Coastal Wetlands by HC1209160769

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									Coastal Wetlands
    Section 7-2
 What are Coastal Wetlands?
1. Areas covered by salt water for all or
   part of the time.
2. Classified as a marine ecosystem
   Why are they important?
1. Provide habitat and nesting areas for
   many fish and wildlife
2. Absorb excess rain, which protects
   against flooding
3. Filter out pollutants and sediments
4. Provide recreational areas for boating,
   fishing, and hunting
  Types of Coastal Wetlands
1. Estuaries
2. Salt
   Marshes
                estuary
3. Mangrove                          Salt marsh
   Swamps
4. Rocky &
   Sandy
   Shores
                                rocky & sandy shore
               mangrove swamp
A) Estuaries
1. Many coastal wetlands form in
   estuaries.
2. Estuary = an area where fresh water
   from a river mixes with salt water from
   the ocean.
3. As the two bodies of water meet, the
   currents cause mineral rich mud and
   other nutrients to fall to the bottom.
4. Therefore, they form nutrient traps.
5. Very productive
   ecosystems
6. Nutrient rich=
   diversity of
   producers
        1) Plants & Animals of Estuaries
a. Sunlight can reach all the way down
   to the bottom because the water is so
   shallow.
b. Huge populations of rooted plants as
   well as phytoplankton.
c. Organisms that live in here
   can tolerate variations in
   salinity (salt content).
2) Importance of Estuaries
          a.   Provide protected
               harbors, access to
               the ocean, and
               connection to a
               river.
          b.   Many of the
               world’s major
               ports are built on
               estuaries. (Tokyo,
               New York,
               Buenos Aires, Rio
               de Janeiro)
              3) Threats to Estuaries

a. In populated areas, they were used as
   areas to dump wastes (early on).
b. These areas were then developed as
   building sites.
c. Pollutants: sewage, industrial waste,
   agricultural runoff (pesticides and
   fertilizers)
B) Salt Marshes
              1. Marsh grass
                 dominates the
                 shoreline.
              2. Absorb
                 pollutants &
                 protect inland
                 areas.
 C) Mangrove Swamps
1. Located along coastal areas of tropical and
   subtropical zones
2. Mangrove trees dominate where they grow
   partly submerged in the water.
3. Help protect the coastline from erosion and
   reduce the damage from storms
4. Breeding and feeding ground for over 2,000
   species
5. Many have been destroyed.
D) Rocky & Sandy Shores
1. Rocky shores have
   more plants and animal
   species.
2. Rocks provide
   anchorage.
3. Sandy shores dry out
   when the tide goes out.
4. Thin islands run parallel
   to the coastal shore
   and help protect the
   mainland.

								
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