spruce, black spruce, jack
pine, black pine, tamarack and western hemlock
Northern Hardwoods Forest
Region reaches from Southeastern Canada to New England to the
northern Appalachian Mountains. It is populated by beech, maple,
hemlock and birch trees
Central Broad-leaved forest
Located east of the Mississippi river, a farming region mostly owned
by private entities. Wood of high quality is produced here, hardwoods
such as maple, beech, hickory, oak, poplar, gum, walnut, cherry, ash,
cottonwood and sycamore.
In the southeast portion of the United States (covers Delaware to
Florida and Oklahoma to Texas) It is the forest with the most
potential for reaching future lumber needs. Conifers are the most
important trees in this forest, including Virginia, long leaf, loblolly,
shortleaf and slash pines. Hardwoods included are Oak, Poplar, maple
Bottomland Hardwoods Forest
Found along the Mississippi River, contains mostly hardwood
trees, the soil is highly fertile which hardwoods such as oak,
tupelo and cypress thrive in.
Pacific Coast Forest
California, Oregon and Washington also the most productive
forest in the United States. Douglas Fir, Ponderosa Pine,
hemlock, western red cedar, Sitka Spruce, sugar pine, and noble
fir are some of the conifers found in this region. Important
hardwoods are Oak, cottonwood, maple and alder
Rocky Mountain Forest
Much less productive than the other forests in North America.
Western Pines are the trees of commercial value including
western white pine, lodge pole pine and ponderosa pine. Aspen
is the only hardwood grown in this area of commercial
Located in Southern Texas and Florida. Major trees in this forest
are Mahogany, mangrove and Bay which are all unimportant
commercially, but ecologically important.
The wet forest region grows ohia, boa, tree fern, kuka, tropical
ash, mamani and eucalyptus. These woods are used in the
production of furniture and novelties.
Relationship between forests and other
Forests play important roles in the water cycle
As water circulates from oceans to rivers to lakes, the forest filters the rain
as it falls and serve as storage areas. A forest regulates water flow, making it
possible for fish and other animal and plant life to survive
Forests filter rain and help reduce the erosion of soils
Trees and shrubs are responsible for removing much of the pollutant
materials from the air and water run off. They also help reduce the harmful
effects of excess fertilizer that enters underground water systems.
Forests and living organisms have many relationships
Algae, fungi, mosses, and other plants make their homes in the forest.
Forests also provide shelter, food, protection and nesting sites for many
species of birds and fish. Shade provided by the forest maintains proper
water temperatures for the growth and reproduction of aquatic life.
Forests and wildlife relationships greatly vary
Depending on species, the wildlife in each forest region varies due to climate
and harvesting times
Important types and species of trees in
the United States
Eastern and Western Hemlock
Eastern Red and White Cedar, Western Red Cedar
Important types and species of trees in
the United States
Tree Growth and Physiology
Trees use carbon dioxide and water to do what?
Manufacture simple sugars in their leaves which use additional carbon dioxide,
oxygen, hydrogen to convert simple sugars into complex sugars and starches.
Nitrogen and minerals found in the soil are used to manufacture proteins which
are the building blocks for growth and reproduction.
How does a new tree grow?
Seeds, stumps, roots, tree parts
Roots and Shoots
Extend through cell division and elongation. Tree roots, stems and trunks grow in
diameter by adding cell layers near their outer surfaces. This growth is called the
cambium and can be seen as the rings in a cross-section of tree.
Water and Minerals
Water and minerals are taken up through the xylem which is located just inside of
the cambium. Outside of the cambium is the phloem or inner bark which carries
food manufactured in the leaves to the rest of the tree. Each year the tree grows
new xylem, phloem and cambium as well as heartwood. Heartwood is the inactive
core that gives the tree strength and rigidity.
Properties of wood
Ease of working
Paint and nail holding
What is a woodlot?
What must be considered when managing one?
How are they restocked?
Is it time and labor intensive?
How are harvests planned?
How are they protected?
How is lumber seasoned?
Tree Part Collection
Collect 10 different trees. Include leaves, seeds, and branches. Label
and note where they were found. (handout)
Go the following website: http://www.fs.fed.us/r3/asnf/ navigate
around the page and do the following:
Find the “contact us” link – send an email explaining what you have learned and
that you would like to come learn in the forest.
Find the “volunteering” link – what can you do to volunteer?
Check out the site, is it easy to navigate? What is interesting to you? What
would you like to do?
Apache-Sitgreaves Field Trip
Travel to Glenwood and identify the trees as well as visit with a
Agriscience Text Book Unit 10 Forestry Management