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					                              ROMAN LIFE #1

I.   ROMAN FAMILY & MARRIAGE CUSTOMS
     A.  GENERAL REMARKS
         1.   AS CAN BE EXPECTED CUSTOMS RELATING TO MARRIAGE, ETC.
              CHANGED OVER 1000 YRS OF ROME
         2.   3 MAJOR PERIODS THAT EVOKED CHANGE
              a.    EARLY REPUBLIC
              b.    PUNIC WARS
              c.    REIGN OF CAESAR AUGUSTUS
                    (1)   CROSSOVER FROM BC TO AD PERIOD
     B.  FAMILY GOVERNED BY PATERFAMILIAS
         1.   IN ROMAN SOCIETY TIES WITHIN FAMILY STRONG
         2.   BUT PATERFAMILIAS (OLDEST DOMINANT MALE OF FAMILY)
              a.    LATIN FOR FATHER & FAMILY
              b.    WHICH USUALLY FATHER
         3.   THROUGH MOST OF ROMAN HISTORY PATERFAMILIAS HAD ABSOLUTE
              LEGAL AUTHORITY & POWER OVER WIFE & CHILDREN AS LONG AS HE
              LIVED
         4.   BASICALLY TRUE THROUGHOUT ROMAN HISTORY
              a.    AUTOCRATIC - LIKE GODFATHER
         5.   HE COULD LEGALLY KILL HIS WIFE FOR ADULTERY OR DIVORCE HER AT
              WILL
         6.   HE COULD HAVE HIS CHILDREN KILLED BY EXPOSURE
         7.   HE COULD FORCE THEM TO MARRY AGAINST THEIR WILL
         8.   UNTIL FATHER DIED HIS SONS COULD NOT LEGALLY OWN PROPERTY
         9.   AT HIS DEATH, HIS WIFE & CHILDREN INHERITED HIS PROPERTY
         10.  DESPITE HIS IMMENSE POWER, PATERFAMILIAS DID NOT NECESSARILY
              ACT ALONE OR ARBITRARILY
         11.  TO DEAL WITH NB FAMILY MATTERS HE USUALLY CALLED A COUNCIL
              OF ADULT MALES
         12.  IN THIS WAY LEADING MEMBERS OF FAMILY AIRED THEIR VIEWS
         13.  THEY HAD OPPORTUNITY TO GIVE THEIR SUPPORT TO PATERFAMILIAS
              OR
         14.  TO PERSUADE HIM FROM HARSH DECISIONS
         15.  A NEW RECRUIT TO HOUSEHOLD WHETHER NEWBORN, BRIDE, NEW
              SERVANT OR SLAVE HAD TO GAIN HIS ACCEPTANCE
     C.  ROLE & STATUS OF WOMEN
         1.   WOMEN ALWAYS SUBJECT TO MALE AUTHORITY
              a.    FATHERS UNTIL THEY MARRIED
              b.    THEN HUSBANDS
         2.   BUT THEN MAYBE CATO THE CENSOR IS RIGHT
         3.   ALL MEN RULE OVER WOMEN, WE ROMANS RULE OVER ALL MEN, AND
              OUR WIVES RULE OVER US
         4.   RESPECTABLE WOMEN DID NOTHING TO DRAW ATTENTION TO
              THEMSELVES
         5.   NOT SUPPOSED TO USE COSMETICS, PERFUME OR HAIRPIECES TO
              ENTICE THEIR HUSBANDS
         6.   & SUMPTUARY LAWS ENACTED & AT TIMES TO REGULATE SPENDING OF
              MONEY & MORALITY
              a.    FOR REPUBLICAN VALUES MEANT THAT SPENDING ON LUXURIES
