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					AP Biology                                                        Name ________________________________________
Classification Test: Ch 29-34

Multiple Choice – 1 point each. Please mark your final answer on the Scantron in PENCIL.

 1. The most recent common ancestor of all land plants was most similar to modern-day members of which group?
         A) Cyanobacteria                                           D) brown algae
         B) red algae                                               E) golden algae
         C) Charophycea

 2. Peptidoglycan is to the structural integrity of bacteria as ________ is to the structural integrity of plant spores.
          A) lignin                                                      D) tannin
          B) cellulose                                                   E) sporopollenin
          C) terpene

 3. Which of the following is characteristic of alternation of generations in land plants?
         A) Haploid sporophytes make haploid spores.
         B) Gametophytes produce spores that develop into gametes.
         C) Sporophytes and gametophytes are typically similar in appearance.
         D) Meiosis in sporophytes produces haploid spores.
         E) Either the gametophyte or the sporophyte is unicellular.

 4. Which of the following characteristics, if observed in an unidentified green organism, would make it unlikely to be
    a charophycean?
          A) phragmoplast                                                D) chlorophylls a and b
          B) peroxisome                                                  E) rosette cellulose-synthesizing complex
          C) apical meristem

 5. The following are all adaptations to life on land except
          A) rosette cellulose-synthesizing complexes.                    D) reduced gametophyte generation.
          B) cuticles.                                                    E) seeds.
          C) tracheids.

 6. Which of the following is an ongoing trend in the evolution of land plants?
         A) decrease in the size of the leaf                            D) increasing reliance on water to bring sperm
         B) reduction of the gametophyte phase of the                       and egg together
              life cycle                                                E) replacement of roots by rhizoids
         C) elimination of sperm cells or sperm nuclei

 7. All of the following cellular structures are found in cells of angiosperm and gymnosperm gametophytes except
            A) haploid nuclei.                                             D) chloroplasts.
            B) mitochondria.                                               E) peroxisomes.
            C) cell walls.

 8. Plants with a dominant sporophyte are successful on land partly because
           A) having no stomata, they lose less water.
           B) they all disperse by means of seeds.
           C) diploid plants experience fewer mutations than do haploid plants.
           D) their gametophytes are protected by, and obtain nutrition from, the sporophytes.
           E) eggs and sperm need not be produced.
9. Which of these is most important in making the typical seed more resistant to adverse conditions than the typical
         A) a different type of sporopollenin                        D) ability to be dispersed
         B) an internal reservoir of liquid water                    E) waxy cuticle
         C) integument(s)

10. Within a gymnosperm megasporangium, what is the correct sequence in which the following should appear during
    development, assuming that fertilization occurs?
              1. sporophyte embryo                                   3. egg cell
              2. female gametophyte                                  4. megaspore
          A) 4, 3, 2, 1                                          D) 1, 4, 3, 2
          B) 4, 2, 3, 1                                          E) 1, 4, 2, 3
          C) 4, 1, 2, 3

11. All of the following are characteristic of angiosperms except
            A) coevolution with animal pollinators.                    D) styles and stigmas.
            B) double internal fertilization.                          E) fruit.
            C) free-living gametophytes.

12. Which of the following do all fungi have in common?
         A) meiosis in basidia                                         D) absorption of nutrients
         B) coenocytic hyphae                                          E) symbioses with algae
         C) sexual life cycle

13. What is the primary role of a mushroom's underground mycelium?
          A) absorbing nutrients                                   D) asexual reproduction
          B) anchoring                                             E) Protection
          C) sexual reproduction

14. The vegetative (nutritionally active) bodies of most fungi are
          A) composed of hyphae.                                       D) A and B only
          B) referred to as a mycelium.                                E) A, B, and C
          C) usually underground.

15. Lichens are symbiotic associations of fungi and
          A) mosses.                                                   D) either A or B
          B) cyanobacteria.                                            E) either B or C
          C) green algae.

16. Most animals exhibit the following structures or functions except
          A) nervous and muscle tissue.
          B) unique types of intercellular junctions, such as tight junctions and gap junctions.
          C) autotrophic nutrition.
          D) sexual reproduction.
          E) multicellularity.

17. Both animals and fungi are heterotrophic. What distinguishes animal heterotrophy from fungal heterotrophy is
    that only animals derive their nutrition
          A) from organic matter.                                    D) by consuming living, rather than dead,
          B) by preying on animals.                                      prey.
          C) by ingesting it.                                        E) by using enzymes to digest their food.
18. At which stage would one be able to first distinguish a diploblastic embryo from a triploblastic embryo?
          A) fertilization                                               D) organogenesis
          B) cleavage                                                    E) Metamorphosis
          C) gastrulation

19. Whatever its ultimate cause(s), the Cambrian explosion is a prime example of
         A) anagenesis (phyletic evolution).                           D) A and B only
         B) evolutionary stasis.                                       E) A, B, and C
         C) adaptive radiation.

20. Cephalization is generally associated with all of the following except
         A) bilateral symmetry.                                          C) a brain.
         B) concentration of sensory structures at the                   D) a longitudinal nerve cord.
              anterior end.                                              E) a sessile existence.

