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Sport Pilot Training Program by Y8AeAhA8

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									Pre-Solo Training Module



            Flight Briefing: Lesson 10
            Emergency Procedures



            In cooperation with Mid Island Air
            Service, Inc. Brookhaven, NY
            (Michael Bellenir, CFI)
Lesson 10 Objectives

   During this briefing, you will learn the procedures
    for dealing with different emergencies, most
    notably, engine failures. You will learn how to
    cope with in-flight engine abnormalities, engine
    failures, other system failures, and fires.
   Upon completion of this briefing, you will
    demonstrate proper response to various
    simulated in-flight emergencies.

                            Flight Briefing: Lesson 10
Detecting Abnormalities

   It is rare for an emergency situation to arise
    without any warning whatsoever. Learning
    how to detect an abnormality before it
    becomes an emergency is an important skill
    that will help you enhance the safety of flight.
   If you can detect and correct an abnormal
    situation before it gets out of control and
    becomes an emergency, you can take
    corrective action to prevent an emergency.

                             Flight Briefing: Lesson 10
Emergency Prevention

   Obviously, the best way to avoid an emergency is to
    actively do your best to prevent one.
   Make sure you always do a complete and thorough
    preflight inspection.
   Always complete the proper flight planning.
   Know your personal limitations and do not exceed
    them.
   Make an active effort to prevent complacency,
    regardless of your experience.
   Keep current on emergency procedures throughout
    your flying career; practice them regularly and keep the
    procedures fresh in your mind for all the aircraft you fly.
                                 Flight Briefing: Lesson 10
Detecting Abnormalities

   Use all of your senses while you are flying.
    At this point in your training you’ve learned
    (perhaps subconsciously) how the airplane
    sounds, feels, and even smells during normal
    operations.
   Any sense that is abnormal is cause for
    further investigation.


                           Flight Briefing: Lesson 10
Investigating Abnormalities

   Once one of your senses detects an
    abnormality, you can use your other senses
    to help further identify the cause:
    –   An unusual smell will trigger your eyes to look for
        the source, etc.
    –   Check aircraft system gauges
            Fuel quantity and pressure, oil and engine temperatures,
             oil pressure, electrical system output, circuit
             breakers/fuses, etc.


                                       Flight Briefing: Lesson 10
Aircraft System Abnormalities

   A problem with an aircraft system can range
    from an insignificant malfunction to cause for
    an immediate emergency landing.
   It will not be possible to train you for every
    possible circumstance.
   Your emergency procedures training will
    concentrate on emergency procedures for the
    most serious emergencies, as well as the
    decision making process that you will be able
    to use in any situation.
                               Flight Briefing: Lesson 10
Emergency Procedures Training

 In an emergency, you can do whatever is necessary to meet
    the needs of the emergency.
 FAA: 91.3 Responsibility and Authority of Pilot in Command
 – 91.3(a) The pilot in command of an aircraft is directly responsible
    for, and is the final authority as to, the operation of that aircraft.
 – 91.3(b) In an in-flight emergency requiring immediate action, the
    pilot in command may deviate from any rule of this part to the
    extent required to meet that emergency.
 – 91.3(c) Each pilot in command who deviates from a rule under
    paragraph (b) of this section shall, upon the request of the
    Administrator, send a written report of that deviation to the
    Administrator.
                                    Flight Briefing: Lesson 10
Engine Failures

   There are a variety of engine failures a pilot must
    be prepared to handle. Though reliable, engines
    can quit at any time or in any phase of flight. It
    could be a sudden failure, or a gradual power
    loss. The most critical failure is the sudden
    failure at low altitude.
   Regardless of engine failure type, the initial
    procedure is the same: Pitch for best glide
    speed, and trim to maintain best glide speed.

