Selection of dairy cattle for lifetime profit by zHUU5sE

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									 Genetic Evaluations for
Fitness and Fertility in the
  US and Other Nations

P.M. VanRaden
Animal Improvement Programs Laboratory
Agricultural Research Service, USDA, Beltsville, MD
paul@aipl.arsusda.gov


                                                  2003
                           Which Traits?

     “A key priority in research and
      education should be to identify
      those traits that really affect cost
      of producing milk and concentrate
      selection on them” (McDaniel,
      1976 National Workshop)
     Still good advice today


                                                                               2003
National Dairy Genetics Workshop – Fertility Evaluations (2)   P.M. VanRaden
                   Genetic progress

              G = accuracy 
                   genetic SD 
                   selection intensity 
                   generation interval

                (Dickerson & Hazel, 1944)

                                                                               2003
National Dairy Genetics Workshop – Fertility Evaluations (3)   P.M. VanRaden
              Heritability of N Records
               = N h**2 / [1 + (N – 1) Repeatability]
                                           (Lush, 1948)


                            Repeat-                              Lactations
Trait                       ability 1                          2    3    4                 5
Protein                     .55                   .30          .39   .43     .45           .47
SCS                         .35                   .10          .15   .18     .20           .21
DPR                         .13                   .04          .07   .10     .12           .13
PL                                                           .04   .07     .08           .085
                                                                                                 2003
     National Dairy Genetics Workshop – Fertility Evaluations (4)          P.M. VanRaden
                      Average accuracy
           = square root of reliability / 100
                                          Cows born              Bulls born
                                            1995                  1994-98
Protein (kg)                                 .71                     .92
SCS                                          .60                     .77
PL                                           .58                     .78
DPR                                          .57                     .75
Service sire CE                              .55                     .85
Daughter CE                                  .54                     .77
Feet & Legs                                  .62                     .84

                                                                                   2003
  National Dairy Genetics Workshop – Fertility Evaluations (5)     P.M. VanRaden
    Coefficients of variation (CV)
                                CV (%)
                     Pheno- Pheno Gen-
    Trait      Mean typic SD typic   etic
  Protein (lb) 692     91     13       7
  Stature (in)  57     1.6     3       2
     PL (mo)    24     13     54      16
     DPR (%)    23     15     65      13

DPR = daughter pregnancy rate, PL = productive life,


                                                                                 2003
  National Dairy Genetics Workshop – Fertility Evaluations (6)   P.M. VanRaden
                 Trait Harmonization
                    Mark, 2003 EAAP meeting

                                        Average Avg. cor
 Trait                        Countries  corr.  w / USA
 Protein                        27        .87     .89
 Stature                        21        .89     .90
 Fore Udd.                      21        .75     .79
 SCS                            20        .85     .86
 Longevity                      14        .59     .74
 SCE                            10        .83     .86
 DCE                            10        .58     .64
                                                                               2003
National Dairy Genetics Workshop – Fertility Evaluations (7)   P.M. VanRaden
 MACE Longevity Correlations
            Jakobsen, 2003 Interbull meeting
              USA DEU FRA NZL                                  NLD CAN GBR
 USA                        .83          .61          .55      .80   .93      .83
 DEU                                     .65          .44      .83   .81      .74
 FRA                                                  .40      .68   .62      .51
 NZL                                                           .43   .52      .58
 NLD                                                                 .80      .70
 CAN                                                                          .89
 Avg            .74         .69          .62          .49      .68   .73      .67
 (14)

                                                                                     2003
National Dairy Genetics Workshop – Fertility Evaluations (8)         P.M. VanRaden
             MACE for Calving Ease
             Jakobsen, 2003 Interbull meeting
Avg. cor
(10 x 10) USA DEU FRA                                  NZL NLD CAN DNK
 Service .86 .87  .85                                  .69 .81 .75 .90
  sire CE
  Daugh- .64 .54  .68                                   …       .68   .78      .59
   ter CE

USA cor                      DEU FRA                   NZL NLD CAN DNK
   SCE                       .70 .82                   .72 .86 .82 .94

    DCE                      .61          .92           …       .93   .88      .76

                                                                                      2003
 National Dairy Genetics Workshop – Fertility Evaluations (9)         P.M. VanRaden
                        Pregnancy Rate

     Rate that cows become pregnant
     Can be derived from days open
         Non-linear: 21 / (DO – VWP + 11)
         Linear approx: (233 – DO) / 4

     Advantages over days open
         Positive numbers are desirable
         Earlier measure of herd fertility


                                                                                2003
National Dairy Genetics Workshop – Fertility Evaluations (10)   P.M. VanRaden
Pregnancy Rate vs Days Open
                  100
                   90
                   80
 Pregnancy Rate




                   70
                   60
                   50
                   40
                   30
                   20
                   10
                             1        2         3         4         5         6         7         8         9
                    0
                        60       81       102       123       144       165       186       207       228       249
                                                    Number of Chances
                                                      Days Open
                                                                                                                      2003
National Dairy Genetics Workshop – Fertility Evaluations (11)                               P.M. VanRaden
                       Cow Fertility Traits
        Evaluated in Largest Holstein Populations
  Country
Trait             USA        DEU         FRA        NZL        NLD       CAN GBR       AUS

 Ability to
     cycle                                           Yes        Yes           Yes

 Ability to
 conceive                      Yes        Yes                   Yes           Yes

Combined
     trait         Yes                               Yes        Yes           Yes       Yes


Emphasis             7%         2%       13%        10%             7%                   8%


                                                                                              2003
    National Dairy Genetics Workshop – Fertility Evaluations (12)            P.M. VanRaden
Prediction of UK Calving Interval
             Wall et al, 2003 Interbull meeting

