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Common Good Approach (Feminist or Care-Based Approaches) Presented By: Angie, Sara T., Kelsey, and Jeremy LP: Ethical Theories Presentation Section: Monday 1:30 March 24, 2008 Communal Approach “What is ethical is what advances the common good.” A vision of society in which all people join in the pursuit of shared value and aims. To understand and change individual behavior Try to change communities to which we belong Individuals viewed not isolation, but as members of communities that are partially responsible for the behavior of their members. Increase our understanding of the ethical values at stake in moral issues and increase the options available to us for resolving these issues Lawrence Kohlberg Interested in how people would justify their actions Process of moral development was principally concerned with justice Formalism = the form and structure of moral arguments is independent of the content of the arguments Lawrence Kohlberg’s ‘Stages of Moral Development’ Levels Stages Pre-Conventional 1) Obedience and punishment 2) Self-interest Conventional 3) Interpersonal accord and conformity 4) Law and order Post-Conventional 5) Social contract 6) Universal principles Carol Gilligan The “care view” of morality Morality focuses on doing the right thing Put others who are close to us above those whom are not Stages of moral development STAGE GOAL Pre-Conventional Goal is individual survival Conventional Self sacrifice is goodness Post-Conventional Principle of non-violence: do not hurt others or self Kohlberg and Gilligan Gilligan worked with Kohlberg while he researched his theory of moral development Gilligan’s work on woman’s moral development arose in response to Kohlberg’s male-based results Terminology! Feminists- a person whose beliefs and behavior are based on feminism “Care View”- moral outlook that emphasizes solidarity, community, and caring about one’s special relationships Common Good Contemporary ethicist John Rawls (author of A Theory of Justice) more recently defined the common good as “certain general conditions that are… equally to everyone’s advantage.” Humane Community Approach It presents a vision of society as a community whose members are joined in the shared pursuit of values and goals they hold in common. Strengths Gives a Leveled playing field Allows everyone to succeed Lets everyone have a voice Focuses on the Group Focuses on Larger community problems Long term happiness goals are picked instead of short term goals Reduces poverty while increasing education Raises the over all wellness of life Weaknesses Lack of National Relevance Usually based on Communal practicality Abuse of the powerful Larger communities usually have advantage against smaller ones Common good can be interpreted differently -May allow Authoritarianism if thought to be for the common good Alcoholic THEN: People view them as individuals with problems Treatment helped them deal with their problem TODAY: Alcoholic is often seen as part of a dysfunctional family system that reinforces alcoholic behavior Behavior of the alcoholic requires that we change the entire family situation. Communal Approach Having dry community-not to influence the alcoholic Gathering a community support system Let individual know, they aren’t fighting the battle alone Review Questions 1) How is an individual viewed under the common good approach? 2) What are the three stages of moral development? 3) What is “care view”? 4) Do the strengths of the common good approach out-weigh the weakness’ of them? Questions??
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