                            Flight Briefing: Lesson 10
Step 1: Best Glide Speed

   Best glide speed is the airspeed at which the lift
    to drag ratio of the airplane is maximized.
   In the SportStar, best glide occurs at 57 knots.
   Best glide speed will provide you with two very
    important things:
    –   Maximum range without power, which will give you the
        most options for selecting an emergency landing site; and
    –   Maximum time in the air, which will give you the most
        available time to complete the engine failure procedure and
        prepare for an emergency landing.
                                   Flight Briefing: Lesson 10
Maximum Range

   To get the most range/time aloft out of the
    airplane, it is important to not only maintain
    best glide speed, but also to reduce the drag
    on the airplane to a minimum.
     – Close the canopy
     – Retract the flaps




                            Flight Briefing: Lesson 10
Step 2: Emergency Landing Site
Selection

   Once best glide is established, you need to select a landing site and
    start heading toward it.
   Try to pick an area free of people and obstructions, with as much
    space to land as possible. If several options appear to be available,
    you want (best to worst):
     –   A runway, paved or grass
     –   A field with short grass/vegetation or packed dirt
     –   Open road with no traffic or obstructions
     –   A field with medium-tall vegetation or plowed dirt
     –   Sand
     –   Water
     –   Highway/median (traffic permitting only)
     –   Trees
   You never want to attempt an emergency landing in a populated
    area. You are better off trying to land in tree tops than in a
    neighborhood.                       Flight Briefing: Lesson       10
Emergency Landing Site Selection

   If the engine failure occurs shortly after takeoff, time to
    select an emergency landing field is extremely limited.
    If time is not sufficient to select and maneuver to an
    emergency landing field, the best course of options is to
    continue straight ahead, maneuvering as necessary to
    avoid large obstacles, and crash land under control.
   Regardless of where you land, you are better off landing
    under control than losing control while attempting to
    aggressively maneuver around obstacles. Even if you
    hit something, if impact is under control, the airplane
    structure is designed to give you some protection. If you
    impact out of control, the aircraft structure may not be
    able to provide you enough impact protection.
                                 Flight Briefing: Lesson 10
Emergency Landing Philosophy

   In the event of an emergency, you should by all
    means consider the aircraft expendable. Your
    task as pilot in command is to prevent or
    minimize injuries to yourself, your passengers,
    and those on the ground.
   At this point, the insurance company already
    owns the airplane. You have just borrowed it
    from them. Don’t try to do them any favors by
    attempting to save the airplane!
                              Flight Briefing: Lesson 10
Emergency Landing After Takeoff

   In some cases, it may be possible to make a 180 degree
    turn back to the departure runway after takeoff if the
    engine quits on climb out.
    –   Unless you are absolutely sure you have enough altitude to
        accomplish the maneuver and land safely (500 ft. absolute
        minimum), DO NOT ATTEMPT IT.
    –   Turning around successfully at low altitude requires near perfect
        flying technique; lower nose, medium bank.
    –   Turning around requires more than 180 degrees of turn. You
        have to do a 180, and then correct back to centerline, resulting in
        approximately 270 degrees of turn.
    –   If you do this, you are now landing with a tailwind. This
        maneuver might not be possible on short runways.
                                      Flight Briefing: Lesson 10
Emergency Landing After Takeoff

   Before you can consider a 180 degree turn back
    to the runway, you must have practiced this
    maneuver at altitude, and determined your exact
    altitude loss.
   Then, add about a 50% safety margin, to
    account for the fact that it takes precious
    seconds to recognize what has happened and
    react.
   If in doubt, land straight ahead.
                               Flight Briefing: Lesson 10
Gliding to Landing Site

   Once you’ve selected an emergency landing site,
    turn toward it and trim the airplane to glide
    toward it at best glide speed.
   Start planning your approach to the landing site
    considering wind, terrain, obstacles, and
    approach paths.
   Only after you’ve got the airplane heading toward
    an emergency landing field and under control,
    you can try to troubleshoot the problem.
                              Flight Briefing: Lesson 10
Trouble-Shooting/Engine Out Checklist

   The Engine Failure Checklist is designed to
    be memorized so that you can accomplish it
    quickly without needing to find it on paper.
   The Flow: to help you memorize the checklist
    items in addition to making trouble-shooting
    faster, the items on the check list progress
    sequentially in a path that you can easily
    commit to memory. This is called a “flow.”

