Guidelines for Tech. Presntation To MC 8E Students
After reading this learning material, you will be able to :
Explain the concept and significance of report writing.;
Distinguish between project proposal and report;
Describe the differences between informal and formal reports;
Explain the need of knowing the reader ;
Write an outline of informal Memorandum/ recommendation report;
Identify the three main divisions of most project / research reports;
List the different sections under each main division of a report;
Identify the types of information that need to be included in different sections;
Write an outline of a project report; and,
Prepare the first and final draft of the report.
1. INTRODUCTION :
In any organization, a large proportion of information is transmitted most effectively
through written communication. It is cheap and reliable way to reach the target
population and to ensure that they all receive the same message. Written communication
can be in the format of informal and formal reports.
2. REPORT WRITING - CONCEPT AND SIGNIFICANCE
i) An account brought by one person to another, especially of some matter specially
investigated and (ii) A formal statement of the results of an investigation, or of any
matter on which a definite information is required, made by some person or body
instructed or required to do so. In other words, in a project report the writer describes
completed project. There are discussions of what project was done, how it was done, and
the results and conclusions of the project work. The significance of the project work is
also addressed. So a project report is slightly different form its proposal, i.e. a project
proposal discusses what project is intended, how it is to be intended; the sections of the
proposal are then directed to these issues.
Report is an exposition type of composition and the primary function of project report
is to be communicate ideas in a manner understandable to and usable by the reader.
Thus, report writing has been recognized as an indispensable part of any piece of project
work as it records the purpose, the importance, the limitations, the procedure, the
findings and the conclusions.
3. INFORMAL AND FORMAL REPORTS
It is already mentioned that a writer has to present the findings of his completed project
in the format of an informal report or formal report keeping in mind the purpose, scope
and readers of project.
The differences in the format and contents of these two reports are the following :
Aspect Formal Reports Informal Reports
1. Format These have title page, Generally have none of
table of contents and these, and in fact, these
abstracts are written on printed
2. Scope Attack all aspects of a Attack a problem of
large problem narrow scope
3. Purpose To play a role in a To give departmental
decision making process information or action
at higher level
4. Readers These reports are read by Often aimed at one
several people person.
The day – to –day operation of an organization depends on informal reports that
circulate within and among its departments. Most informal reports are written in printed
4. AUDIENCES OR READERS OF REPORTS
Project reports take different forms and different emphasis depending primarily on the
audience or reader. As the writer, you must understand not only the reader’s purpose, but his
background as well. You must know who your reader is, what he already knows, and what he
does not know. In addition, you must know what information to elaborate.
Audiences or readers can be divided into two types. The first type is the institution or
government officials who might consist of administrators, and other funding agency officials.
The second type is the education practitioners who might consist of teachers, and teacher
educators. Each type of audience has different interests and will understand the same problem
through a different language and from a different perspective.
5 . FORMAT OF A PROJECT REPORT
There are various ways in which a format is established but usually it includes three main
divisions; the preliminary materials, the body of the report, and the reference material. Each
of the main divisions may consist of several sections. Format of a formal report contain the
I. Preliminary Materials
a. Transmittal correspondence
b. Title page
d. Table of Contents
e. List of tables (if any )
f. List of figures / Illustrations (if any)
II. Body of Report
1. Statement of the problem
2. Literature review
3. Underling hypotheses or key questions
5. Definition of terms.
1. Research design
2. Description of subjects.
3. Data gathering instructions
4. Statistical techniques
c. Presentation and Analysis of Data
1. Tabulation of data
2. Analysis of data
3. Presentation of the findings and interpretation of results.
d. Summary, conclusions and recommendations
III Reference Materials
The list of items outlined above is fairly comprehensive. It is not meant to be rigid
guideline of every step you must take. You can make the necessary adaptations to fit
your reader’s needs.
5.1 Preliminary Materials
5.1.1 Transmittal correspondence
It simply directs the report to someone. It is included only in that report where the
report has been prepared especially on request of a person or group of persons.
5.1.2 Title Page
It is an important page and gives vital information about the report. It should contain
- Title Page of Report
- Name of author (s) and institution
- Date of completion or presentation
This page is usually included when the research writer wants especially to express his
thanks to individuals who have given him substantial guidance or assistance.
5.1.4 Table of contents
Table of contents gives the reader an overview of the report and enables him to locate
quickly each of its sections. The table of contents list the preliminary materials, the
body and the reference materials.
5.1.5 List of Tables
The list gives the titles of table along with their serial number and page number.
5.1.6 List of Figures
This section is optional
It is generally included in a report where a writer feels that a short summary of the
text or recommendations are necessary for a reader before he begins a detailed
readings of the text.
5.2 Body of the Report
The body of the report follows the preliminary information.
5.2.1 Introduction –
Statement of problem
The problem should be stated in definite, lucid terms leaving no doubt as to the intent
of the reader.
Review of Related Literature
A thorough review should be made of the literature related to the problem / project
area under study. Finally, the writer should use this review to establish a theoretical
base upon which defensible hypotheses can be based.
