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					Caribbean Medical Schools:
Library Services & Literacy
         Education
   Caribbean Islands with
      Medical Schools:
Antigua          Nevis
Aruba            Saba
Bonaire          St. Eustatius
Dominica         St. Kitts
Cayman Islands   St. Lucia
Curacao          St. Maarten
Grand Cayman     St. Vincent
 Why attend a Caribbean
    medical school?

Shortage of openings in the States
Accept students with a lower GPA and/or
MCAT
Non-traditional students
More flexible program starting dates
Generally less expensive
AUC Student Population,
        2008:

519 students       69 percent
58 percent males   Americans
42 percent         31 percent were
females            born outside of
                   the United States
           AUC Faculty
25 full-time faculty members
20 visiting faculty members
12 faculty are from the United States
13 faculty are from outside of the United
States (including: Canada, New Zealand,
Scotland, Ireland, Nigeria, Holland, India)
      Academic Program
5 semesters of basic sciences at AUC, with
rolling enrollment
20 months of clinical rotations in the United
States (24 hospitals in 10 states), Ireland (1
site), or England (7 sites)
Accredited by the ACCM (Accreditation
Commission on Colleges of Medicine)
    AUC Library Services:
433 sq. meters (4,660 sq. feet) quiet study area
Open 7 days a week from 8 am to 11 pm
5,800 Books, DVDs, & videos
Reserve textbook collection
Access to UpToDate
Research assistance for faculty, students, &
community
Approximately 85 journals
ILL service
6 computers w/ internet access & DVD players
Wireless internet access throughout library
Collection & Study Room
Study Room
Library Computer Area
Computer Lab
     Literacy Education
  Classroom instruction is
  offered in the following:

Critiquing general & medical websites
– Reliability of Wikipedia
– Google search tips
Formulating the clinical question
Medical database search techniques
      Evaluating Internet Websites:
HTTP://WWW.LIB.BERKELEY.EDU/TEACHINGLIB/GUIDES/INTERNET/EVALUATION_CHECKLI
ST_2008_SPRING.PDF
And remember…
     Medical Databases
STAT!Ref       EBSCO
PubMed         Proquest
OVID           Mircomedex
UpToDate       Web of Knowledge
MDConsult
To help formulate clinical questions,
 a framework called PICO has been
            developed

                  PICO stands for:

–   P – Patient, Population, or Problem
–   I – Intervention or Indicator
–   C – Comparison or Control
–   O – Outcome
Example of a Clinical Case:
Your patient is a 6 month old child, newly
diagnosed with sickle cell disease. He is
currently taking penicillin daily as a prophylaxis
against pneumococcal infections. You suggest
that this might be a long term therapy for the
child. His parents are worried about possible
adverse side effects of long term use of
penicillin, including developing a resistance to
the drug.
    Search terms to consider:
P
     sickle cell disease, child
I
     prophylactic penicillin
C
     doesn’t apply to this question
O
     prevention of infections
PICO Worksheet and Search Strategy

Name___________________


1. Define your question using PICO by identifying: Problem, Intervention, Comparison
Group, and Outcomes.

Your question should be used to help establish your search strategy.
Patient/Problem________________________________
Intervention___________________________________
Comparison___________________________________
Outcome______________________________________

Write out your question:_______________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________

2. Type of question/problem: Circle one: Therapy/Prevention Diagnosis Etiology
Prognosis

3. Type of study (Publication Type) to include in the search:
Check all that apply:
( )Meta-Analysis ( ) Systematic Review ( ) Randomized Controlled Trial
( ) Cohort Study ( ) Case Control Study ( ) Case series or Case Report
( ) Editorials, Letters, Opinions ( ) Animal Research ( ) In Vitro/Lab Research




4. List main topics and alternate terms from your PICO question that can be used for your
search

List your inclusion criteria –gender, age, year of publication, language.

List irrelevant terms that you may want to exclude in your search.
PICO Worksheet
The 4 Elements of a Well-Built Clinical Questions

Use the PICO elements to formulate an answerable clinical question.
(E.g. In a 6 month old female with GERD, is using a PPI more effective in reduction of symptoms and incidence of
Nissen fundoplications than using an H2 blocker? )

                                   P                              In a 6 mo female with
                                   PATIENT OR PROBLEM             GERD.


                                   I                              Will a PPI - lansoprazole
                                   INVESTIGATION
                                   (A CAUSE, A PROGNOSTIC
                                   FACTOR, A TREATMENT,
                                   ETC.)




                                   C                              Compared to a H2 blocker
                                   COMPARISON                     - pepcid
                                   (IF NECESSARY)




                                   O                              Decreased GERD
                                   Outcomes                       symptoms (irritability
                                   1. Consider outcomes not       episodes of emesis)
                                   only relevant to clinicians,   and/or
                                   but to patients, payers,
                                                                  Incidence of Nissen
                                   and healthcare
                                   administrators                 fundoplication
                                   2. An outcome must be
                                   measurable
                                   3. Don’t forget to include
                                   AEs (Adverse Events) for
                                   therapies.
UpToDate is an evidence-based clinical information database
Approximately 3,000 clinicians serve as authors
Extensive peer review to ensure information is accurate
Review of over 375 journals, and other resources
Available anywhere on campus, no password required


                 www.uptodate.com/online
        PubMed

PubMed provides access to
bibliographic information
  that includes MEDLINE,
  OLDMEDLINE and other
    medical information

www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed
  PubMed/Medline
     via PICO:

http://pubmedhh.nlm.nih.gov/nlm/
       picostudy/pico2.html

				
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posted:9/16/2012
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