                           Flight Briefing: Lesson 10
The “Flow” Emergency Checklist
   Start the checklist with the fuel selectors on the floor, then work up
    and over to the left:
     –   Fuel Selector – switch tanks, or select BOTH if available
     –   Throttle-SET (mid-range)
     –   Ignition Switches-CHECK ON
     –   Fuel Pump-ON
     –   Choke-OFF
     –   Starter-If the propeller has stopped completely, engage the starter to
         attempt a re-start. If the propeller is wind-milling, engaging the starter
         is not necessary (theoretically, you can try anyway).
   If the engine still does not restart, continue preparing for an
    emergency landing. If time permits, leave the engine controls such
    that the engine can restart if conditions allow.
   Remember to maintain best glide airspeed during restart attempt.
                                            Flight Briefing: Lesson 10
Attempting the Restart

   The “Flow” will help you restart the engine as soon as possible if
    it is possible to restart the engine.
   The engine may be difficult to restart at altitudes above 4,000
    feet because of lower air pressure. If an attempted restart is
    necessary above 4,000 feet, try at first with the choke off, if that
    is not successful try different choke settings or wait until the
    aircraft is below 4,000 feet.
   If you start getting close to your emergency landing site and the
    engine will not restart, secure the engine to minimize the chance
    of a post-landing fire.
   If there is an engine fire, fuel leak, or any circumstance you
    determine will be unsafe to attempt a restart, do not
    troubleshoot; go straight to the securing engine procedure.

                                       Flight Briefing: Lesson 10
Securing the Engine

   To reduce chances of a post-landing fire or to attempt
    to put out an in-flight fire, follow the engine securing
    drill. The securing drill runs in the same “flow” as the
    engine troubleshooting/restart checklist, except to
    secure, turn equipment off instead of on.
    –   Fuel selector - OFF
    –   Throttle-IDLE
    –   Ignition switches - BOTH OFF
    –   Fuel pump-OFF
    –   Choke-OFF

                                   Flight Briefing: Lesson 10
Preparing for Emergency Landing

   Once the engine is secure, prepare yourself,
    passenger, and the airplane for the emergency
    landing.
    –   Seats and seatbelts-Secure
    –   Canopy-Closed and latched
    –   Declare an emergency if possible
            On emergency frequency 121.50, or with any ATC facility.
            “Mayday, mayday, mayday,” then give your position, the
             nature of your emergency, and intentions. If possible, include
             the number of people on board and fuel remaining in your
             transmission.
            Set transponder to the emergency code 7700, if time permits.
                                          Flight Briefing: Lesson 10
Other Emergencies

   Fire
   Electrical System Failure
   VFR into IMC
   Medical Emergency
   Flight Control jam
    Exact procedures vary between aircraft. Consult
    your Pilot’s Operating Handbook (POH) and
    emergency checklists; discuss with your
    instructor.             Flight Briefing: Lesson 10
In any emergency:

 Remain calm (or best attempt)
 Keep aircraft under control
 Consult emergency procedures checklist
  when possible
 In all cases, fly the airplane first!




                     Flight Briefing: Lesson 10
Review Questions
   What senses should you employ in detecting abnormalities?

   At what altitude should you attempt to return to the runway if you experience an
    engine failure on takeoff?

   What should you do if you are below that altitude?

   What is the name of the procedures you follow in the event of an engine failure in
    flight?

   What speed should you establish in the event of an engine failure?

   What is your first responsibility in an emergency?
Write down your answers before
continuing to next slide                    Flight Briefing: Lesson 10
 Review Answers
    What senses should you employ in detecting abnormalities?
       – All of them: sight, smell, sound, feel
    At what altitude should you attempt to return to the runway if you experience an
     engine failure on takeoff?
       – Never less than 500 feet AGL
    What should you do if you are below that altitude?
       – Land straight ahead
    What is the name of the procedures you follow in the event of an engine failure in
     flight?
       – Flow
    What speed should you establish in the event of an engine failure?
       – Best glide airspeed (57 knots in a SportStar)
    What is your first responsibility in an emergency? Prevent or minimize injuries
Review any missed questions before
continuing to today’s flight.               Flight Briefing: Lesson 10
 On Today’s Flight

    We will simulate engine failures at altitude (but
     not shut down the engine).
    You will establish best glide airspeed, select a
     suitable emergency landing site, and set up an
     approach to that site.
    On the way to a simulated emergency landing,
     you will walk through all the troubleshooting and
     engine restart procedures.
Thanks to Mid Island Air Service, Inc.
Brookhaven, NY (Michael Bellenir, CFI) Flight   Briefing: Lesson 10

								
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