Spring 08 P110 practice test 4 by oozEHOK

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									P110 Practice Test 4 Summer 2007

Multiple Choice
Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

____    1. Resistance refers to:
           a. unconsciously motivated attempts to subvert or hinder psychoanalysis
           b. conscious attempts to extend therapy sessions once insight has been achieved
           c. expressing thoughts and feelings toward the therapist that are representative of how the
               client actually feels about other people
           d. aggressive confrontation of irrational beliefs and negative thoughts
____    2. Generalized anxiety disorder involves:
           a. recurrent attacks of extremely intense fear or dread
           b. persistent and uncontrollable thoughts, accompanied by the compelling need to perform
               repetitive acts
           c. a highly focused, irrational fear of an object or situation
           d. excessive worrying that lasts for at least 6 months, and cannot be attributed to any single
               identifiable source
____    3. Lithium carbonate is most frequently used to treat:
           a. bipolar disorder
           b. depression
           c. schizophrenia
           d. anxiety disorders
____    4. Tara sometimes places herself into very strange positions, and then remains immobile for hours at a time. In this
           case, Tara is displaying symptoms of:
           a. obsessive-compulsive disorder
           b. catatonia
           c. bipolar disorder
           d. flattened affect
____    5. The stress that a person actually experiences in different situations is critically influenced by:
           a. the number of life change units the event involves
           b. the person's physical health when the stressor is present
           c. the overall magnitude of the stressful event
           d. the cognitive appraisal that the person makes
____    6. Whitney had been planning to see a psychotherapist to help her deal with her depression, but now she finds that
           her depression improved without the need for professional treatment. In this case, Whitney appears to have
           experienced:
           a. the placebo effect
           b. spontaneous remission
           c. avoidance conditioning
           d. personal insight
____    7. During the resistance phase of the general activation syndrome (GAS):
           a. the body adjusts its physiological reaction, in an effort to cope with the threat that is still
               present
           b. the body adjusts its psychological reaction, in an effort to cope with the threat that is still
               present
           c. the body's overall level of arousal is increased even further
           d. overall arousal levels return to normal levels
____    8. Anxiety disorders are a class of disorders characterized by:
           a. the separation of conscious awareness from previous thoughts or memories
           b. excessive apprehension that impairs normal functioning
           c. prolonged and disabling disruptions in emotional state
           d. chronic patterns of behavior that lead to significant impairments in social functioning
____    9. Cognitive therapies are designed to:
           a. uncover the unconscious motivations behind behavior
           b. help individuals gain insight into their own self-worth
           c. change negative thoughts and beliefs
           d. change unwanted or maladaptive behaviors
____   10. Theo has just had antidepressant medication prescribed. Theo should expect to experience relief from his
           symptoms of depression:
           a. within 2-3 hours of taking the drug for the first time
           b. within 24 hours of taking the drug for the first time
           c. after 3-4 days of taking the prescribed amount of the drug
           d. after 1-2 weeks of taking the prescribed amount of the drug
____   11. Among the most effective treatments for schizophrenia are medications that:
           a. act as dopamine antagonists
           b. act as dopamine agonists
           c. slow the reuptake of serotonin
           d. reduce the levels of serotonin in the brain
____   12. Transference refers to:
           a. unconsciously motivated attempts to subvert or hinder psychoanalysis
           b. conscious attempts to extend therapy sessions once insight has been achieved
           c. aggressive confrontation of irrational beliefs and negative thoughts
           d. expressing thoughts and feelings toward the therapist that are representative of how the
               client actually feels about other people
____   13. Randall hears disembodied voices all the time that give him commands. He has just finished preparing a UFO
           landing pad in his backyard for the aliens that the voices have told him are planning to invade the earth. In this
           case, it appears that the voices in Randall's head are:
           a. delusions
           b. hallucinations
           c. obsessions
           d. compulsions
____   14. An individual who had conversion disorder would:
           a. misinterpret normal bodily reactions as symptoms of a serious disease
           b. experience physical problems which seem to have no identifiable physical cause
           c. persistently be preoccupied with body symptoms that have no identifiable cause
           d. have recurrent attacks of extremely intense fear or dread
____   15. You make an appointment to see a therapist and, as you are waiting, you notice that a lot of the books on the
           therapist's shelves deal with the work of Carl Rogers. You might expect that this therapist will:
           a. use counterconditioning to reduce specific fears and anxieties
           b. emphasize the need to bring unconscious conflicts into conscious awareness
           c. help you recognize and change negative thoughts and maladaptive beliefs
           d. help you recognize discrepancies between your self-concept and your everyday
               experiences