                                                                Min   UK PTA
  Country, trait                          Bulls                 Rel   Rel Corr.
  USA preg rate                               108                70   65         .76
  AUS preg rate                                 65               70   50         .73
  NLD fert. index                               46               60   60         .71
  IRL calv. int.                                68               65   70         .69
  DNK fert. index                             103                70   60         .51
  NZL fert. index                               42               60   50         .51
                                                                                       2003
National Dairy Genetics Workshop – Fertility Evaluations (13)          P.M. VanRaden
International Fertility Correlations
      UK, DEU, FRA, NLD (Wall, 2003)
          Non-return, PTA correlation avg = .54
      DNK, FIN, SWE (Mark, 2001)
          Days to 1st AI, genetic cor avg = .67
          Non-return rate, genetic cor avg = .44
      Ayr from NOR, DNK, FIN, SWE
       (Svendsen, 2001)
          Fertility index, genetic cor avg = .73


                                                                                 2003
 National Dairy Genetics Workshop – Fertility Evaluations (14)   P.M. VanRaden
               Value of Cow Fertility
     Optimum days open
         Pregnancy rate affects mean and variance
         Reduced yield/day vs longer lactations
     Fertility expenses per day open
            Heat detection ($20 / lact  .005)                        = $.10
            Semen ($15 / unit + $5 labor) *.025                       = $.50
            Pregnancy exam ($10 / exam)*.012                          = $.12
            Lactations too long or short                              = $.75
     Relative value of DPR = 7% of total


                                                                                2003
National Dairy Genetics Workshop – Fertility Evaluations (15)   P.M. VanRaden
              Value of Calving Ease
     Daughter CE value / difficult birth
         Veterinary, labor costs                                      = $50
         Calf death (20% prob)                                        = $25
         Cow deaths before 1st test (1% prob)                         = $15
     Service sire CE also includes
         Yield losses / lactation                                     = $40
         Fertility and longevity losses                               = $30
     Relative values of each are 2% of total


                                                                                2003
National Dairy Genetics Workshop – Fertility Evaluations (16)   P.M. VanRaden
                               National Selection Indexes:
                                 Yield and Health Traits

                                                   Country (Interbull Code)
                   USA     USA     DEU     FRA     NZL      NLD        CAN   GBR   AUS   ITA   DNK       SWE
 % of Interbull
   Population              17.4    15.3    12.3    10.6      9.3       4.7   4.7   4.5   4.3       4.1   1.5
   Index Name      NM$     New     RZG     ISU     BW       DPS        LPI   PLI   APR   PFT   S–I       TMI
          Trait
        Protein     36      33      36      35       34      35        43     57   36    42        21    21
            Fat     21      22      9       10       13       8        14     11   12    12        10     4
           Milk      5       0                      -17      -14             -19   -20             -3    -4
     % Protein                      4       2                                             3
         % Fat                      1       2                                             2
     Longevity      14      11      25      13       8       12         8    15    12     8         6     6
 SCS / mastitis     9        9      5       13               11         3           7    10        15    12
       Fertility             7      2       13      10        7                                     9    10
Other diseases                                                                                      2     3




                                                                                                         2003
       National Dairy Genetics Workshop – Fertility Evaluations (17)               P.M. VanRaden
                       National Selection Indexes:
                   Conformation and Management Traits

                                                  Country (Interbull Code)
                   USA     USA     DEU     FRA     NZL     NLD       CAN   GBR   AUS   ITA   DNK       SWE
  % of Interbull
    Population             17.4    15.3    12.3    10.6     9.3      4.7   4.7   4.5   4.3       4.1   1.5
   Index Name      NM$     New     RZG      ISU     BW     DPS       LPI   PLI   APR   PFT   S–I       TMI
          Trait
   Udder traits      7      7        6       8                       17                13        9     12
     Feet / legs     4      4        4       1               3       11                 6        5     9
            Size    -4      -3       2       2      -18              4           -4              2
Dairy character                      2
         Rump                        1       1
    Final score                                                                         4        2
  Calving ease               4       4                       10                                  6     12
 Growth / meat                                                                                   4     6
 Milking Speed                                                        <1          4              6
 Temperament                                                                      5              2      3




                                                                                                       2003
     National Dairy Genetics Workshop – Fertility Evaluations (18)               P.M. VanRaden
     Response to NM$ Selection
          NM$ NM$                                              NM$ NM$
    Trait 2000 2003                                      Trait 2000 2003
  Protein .81   .74                                     Udder .19    .22
            Fat          .68            .67               F&L        .17        .16
          Milk           .68            .58                     Size -.10      -.10
             PL          .51            .58                 SCE -.13           -.23
         SCS            -.35           -.38                 DCE -.11           -.21
         DPR             .00            .15
                                                                                        2003
National Dairy Genetics Workshop – Fertility Evaluations (19)           P.M. VanRaden
    Changes for November 2003
     Earlier evaluation of DPR
         Records in progress used at 130
          instead of 250 DIM
         6% gain in REL of DPR for new bulls
         Developed by Melvin Kuhn
     Use of DPR, SCE, DCE to predict
      PL
         4% gain in REL of PL for recent bulls


                                                                                2003
National Dairy Genetics Workshop – Fertility Evaluations (20)   P.M. VanRaden
                              Conclusions
     Most fitness traits are less heritable but
      more variable than yield and type
     In August 2003 NM$, cow fertility
      receives 7% and calving ease traits
      each receive 2% of total selection
     Reasonable progress is expected
     National fitness trait evaluations need
      to reach foreign customers


                                                                                2003
National Dairy Genetics Workshop – Fertility Evaluations (21)   P.M. VanRaden

								
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