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               IMPLIED DECADENCE & MORAL DEPRAVITY
         b.    BUT ALSO TO ECONOMIZE IN WARTIME
     7.  BUT IN REALITY WOMEN IN ROME NO DIFFERENT THAN WOMAN TODAY
         OR
     8.  MEN FOR THAT MATTER
     9.  ALL CULTURES & ALL PEOPLE ARE GENERALLY CONCERNED WITH
         APPEARANCES
     10. GOOD EXAMPLE OF THIS WHEN OPPINA LAW FORBADE WOMEN TO
         WEAR THEIR JEWELS, PURPLE OR GOLD EMBROIDERY & TO DRIVE IN
         CARRIAGES IN CITY
     11. DONE DURING HEIGHT OF PUNIC WARS
     12. AFTER ROMAN DEFEAT OF HANNIBAL 202 ROMAN WOMEN WANTED
         LAW CANCELED FOR THEM
     13. ALREADY DONE SO FOR MEN
     14. THEY MARCHED ON SENATE TO SEEK REPEAL
     15. REPEAL OF LAW WON WHEN TRIBUNE STATED
         a.    GIVE THE WOMEN THEIR BAUBLES, THESE WILL SATISFY THEIR
               TRIVIAL MINDS & KEEP THEM FROM INTERFERING IN MORE
               SERIOUS MATTERS
     16. IN ROME & THE EAST WHEN WOMEN LEFT THEIR HOME THEY WORE
         VEILS OR HOODS
     17. DURING REPUBLIC A MAN COULD DIVORCE A WIFE WHO WENT OUT
         WITH HER HEAD UNCOVERED
     18. A VEIL OR HOOD CONSTITUTED A WARNING
         a.    IT SIGNIFIED WEARER RESPECTABLE WOMAN
         b.    & THAT NO MAN DARE APPROACH W/O RISKING GRAVE
               PENALTIES
     19. A WOMAN IN SERVANT'S DRESS, UNVEILED, FORFEITED PROTECTION OF
         ROMAN LAW AGAINST POSSIBLE ATTACKERS
         a.    WHO ENTITLED TO PLEAD EXTENUATING CIRCUMSTANCES
     20. THIS PRACTICE WILL CONTINUE AT URGING OF PAUL IN X
         a.    1 COR. 11:10
     21. WOMEN FORBIDDEN TO DRINK WINE & IF SO SHE COULD BE
         CONDEMNED TO DEATH
     22. NO PENALTY FOR MAN TO DRINK WINE
D.   CHANGES IN FAMILY RESULT PUNIC WARS
     1.  BUT AS RESULT OF PUNIC WARS IN 3RD & 2ND CENTURIES B.C.
         CHANGES OCCURRED IN ROMAN FAMILIES
     2.  DURING THOSE MANY YRS OF WAR WOMEN INEVITABLY ASSUMED
         MANY RESPONSIBILITIES &
     3.  FOUND SOME FREEDOM FROM USUAL CONTROL OF THEIR HUSBANDS &
         FATHERS
     4.  AS MORE WEALTH CAME INTO ROME, CONSPICUOUS CONSUMPTION &
         DOMESTIC INTRIGUE BECAME NOTORIOUS
         a.    AT LEAST IN UPPER CLASSES
     5.  MORE EMPHASIS ON OBTAINING CONSENT OF BRIDE & GROOM IN
         PROSPECTIVE MARRIAGE
     6.  THAN ARRANGED BY THEIR PARENTS
     7.  BY THIS TIME LACK OF ADEQUATE POPULATION HINDERING ROME
     8.  AS WELL AS EVIDENCE OF RISING NUMBER OF UNMARRIED ADULTS
         BOTH MALE & FEMALE
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            9.   AS WIVES BECOME MORE INDEPENDENT DIVORCE BECAME MORE