____ 16. Obsessive-compulsive disorder involves:
         a. excessive worrying that lasts for at least 6 months, and that cannot be attributed to any
             single identifiable source
         b. recurrent attacks of extremely intense fear or dread
         c. persistent and uncontrollable thoughts, accompanied by the compelling need to perform
             repetitive acts
         d. a highly focused, irrational fear of an object or situation
____ 17. Post-traumatic stress disorder is:
         a. a trauma-based anxiety disorder characterized by flashbacks, avoidance behavior, and
             chronic arousal
         b. a syndrome that develops in certain people who are exposed to stressful situations that are
             demanding, but not necessarily traumatic
         c. a state of physical, emotional, and mental exhaustion caused by long-term involvement in
             emotionally demanding situations
         d. a psychological disorder characterized by uncontrollable thoughts, and the compelling
             need to perform repetitive acts
____ 18. Psychotherapists who take an eclectic approach:
         a. are willing to pick and choose from among treatment options
         b. generally use psychoactive drugs as the first step in a treatment program
         c. use behavioral therapies to treat depression and psychodynamic therapies to treat phobias
         d. use psychodynamic therapies to treat depression and cognitive therapies to treat phobias
____ 19. Criticisms of the medical model of psychological disorders include the idea that:
         a. some mental disorders have no well-defined or consistent physical cause
         b. the medical model sees many disorders as problems with living
         c. the medical model puts too much emphasis on cultural context
         d. behavioral symptoms allow reliable classification of many disorders
____ 20. Systematic desensitization is most likely to be used by a therapist who believes phobias:
         a. are learned fear responses
         b. reflect an overactive perceptual system
         c. reflect unconscious conflicts or traumas
         d. are the result of irrational thinking
____ 21. Somatoform disorders involve:
         a. excessive apprehension that impairs normal functioning
         b. psychological problems that focus on the physical body
         c. the separation of conscious awareness from previous thoughts or memories
         d. chronic patterns of behavior that lead to significant impairments in social functioning
____ 22. Schizophrenia has been linked to:
         a. an inadequate supply of dopamine
         b. an excess supply of dopamine
         c. an excess supply of norepinephrine
         d. an inadequate supply of norepinephrine
____ 23. Behavioral therapies are based on the assumption that some psychological disorders are a result of:
         a. irrational beliefs and negative thoughts
         b. unconscious impulses and memories
         c. unwanted or maladaptive behaviors
         d. an individual's poor self-concept and general lack of self-worth
____ 24. Personality disorders are a class of disorders characterized by:
         a. excessive apprehension that impairs normal functioning
         b. chronic patterns of behavior that lead to significant impairments in social functioning
         c. the separation of conscious awareness from previous thoughts or memories
         d. prolonged and disabling disruptions in emotional state
____ 25. The medical model of mental illness suggests that:
         a. all mental illnesses have biological origins
         b. all mental illnesses can be treated and cured using drug therapies
         c. abnormal behavior is symptomatic of an underlying disease that can be cured with the
             appropriate therapy
         d. the symptoms of psychological disorders will be the same across different cultures
____ 26. Schizophrenic disorders are a class of disorders characterized by:
         a. excessive apprehension that impairs normal functioning
         b. the separation of conscious awareness from previous thoughts or memories
         c. fundamental disturbances in thought processes, emotion, or behavior
         d. alternating among two or more distinct identities or personality states
____ 27. When Rosemary was seven years old, her older brother jumped out from a hiding spot and grabbed her
         unexpectedly, just as she was about to go upstairs. As an adult she is still terrified of stairs. Based on classical
         conditioning principles, a behavioral therapist would suggest the unconditioned stimulus behind Rosemary's
         phobia was:
         a. the fear and arousal she experienced when her brother grabbed her unexpectedly
         b. the set of stairs she was about to climb when she was grabbed unexpectedly
         c. her brother grabbing her unexpectedly
         d. the fear and anxiety that she now experiences when she thinks about stairs
____ 28. One of the criteria that is used to define abnormal behavior is cultural deviance. For a behavior to be considered
         culturally deviant it must:
         a. occur infrequently among the members of a population
         b. cause the individual to experience great despair and unhappiness
         c. violate the accepted standards of society
         d. prevent the individual from functioning well in typical daily activities
____ 29. A highly focused, irrational fear of an object or situation is likely to be classified as:
         a. generalized anxiety disorder
         b. specific phobic disorder
         c. panic disorder
         d. obsessive-compulsive disorder
____ 30. Psychoanalysis is based on the assumption that a trained therapist can help clients:
         a. understand their conscious impulses and memories
         b. understand which environmental conditions are maintaining maladaptive behavior
         c. discover the inappropriate thought patterns that underlie their behavior
         d. bring unconscious impulses and memories into conscious awareness
____ 31. Emma, age 14, is depressed. Her therapist believes not only Emma should receive therapy, but also her parents
         and siblings. Emma's therapist is probably:
         a. an existential therapist
         b. a behavioral therapist
         c. a Gestalt therapist
         d. a family therapist
____ 32. The DSM-IV-TR is a multiaxial classification system that is used to diagnose psychological disorders. The term
         "multiaxial" refers to the fact that:
         a. accurate diagnosis requires information from a number of separate areas
         b. an individual may be diagnosed with more than one psychological disorder using the
             DSM-IV-TR
         c. the DSM-IV-TR can be used for either top-down or bottom-up diagnosis of psychological
             disorders
         d. an individual must undergo assessment on at least two separate occasions before an
             accurate diagnosis can be made
____ 33. Drugs that are used to reduce the severity of the positive symptoms of schizophrenia are called:
         a. antipsychotic drugs
         b. antidepressant drugs
         c. antianxiety drugs
         d. antineurotic drugs
____ 34. Miranda has been taking a drug to control a psychological disorder. Some of the side effects that she has been
         experiencing include drowsiness, blurred vision, and tardive dyskinesia. In this case, it is likely that Miranda is
         being treated for:
         a. negative symptoms of schizophrenia
         b. positive symptoms of schizophrenia
         c. bipolar disorder
         d. an anxiety disorder
____ 35. Benzodiazepines are used to treat:
         a. anxiety disorders
         b. schizophrenia
         c. depression
         d. bipolar disorder
____ 36. A number of students often develop colds and other minor illnesses during final exam week. Based on the
         research into the physical responses to stress, this may happen because the stress of final exams:
         a. raises the level of lymphocytes in the students' blood
         b. lowers the level of cortisol in the students' blood
         c. raises the level of cholesterol in the students' blood
         d. lowers the level of lymphocytes in the students' blood
____ 37. The therapeutic technique designed to be totally supportive and nonjudgmental is:
         a. client-centered therapy
         b. rational-emotive therapy
         c. Beck's cognitive therapy
         d. existential therapy
____ 38. The body's fight-or-flight response is the adaptive response that occurs when:
         a. the parasympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system becomes activated
         b. the body's limbic system becomes activated
         c. the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system becomes activated
         d. the parasympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system shuts down
____ 39. Any behavior that occurs infrequently among the members of a population would be considered:
         a. functionally deviant
         b. dysfunctional
         c. emotionally distressing
         d. statistically deviant
____ 40. The three stages or phases in the general activation syndrome (GAS., described by Selye, are:
         a. arousal, plateau, and recovery
         b. alarm, resistance, and recovery
         c. excitement, plateau, and exhaustion
         d. alarm, resistance, and exhaustion
____ 41. Someone with a Type A personality would tend to be:
         a. self-satisfied, patient, and relaxed
         b. extroverted, open, and agreeable
         c. neurotic, introverted and impatient
         d. hard driving, ambitious, and impatient
____ 42. Hallucinations involve:
         a. thoughts with inappropriate content
         b. jumbled and incoherent speech
         c. perceptions that have no basis in external stimulation
         d. behaviors that are disorganized and bizarre
____ 43. Recurrent attacks of extremely intense fear or dread are likely to be classified as:
         a. generalized anxiety disorder
         b. obsessive-compulsive disorder
         c. panic disorder
         d. specific phobic disorder
____ 44. For weeks, Claire has mostly stayed in bed. Her mood is extremely negative, and she can't seem to force herself to
         do anything. Claire's problem is likely to be:
         a. dependent personality disorder
         b. major depressive episode
         c. dissociative fugue
         d. conversion disorder
____ 45. Thoughts with inappropriate content are called:
         a. delusions
         b. hallucinations
         c. obsessions
         d. compulsions
____ 46. Fluoxetine is one of the most commonly prescribed treatments for depression. This drug acts by:
         a. speeding up serotonin reuptake
         b. slowing the reuptake of serotonin
         c. reducing the levels of dopamine in the brain
         d. increasing the levels of dopamine in the brain
____ 47. Dissociative identity disorder involves:
         a. recurrent attacks of extremely intense fear or dread
         b. the inability to remember important personal information
         c. a loss of personal identity accompanied by escape or flight from the home environment
         d. alternating among two or more distinct identities or personality states
____ 48. Anatomical and brain-imaging studies have revealed that people with schizophrenia tend to have:
         a. larger ventricles in the brain
         b. smaller ventricles in the brain
         c. malformations in the occipital and temporal lobes
         d. fewer neurons that actively secrete serotonin
____ 49. Bipolar disorder involves:
         a. disordered mood shifts in two directions
         b. alternating among two or more distinct identities or personality states
         c. two separate psychological disorders being present in one individual
         d. chronic patterns of behavior that lead to significant impairments in social functioning
____ 50. The DSM-IV-TR is a multiaxial classification system that is used to diagnose psychological disorders. Any
         abnormal behaviors that may be present are classified using:
         a. Axis I and Axis II
         b. Axis III
         c. Axis IV and Axis V
         d. Axis X

