VIEWS: 0 PAGES: 43 POSTED ON: 9/16/2012
The Ruminant Digestive System mc050.k12.sd.us/Ruminant%20Digestive%20System.pp University of Kentucky College of Agriculture mercury.bio.uaf.edu/courses Ruminant Digestive Systems Functions of the digestive system of animals include: ingestion (eating) chewing (mastication) swallowing (deglutition) absorption of nutrients elimination of solid wastes (defecation) Ruminant Digestive Systems The digestive system changes food nutrients into compounds that are easily absorbed into the bloodstream. Ruminant Digestive Systems Species like cattle, deer, sheep, horses, and rabbits that depend entirely on plants for food are classified as herbivores. Animals like dogs and cats that depend almost entirely on the flesh of other animals for food are classified as carnivores. Ruminant Digestive Systems Still others, like swine, birds, and humans that consume both flesh and plants are classified as omnivores. Ruminant Digestive Systems Different species of animals have digestive systems adapted to the most efficient use of the food they consume. The anatomy and physiology of the digestive systems of herbivores, carnivores, and omnivores all differ. Ruminant Digestive Systems Ruminants are those animals that contain a multi-chambered digestive system (polygastric) that allows the animal to gain the majority of their nutritional needs from forages and other roughages. Forage refers to grasses, roughages refers to other high-fiber food sources. Ruminant Digestive Systems The digestive tract extends from the lips to the anus. It includes the mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, and the small and large intestines. Accessory glands include the salivary glands, the liver, and the pancreas. Ruminant Digestive Systems The length and complexity of the digestive system depends on the species. In herbivores, it is very long and complex. Pancreas Rectum Pharynx Cecum Kidney Ruminant Digestive Systems Liver Esophagus Teeth Anus Picture of digestive system of cow Tongue Colon Reticulum Salivary Rumen Gland Small Intestine Omasum Abomasum Ruminant Digestive Systems The digestive system of ruminant animals includes the : Mouth - grasps the food Teeth - grind the food Ruminants have only one set of teeth in the front of the mouth (incisors), and two sets in the back (molars). Ruminant Digestive Systems Tongue - covered with finger-like projections (papillae) that contain taste buds. Salivary glands - secrete saliva, that moistens food and is mixed with the food material to aid in swallowing. Ruminant Digestive Systems Pharynx - funnels food into the esophagus, preventing food material from entering the lungs. Esophagus - food tube that leads from the mouth to the stomach. Ruminant Digestive Systems At this point, ruminant animals have a multi-chambered “stomach” Reticulum - honeycomb-like interior surface, this part helps to remove foreign matter from the food material. The reticulum is also known as the stone trap or hardware stomach. Reticulum - full Reticulum - cleaned Ruminant Digestive Systems Ruminant animals grasp mouthfuls of food and swallow it before it is chewed. They wrap their tongue around a mouthful of grass, clamp down their teeth, and pull to break the grass at its weakest point, and swallow. Ruminant Digestive Systems Ruminants will“chew their cud” (regurgitate) their food material and then grind it with their molars at a time when the animal is resting. This is done until the food particles are small enough to pass through the reticulum into the rumen. Ruminant Digestive Systems Since ruminant animals do not “chew” their food when it is taken in, at times foreign material like rocks, nails, small pieces of wire, can be swallowed. Ruminant Digestive Systems While the animal is “chewing its cud” foreign particles that are heavy are allowed to “sink” in the reticulum, preventing many foreign particles from entering the rest of the digestive system. Once foreign material enters the reticulum, it stays there for the life of the animal. Ruminant Digestive Systems If enough of this foreign material remains in the reticulum, it may cause damage and infection of the reticulum (hardware disease). Telephone Cord Wire Sponge taken from digestive system of an animal Ruminant Digestive Systems Rumen - the organ that allows for bacterial and chemical breakdown of fiber. The rumen has a very thick, muscular wall. It fills most of the left-side of the abdomen Ruminant Digestive Systems The walls of the rumen contain papillae (that can be up to 1 cm. in length), where the bacteria that are used to breakdown fiber live. In some ruminants (dairy cattle) the rumen can have a capacity of 55-65 gallons! Fiber stimulates papillae to produce muscular waves, mixing the contents & removing gas. Papillae in Rumen Papillae in Rumen Ruminant Digestive Systems Gas Expulsion occurs through periodic belching (eructation). Failure to belch can lead to bloat and can be fatal. This most often occurs after a sudden change in the diet. Ruminant Digestive Systems Omasum - section that is round and muscular. “Grinds” the food material and prepares the food material for chemical breakdown. Also called the book stomach because of its leaf or page-like structures. It filters and absorbs water and salts. Omasum - full Ruminant Digestive Systems Abomasum - very similar to the stomach of non-ruminants; it is the “true” stomach. this is where the majority of chemical breakdown of food material occurs. mixes in digestive enzymes (pepsin, rennin, bile, etc.). Abomasum – inside view Ruminant Digestive Systems Small Intestine - where most of the food material is absorbed into the bloodstream Contains three sections: duodenum jejunum ileum Ruminant Digestive Systems The food material is continually squeezed as it is moved through the small intestine, becoming more solid. The majority of the food material absorption occurs in the duodenum and the jejunum. Ruminant Digestive Systems Large Intestine - begins to prepare unused food material for removal from the body a portion of the large intestine in some animals contain pouches that may contain enzymes for further species-specific digestion (horses and rabbits (cecum)). Ruminant Digestive Systems Colon - collects the unused food material that is to be removed from the body Rectum - “poop chute” Anus - opening through which the waste is removed. Controlled by sphincter muscles, that also help protect the opening. Ruminant Digestive Systems In conclusion, the rumen allows for bacteria to breakdown fiber, enabling ruminants to gain the proteins and energy from plant sources. Non-ruminant animals cannot obtain the nutritional value from most plant sources unless the food has been modified (ground, mashed, etc.) Non-ruminants: Hindgut Fermenters Horse Small Rectum Cecum intestine Esophagus Stomach Small colon Duodenum Large colon Organs of non-ruminants Mouth, esophagus, stomach, liver, pancreas, gall bladder, and small intestine have similar functions as compared to monogastrics. Large Intestine ► Major difference between monogastrics and hind gut fermentors is the large intestine ► Large intestine is exceptionally large and complex compared to monogastrics and ruminants. Organs of non-ruminants The large intestine of hind gut fermenters is analogous to the rumen in ruminants. ►Large, anaerobic fermentation vat. ►Microbes digest carbohydrates and convert to VFA’s. VFA’s absorbed from large intestine and utilized by the animal. Comparing Fermentation Strategies Characteristics Foregut (Ruminants) Hindgut Location of microbes: Before stomach After stomach Are microbes digested? Yes No Source of energy: VFA’s Food, VFA’s Source of protein: Microbes Diet Dietary flexibility Low Higher Throughput rate: Slow: 40 – 50 hours Faster by 3-5X retention time Efficiency of cellulose High: 70 – 100! Lower: 20 – 65% assimilation: Coprophagy in Rabbits VFA’s Caecum ileum Microorganisms Fermentable fiber VFA’s VFA’s Colon Rabbits produce two types of feces: Cecotropes are soft, edible, mucous covered packets of protein and vitamins. True feces are drier and contain undigested fiber.
Pages to are hidden for
"The Ruminant Digestive System - PowerPoint - PowerPoint"Please download to view full document