                 FREQUENT TOO
            10   IN GENERAL MARRIAGE & FAMILY LESS STABLE
       E.   CHANGES IN FAMILY RESULT CAESAR AUGUSTUS
            1.   WHEN AUGUSTUS CAME TO POWER IN 44 B.C.
            2.   HE WANTED TO GO BACK TO MORE STABLE TIMES
            3.   AUGUSTUS COMPELLED MEN & WOMEN IN UPPER REACHES OF ROMAN
                 SOCIETY TO MARRY & HAVE CHILDREN
            4.   HE RESTRICTED INHERITANCE RIGHTS IF THIS DID NOT HAPPEN
                 a.     UNMARRIED MEN BETWEEN AGES OF 20-60
                 b.     & UNMARRIED WOMEN WHETHER WIDOWED & DIVORCED
                        BETWEEN 18-50
                 c.     NOT ALLOWED TO INHERIT
            5.   WIDOW EXPECTED TO REMARRY WITHIN A YEAR
            6.   IF A DIVORCEE TO REMARRY WITHIN 6 MONTHS
            7.   HE MADE STATE RESPONSIBLE FOR POLICING FIDELITY OF ROMAN
                 WOMEN
            8.   FAMILY & NEIGHBORS COMPELLED TO TURN IN ADULTERERS
            9.   OR FACE CHARGES OF AIDING & ABETTING
       F.   MISCELLANEOUS BETROTHAL & MARRIAGE CUSTOMS
            1.   NO LEGAL MINIMAL AGE FOR BETROTHAL AS IN MA
            2.   IN FACT COULD BE BETROTHED FROM CRADLE
            3.   OTHER WEDDING CUSTOMS ROMANS FOLLOWED HAVE INTERESTING
                 ANTECEDENTS FOR OUR WEDDING CUSTOMS
                 a.     BETROTHAL CEREMONY FOLLOWED BY YOUNG MAN PLACING
                        IRON RING ON 3RD FINGER LEFT HAND OF HIS FIANCEE'S
                        (1)   ROMAN CONVICTION VEIN FROM FINGER TO HEART
                 b.     MARRIAGE CEREMONY BRIDE WORE WHITE GOWN & VEIL
                 c.     WEDDING GUESTS SHOWERED COUPLE W/WALNUTS
                 d.     AFTER FEAST BRIDE CARRIED OVER THRESHOLD
            4.   ROMAN LAW GOVERNED WHO COULD & COULD NOT MARRY
E.G.             a.     PATRICIAN COULD NOT MARRY A FREED SLAVE
                 b.     LOWER CLASSES COULD MARRY FREED SLAVES
            5.   ROMAN LAW ALLOWED MARRIAGES BETWEEN 2 MEN
                 a.     FORMALIZING WHAT WAS INFORMAL IN GREECE
                 b.     NERO HIMSELF TWICE MARRIED ANOTHER MAN
            6.   GIRLS - MARRIED BETWEEN 12 AND 15
            7.   BOYS - CONSIDERABLY OLDER
       G.   DIVORCE
            1.   ALTHOUGH DIVORCE UNCOMMON IN EARLY PERIOD OF ROMAN
                 HISTORY
            2.   PERMISSIBLE ON SPECIFIC GROUNDS
            3.   ALL OF WHICH INVOLVED AN OFFENCE COMMITTED BY ONE OF
                 PARTNERS
            4.   BUT MORE REASONS HUSBANDS COULD OBTAIN DIVORCE THAN WIFE
                 a.     WIFE'S POISON ATTEMPT AGAINST HIM
                 b.     EXCESSIVE DRINKING BY HIS WIFE
                 c.     WIFE COUNTERFEITING HOUSEHOLD KEYS
                 d.     WIFE'S ADULTERY
                        (1)   IN FACT IF ADULTERY DIVORCE WAS OBLIGATORY
                        (2)   OTHERWISE HER HUSBAND CONSIDERED TO CONDONE THE
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                       ACT
               (2)     & SO LOST ANY CLAIM TO DOWRY
               (3)     AS WELL AS MAKING HIMSELF LIABLE TO PROSECUTION AS
                       HIS WIFE'S PIMP
          e.   BARRENNESS OF WIFE
               (1)     WIFE ALWAYS RESPONSIBLE FOR THIS
               (2)     EXCEPT IN OBVIOUS CASES MALE IMPOTENCY
     5.   DIVORCE NOT AS EASY FOR WIFE BUT POSSIBLE
          a.   IF HER HUSBAND DESERTED HER,