_____51. A researcher is an attributional theorist. In his research, he is likely to investigate
            a. the conditions under which one person will help another person.
            b. the perception of the self.
            c. how attitudes are formed.
            d. people's perceptions of the causes of events.

_____ 52. While walking on campus one day you overhear a person make the remark, "All college professors are absentminded." This is
           an example of what psychologists would call
           a. in-group bias.
           b. racism.
           c. behavioral confirmation.
           d. a stereotype.

_____ 53. Cognitive dissonance can best be thought of as
           a. the self-fulfilling prophecy.
           b. groupthink.
           c. a state of conflict.
           d. norm crystallization.

_____ 54. A social psychologist is designing a study of altruism. The dependent variable in the study is most likely some measure of
            a. aggression.
            b. frustration-aggression.
            c. persuasion.
            d. helping behavior.

_____ 55. The "fundamental attribution error" is the tendency to
            a. attribute your personal successes to dispositional causes and your failures to situational causes.
            b. overuse situational attributions and underestimate dispositional forces when searching for causes.
            c. overuse dispositional attributions and underestimate situational forces when searching for causes.
            d. attribute your personal successes to situational causes and your failures to dispositional causes.

_____ 56. The research on people's willingness to help strangers in distress was inspired by
            a. research on the bystander intervention effect.
            b. the discovery of an altruism gene.
            c. the finding of altruistic behavior in various animal species.
            d. newspaper reports of an assault and murder of a woman.

_____ 57. The general goal of health psychology is to
            a. use psychological knowledge to promote wellness and positive health behaviors.
            b. use the principles of medicine to treat the physical body as separate from the psyche.
            c. encourage individuals throughout the world to get regular medical checkups.
            d. eliminate the presence of western scientific thinking in the medical community.
_____ 58. All of the following are true of the basic experimental procedure used in Milgram's studies on obedience EXCEPT that
           a. the dependent variable was the final level of shock that a teacher gave before refusing to continue to obey the authority.
           b. the shocks that were delivered to the learner were moderate rather than severe as the participants had believed.
           c. the participants were told to increase the level of shock each time the learner made an error.
           d. the participants were led to believe that the study concerned how reward and punishment affects memory and learning.

_____ 59. In order for a person who holds a false belief to be labeled as prejudiced, the false belief must
           a. be based on cultural norms of proper behavior.
           b. lead to an attitude of preference toward another human being.
           c. resist change even in the face of evidence against its validity.
           d. be unconscious.

_____ 60. A student thinks it is wrong to cheat on tests, but she copied some answers from the person sitting next to her during the
           chemistry exam and now feels very guilty. According to dissonance theory she is likely to
           a. immediately put the test out of her mind.
           b. decide that the test was so difficult that it encouraged people to cheat.
           c. cheat on all of her tests in the future.
           d. feel good if she receives a good grade.