21. Which of the following is an incorrect association of an animal germ layer with the tissues or organs to which it
    gives rise?
           A) ectoderm-outer covering                                   D) mesoderm-muscle
           B) endoderm-internal lining of digestive tract               E) endoderm-internal linings of liver and lungs
           C) mesoderm-nervous system

22. Which of the following functions is an advantage of a fluid-filled body cavity?
         A) Internal organs are cushioned and protected from injury.
         B) Organs can grow and move independently of the outer body wall.
         C) The cavity acts as a hydrostatic skeleton.
         D) A and C only
         E) A, B, and C

23. Phylogenetic trees are best described as
          A) true and inerrant statements about evolutionary relationships.
          B) hypothetical portrayals of evolutionary relationships.
          C) the most accurate representations possible of genetic relationships among taxa.
          D) theories of evolution.
          E) the closest things to absolute certainty that modern systematics can produce.

24. Which of the following organisms are deuterostomes?
         A) molluscs                                                    D) chordates
         B) annelids                                                    E) both C and D
         C) echinoderms

25. A radially symmetrical animal that has two embryonic tissue layers belongs to which phylum?
          A) Porifera                                                 D) Nematoda
          B) Cnidaria                                                 E) Echinodermata
          C) Platyhelminthes

26. Which of the following is not found in annelids?
         A) a hydrostatic skeleton                                      D) a closed circulatory system
         B) segmentation                                                E) a cuticle made of chitin
         C) a digestive system with separate mouth
              and anus
 27. An arthropod has all the following characteristics except
           A) protostome development.                                     D) three embryonic germ layers.
           B) bilateral symmetry.                                         E) an open circulatory system.
           C) a pseudocoelom.

For the following questions 28 – 32, match the descriptions with the correct phylum below. Each choice may be used
once, more than once, or not at all.
        A.      Cnidaria                                           D.      Arthropoda
        B.      Annelida                                           E.      Echinodermata
        C.      Mollusca

 28. protostomes that have an open circulatory system and an exoskeleton of chitin

 29. protostomes with a unique drape of tissue that may secrete a shell

 30. a diploblastic phylum of aquatic predators

 31. deuterostomes that have an endoskeleton

 32. protostomes that have a closed circulatory system and obvious segmentation

 33. What is one characteristic that separates chordates from all other animals?
           A) true coelom                                               D) bilateral symmetry
           B) dorsal, hollow nerve cord                                 E) Segmentation
           C) blastopore, which becomes the anus

 34. Which of these is not considered an amniote?
          A) amphibians                                                   D) egg-laying mammals
          B) non-avian reptiles                                           E) placental mammals
          C) avian reptiles

 35. During chordate evolution, what is the sequence (from earliest to most recent) in which the following structures
                1. amniotic egg                                              4. swim bladder
                2. paired fins                                               5. four-chambered heart
                3. jaws
           A) 2, 3, 4, 1, 5                                            D) 2, 1, 4, 3, 5
           B) 3, 2, 4, 1, 5                                            E) 2, 4, 3, 1, 5
           C) 3, 2, 1, 4, 5

 36. Which is not characteristic of all mammals?
          A) a four-chambered heart that prevents mixing of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood
          B) giving birth to live young (viviparous)
          C) having hair during at least some period of life
          D) having glands to produce nourishing milk for offspring
          E) having a diaphragm to assist in ventilating the lungs

 37. How are primates different from all other mammals?
          A) placental embryonic development                              D) ability to produce milk
          B) hairy bodies                                                 E) opposable thumbs in many species
          C) arboreal lifestyles
For the following questions 38 – 42, match the vertebrate groups below with the descriptions that follow. Each choice
may be used once, more than once, or not at all.
        A.      amphibians
        B.      non-avian reptiles
        C.      chondrichthyans
        D.      mammals
        E.      avian reptiles

 38. their scales closely resemble teeth in both structure and origin

 39. internal fertilization, amniotic egg, skin that resists drying, heavy bones

 40. three major groups: egg-laying, pouched, and placental

 41. may have lungs, or gills, and may use skin as a respiratory surface

 42. honeycombed bones, females with one ovary, no teeth

 43. Which of these statements about human evolution is true?
          A) The ancestors of Homo sapiens were chimpanzees and other apes.
          B) Human evolution has proceeded in an orderly fashion from an ancestral anthropoid to Homo sapiens.
          C) The evolution of upright posture and enlarged brain occurred simultaneously.
          D) Different features have evolved at different rates.
          E) Mitochondrial DNA analysis indicates that modern humans are genetically very similar to Neanderthals.

 44. The earliest known mineralized structures in vertebrates are associated with which function?
           A) reproduction                                              D) defense
           B) feeding                                                   E) Respiration
           C) locomotion

 45. Which are the most abundant and diverse of the extant vertebrates?
          A) bony fishes                                             D) non-avian reptiles
          B) avian reptiles                                          E) mammals
          C) amphibians

 Free Response – Answer on a separate sheet of paper or the back of this page.

 1. Describe the differences between the terms in each of the following pairs:
     a. Acoelomate – Coelomate
     b. Radial Symmetry – Bilateral Symmetry
     c. Two germ layers – Three germ layers
     d. No cephalization - Cephalization

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