          b.   IF HE CONVICTED OF CERTAIN CRIMES
          c.   OR MADE PRISONER OF WAR
     6.   BY 2ND C. B.C. DIVORCE HAD CEASED TO BE A RARE OCCURRENCE .
     7.   & BY AUGUSTAN AGE IT HAD BECOME PUBLIC SCANDAL
          a.   ESPECIALLY IN UPPER CLASSES
     8.   CAESAR & CICERO BOTH DIVORCED TWICE & MARRIED 3 TIMES
     9.   CHRISTIAN FATHER TERTULLIAN LIVING IN 2ND & 3RD CENTURIES AD IS
          CREDITED W/THE EPIGRAM
          a.   DIVORCE WAS NOW LOOKED UPON AS ONE FRUIT OF MARRIAGE
H.   CONCUBINES
     1.   ROMAN COULD LEGALLY HAVE A CONCUBINE BUT ONLY 1 AT A TIME
          a.   & NOT AT SAME TIME AS HE WAS MARRIED
     2.   FROWNED ON FOR A BACHELOR TO KEEP MORE THAN 1
     3.   USUALLY ONE HAD A CONCUBINE RELATIONSHIP W/SOMEONE WHEN A
          VALID MARRIAGE NOT POSSIBLE
          a.   SENATOR & FREED SLAVE
     4.   BUT COULD BE WHEN GIRL'S FAMILY NOT UNABLE TO RAISE A DOWRY
     5.   CONCUBINE'S CHILDREN ILLEGITIMATE
I.   CHILDREN
     1.   ROMAN LAW DEFINED PURPOSE OF MARRIAGE AS PROCREATION
          a.   CHRISTIANS WILL CONTINUE THIS PRACTICE
     2.   UNDER EMPIRE ONLY WAY WOMAN COULD FREE HERSELF FROM MALE
          GUARDIANSHIP TO BEAR AT LEAST 3 CHILDREN
          a.   EMPERORS OFFERED THIS INDUCEMENT TO HAVE LARGE
               FAMILIES
          b.   & EVEN ALLOWED MOTHERS OF 3 CHILDREN TO WEAR SPECIAL
               DRESS OF HONOR - STOLA
     3.   CHILDBIRTH VERY RISKY FOR WOMEN
     4.   EPITAPH FOR ROMAN WOMAN
     5.   HERE I LIE, A MATRON NAMED VETURIA. MY FATHER WAS VETURIUS.
          MY HUSBAND WAS FORTUNATUS. I LIVED FOR 2-7 YEARS, & I WAS
          MARRIED FOR 16 YEARS TO THE SAME MAN. AFTER I GAVE BIRTH TO 6
          CHILDREN, ONLY ONE OF WHOM IS STILL ALIVE, I DIED. TITUS JULIUS
          FORTUNATUS, A SOLDIER OF AUXILIARY LEGION II, PROVIDED THIS
          MEMORIAL FOR HIS WIFE, WHO WAS INCOMPARABLE & SHOWED
          OUTSTANDING DEVOTION TO HIM.
     6.   EVEN RECORDS OF CHILDLESS WIVES WHO PROPOSED THEIR
          HUSBANDS DIVORCE THEM & MARRY ANOTHER WOMAN CAPABLE OF
          PRODUCING CHILDREN
          a.   OLD TESTAMENT IDEA
     7.   ALWAYS EXISTED IN ROME CUSTOM THAT ALLOWED GREAT FAMILIES,
          THREATENED WITH EXTINCTION FOR LACK OF MALE DESCENDANTS
                                                                             5
                a.     TO BUY SON
                b.     USUALLY OF ANOTHER GREAT FAMILY
                c.     ANCESTRAL CULT OF FAMILY THUS PERPETUATED
           8.   FROM AUGUSTUS TO NERO SAME PROCESS APPEARS
                a.     HEAD OF STATE WOULD HAVE NO SON
           9.   EMPEROR WOULD THEN ADOPT ONE OR SEVERAL YOUNG MEN
                CAPABLE OF SUCCEEDING HIM
           10.  SONS MORE DESIROUS THAN DAUGHTERS
           11.  VARIOUS METHODS USED BY ROMANS TO CONTROL FAMILY SIZE
                a.     BIRTH CONTROL METHODS
                b.     ABORTION
                c.     INFANTICIDE
           12.  VARIOUS HERBAL OINTMENTS FOR CONTRACEPTIVES
                a.     WOOL SOAKED IN HONEY, ALUM, WHITE LEAD OR OLIVE OIL
      J.   ABORTION
           1.   IN ROMAN LAW, FOETUS SEEN AS HAVING NEITHER A SOUL NOR ANY
                INDIVIDUALITY
           2.   ITS DESTRUCTION NOT MURDER
           3.   ABORTION ACCEPTED FORM OF BIRTH CONTROL IN FASHIONABLE
                CIRCLES IN ROME
      K.   NAMING OF CHILDREN
           1.   DURING REPUBLIC ROMAN WOMAN HAD ONLY 1 NAME - THE FAMILY