_____ 61. The elaboration likelihood model of persuasion distinguishes between two routes to persuasion, known as the
           a. implicit and explicit.
           b. primary and secondary.
           c. correct and incorrect.
           d. central and peripheral.

_____ 62. In the classic social psychology experiment known as the Stanford Prison Experiment,
           a. the participants were assigned to their roles through random procedures.
           b. the most sadistic participants were assigned the roles of guards.
           c. participants were assigned roles that were the opposite of their natural inclinations.
           d. participants who were thought to be "helpless" types were assigned the roles of prisoners.

_____ 63. One easy way for a person to cope with the unpleasant state of tension associated with cognitive dissonance is to
           a. continue the behavior that led to the dissonance.
           b. engage in groupthink.
           c. change his or her attitudes.
           d. pretend that the dissonance does not exist.

_____ 64. A girl who forms a club believes that the members of her club are better than the members of her ex-friend's club. This girl's
           belief illustrates
           a. an in-group bias.
           b. demand characteristics.
           c. diffusion of responsibility.
           d. an other-group bias.

_____ 65. A stranger asks you for a donation of $20.00 for some charitable enterprise; when you turn him down he then requests only
           $1.00. After you give him the dollar you realize that this illustrates
           a. the door-in-the-face technique.
           b. commitment.
           c. the foot-in-the-door technique.
           d. scarcity.

_____ 66. Repressed memories may be similar to eyewitness memories in that
           a. both forms have been shown to be absolutely accurate.
           b. people holding such memories lack confidence that the memories are real.
           c. they both may be subject to outside influence.
           d. it is impossible to recover either type.
_____ 67. With respect to the psychological models of abnormality, which of the following does not belong?
          a. genetic
          b. psychodynamic
          c. cognitive
          d. behavioral

_____ 68. Cognitive therapy is to behavior therapy as
           a. moods are to feelings.
           b. leader is to follower.
           c. thoughts are to actions.
           d. outside is to inside.

_____ 69. A therapist is helping a client to restructure the way she thinks about herself and her behavior. . It sounds as though this
           therapist is using ________ therapy.
           a. humanistic
           b. biomedical
           c. cognitive
           d. psychodynamic

______ 70. A therapist believes in helping individuals achieve their highest potential, and promotes self-actualization through self
          exploration and development. This therapist is mostly likely using the ___________ approach.
           a. humanistic
           b. biomedical
           c. cognitive
           d. psychodynamic
ANSWERS:

       1.     ANS:   A
       2.    ANS:    D
       3.    ANS:    A
       4.    ANS:    B
       5.    ANS:    D
       6.    ANS:    B
       7.    ANS:    A    :
       8.    ANS:    B
       9.    ANS:    C
       10.   ANS:    D
       11.   ANS:    A
       12.   ANS:    D
       13.   ANS:    B
       14.   ANS:    B
       15.   ANS:    D
       16.   ANS:    C
       17.   ANS:    A
       18.   ANS:    A
       19.   ANS:    A
       20.   ANS:    A
       21.   ANS:    B
       22.   ANS:    B
       23.   ANS:    C
       24.   ANS:    B
       25.   ANS:    C
       26.   ANS:    C
       27.   ANS:    C
       28.   ANS:    C
       29.   ANS:    B
       30.   ANS:    D
       31.   ANS:    D
       32.   ANS:    A
       33.   ANS:    A
       34.   ANS:    B
       35.   ANS:    A
       36.   ANS:    D
       37.   ANS:    A
       38.   ANS:    C
       39.   ANS:    D
       40.   ANS:    D
       41.   ANS:    D
       42.   ANS:    C
       43.   ANS:    C
       44.   ANS:    B
       45.   ANS:    A
       46.   ANS:    B
       47.   ANS:    D
       48.   ANS:    A
       49.   ANS:    A
       50.   ANS:    A
       51.   ANS:     D
       52.   ANS:    D
       53.   ANS:    C
       54.   ANS:    D
55.   ANS:   A
56.   ANS:   D
57.   ANS:   A
58.   ANS:   B
59.   ANS:   C
60.   ANS:   B
61.   ANS:   D
62.   ANS:   A
63.   ANS:   C
64.   ANS:   A
65.   ANS:   A
66.   ANS:   C
67.   ANS:   A
68.   ANS:   C
69.   ANS:   C
70.   ANS:   A

								
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