Statement of hypotheses
Hypotheses are predictions of facts or relationships based upon existing information,
which will when tested experimentally or empirically, produced new facts, concepts,
This section of the report should call attention to any limitations that exist in the
reference population, treatments, instruments used, or research design
Definitions of Terms
Even if it is not required , it is often a good idea to include a list of important terms
that might be unfamiliar to many readers.
This section of the report contains description of project work design, subjects and
data gathering instruments, procedures and statistical tools. This information should
describe explicitly where and when data have been gathered , from exactly how many
subjects the data have been gathered, the relevant characteristics of these subjects and
the methods and materials used .
5.2.3 Presentation and Analysis of Data
This section should describe the statistical analysis you performed on the data
collected in your study. Figures, tables and other illustrations should be used when
they can be designed to present information effectively and accurately, permitting the
reader to examine the data more readily.
5.2.4 Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations
The Summary should briefly review the procedures, findings and entire involvement
of the project.
The conclusions are stated precisely and related directly to the hypotheses that were
presented. Conclusions are the inferences and the like that the writer draws from the
The recommendations should indicate how the conclusions might be used or
implemented in educational practice.
5.3 The Reference Material
The reference materials of the report follow the main body of the report and contains
bibliography and appendix.
This is yet another important section of the report. A bibliography itself will indicate
the level of difficulty of project work, thoroughness of the coverage and whether or
not writer is up to date in the subject
Appendices are used for information which has a bearing on the report , but cannot be
easily fitted into the body of the report. Examples of materials that typically appear in
appendices are listed below :
- Questionnaires, tests, interview schedules and observation forms.
- Training manuals for observers.
5.4 Preparing the First and Final Draft
When you begin to write your rough or first draft, keep a piece of papers and conceptual
structure you have developed, and the data collected with you. Now start penning down the
ideas as they appear in your mind. , at least in one sitting. While writing the rough draft, you
may be aware of certain psychological principles required to present ideas effectively, so that
an educated reader grasps your scheme of thoughts effortlessly.
17- Sequential organization of the Project Report :- The project report should be compiled
1. Cover Page ( Outer and Inner )
2. Certificate (Page i )
3. Acknowledgement ( Page ii)
4. Abstract ( page iii )
5. Content Page ( page iv) ( Title of the project report, chapter no. and the pag no.)
6. Chapter 1 Project report, text, results and conclusions and limitations and
Chapter 2 Scope for further work, as discussed above.
Chapter 3 etc
7. References / Bibliography
8. Annexures, if any
18. Project Report Evaluation : - Project report evaluation includes presentation of the
project work done by he student in the form of a seminar. Thesis presentation should be
done using well made transparencies, slides etc. Arrangement should be made to show the
demonstration of the setup made or software developed if any. For evaluation by the
committee . The presentation should be confined to the actual work done by the student and
the conclusions drawn specifically highlighted. The duration of the project presentation
should be 15-20 minutes.
Thesis work is evaluated by a Committee consisting of External Examiner and
Internal Examiner ( Faculty Guide) .
Method of writing References / Bibliography
1. Research Paper: A research paper is cited in Reference / Bibliography as follows;
A, B, C, D, E,
A-Name (s ) of the authors (s)
B-Year of Publication
C-Title of the research paper
D-Name of the journal with vol. No. (if any ), month, Name of the conference
and place at which conference was held and the date of conference.
E- Page nos. at which the referred paper appears in the journal/conference
1. Adithan M., and Venkatesh, V.C., (1978), “ An Appraisal of Wear Mechanisms in
Ultrasonic Drilling”. Annals of the CIRP, Paris. Vol 27 / 1, 1978 PP. 119-121
2. Laroiya, S.C., and Adithan,m., (1994), “ Precision Machining of Advanced
Manufacturing Technology ( ICMAT-94 ), 29-30 August, 1994 Universiti
Teknologi Malayasia, Johor Bahru, Malaysia. Pp. 203-210.
3. Bhattacharya, S.K. and Mandke, V.V. (1992) “ Designing Interactive Teaching-
Learning Sysytems for Technical Education”, International Journal of
Engineering Education “, Great Britain, Vol.8 No. 2, pp 126-131
2. A Book / Monograph etc. : A Book / Monograph is given in Reference / Bibliography
A- Author Name
B- Year of Publication,
C- Title of Book,
D- Publishers name with address,
Adithan M., and Gupta A.B., (1996), “ Manufacturing Technology” , New age
International Publishers , New Delhi.
Bhattacharya, S.K. and Singh Brijinder , (1996) “ Control of Electrical
Machines” , New age International Publishers , New Delhi.
3. Cross- referencing :- Whenever some results, definition / data or figures are taken
from source i.e. book, journal, monograph etc., these should be cross referenced at
that place in the Thesis so that, if required, it can be referred to, for more details.
“ Overhead expenses are those costs which are incurred by the manufacturer but
which cannot be identified and charged directly to any order or product “ ( Adithan,
M and Pabla, B.S. 1989 )
Overhead expenses are defined as “ …………… “ (4)
Where 4 is the serial number of the book by Adithan, M and Pabla B S in the