                NAME
           2.   NO SPECIFIC GIRL NAMES FOR ROMANS
           3.   ROMAN BOY HAD 3 NAMES IF A CITIZEN
      L.   ROMAN INFANTICIDE
           1.   NEWBORN LAID ON GROUND BEFORE PATERFAMILIAS
           2.   IF HE PICKED IT UP ACCEPTED
           3.   OTHERWISE IT EXPOSED
           4.   EXPOSURE OF UNWANTED CHILDREN PRACTICE FROM EARLY YRS OF
                ROME
           5.   BOTH GREEKS & ROMANS THOUGHT IT PECULIAR THAT
           6.   EGYPTIANS, GERMANS & JEWS DID NOT EXPOSE ANY OF THEIR
                CHILDREN BUT RAISED THEM ALL
           7.   GREEKS EXPOSED MORE FEMALES & ROMANS APPEAR TO HAVE
                FOLLOWED THIS
                a.     TWO TO ONE RATIO FOR GREEKS
                b.     SOME SUGGEST 10-20 % OF FEMALE INFANTS EXPOSED FOR
                       ROMANS
      M.   ALTERNATE METHOD TO INFANTICIDE
           1.   REGULAR STREETS WHERE UNWANTED CHILDREN REGULARLY SET
                OUT FOR PEOPLE TO LOOK OVER FOR ADOPTION
                a.     GIRLS MORE THAN BOYS
           2.   PROSTITUTION HOUSE OWNERS FREQUENTLY CAME BY TO COLLECT
                BABY GIRLS

II.   ROMAN SLAVERY
      A.  GENERAL REMARKS
          1.   OVER COURSE OF CONQUESTS ROME BECAME SLAVE SOCIETY
               a.   BY 4-3 CENTURY B.C. SLAVERY ENDEMIC
          2.   AT LEAST 1/3 POPULATION OF EMPIRE SLAVES
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     3.   GRANDEUR OF ROME BASED ON EXPLOITATION OF LARGE PART OF
          POPULATION
     4.   SLAVES PRODUCED PRACTICALLY ALL NATION'S FOOD SUPPLY
     5.   AT LEAST 80% OF WORKERS EMPLOYED IN SHOPS SLAVES OR FORMER
          SLAVES
     6.   ALMOST ALL CITIZENS EXCEPT POOREST OWNED LEAST FEW SLAVES
     7.   WEALTHIEST OWNED HUNDREDS
     8.   TO WORK IN HOMES AS SERVANTS, ETC.
     9.   LIKE GREEK SLAVES, ROMAN ONES CAPTURED PEOPLE OR DEBTORS
     10.  SUCCESSFUL GENERAL BRING BACK THOUSANDS OF CAPTIVES TO BE
          SOLD TO SLAVE DEALER
     11.  ROMANS TREATED SLAVES MORE HARSHLY THAN GREEKS
          a.    PROBABLY BECAUSE MOST SLAVES ROME NON-ROMAN
          b.    CF MANY GREEK SLAVES GREEKS THEMSELVES
          c.    ALWAYS EASIER TO TREAT SOMEONE INFERIOR IF DIFFERENT
                THAN YOURSELF
     12.  ON BIG PLANTATION SLAVES CHAINED IN INDIVIDUAL CELLS AT NIGHT
          a.    SO WOULDN'T RUN AWAY
     13.  MANY SLAVES HAD IRON COLLARS WELDED ON W/NAMES & ADDRESS
          OF OWNERS
          a.    LIKE MODERN DOG COLLARS
     14.  PROFESSIONAL SLAVE CATCHERS
          a.    DID GOOD BUSINESS IN RUN-AWAYS
     15.  HOUSEHOLD SLAVES BETTER TREATED
          a.    LIKE SERVANTS
     16.  BUT TREATISES OF TIME SHOW PROPER FOOD & DAY OFF ONLY GIVEN
          TO MAKE SLAVE WORK HARDER
          a.    NOT AS INHERENT RIGHT
     17.  ARCHAEOLOGISTS HAVE FOUND TERRIBLE BONE DISEASES & OTHER
          ILLNESSES OF SLAVES
     18.  MALNOURISHED & WORKED TOO HARD
     19.  BY 1 OR 2ND C A.D. ESSENTIALLY EVERYONE IN ROME RELATED TO
          FORMER SLAVE
     20.  ROMAN CITIZENS ORIGINALLY FAIR-SKINNED PEOPLE
     21.  BUT PORTRAITS FROM LATE EMPIRE ROMANS DARK-HAIRED & DARK
          SKINNED
     22.  MEDITERRANEAN TYPE ONE STILL ASSOCIATES W/SOUTHERN EUROPE
     23.  GENERATIONS OF MARRIAGE W/PEOPLE FROM N. AFRICA OR NEAR EAST
          LEFT FAIR-SKINNED TYPE VERY UNUSUAL
B.   SLAVE REVOLTS
     1.   NOT MANY BUT SEVERAL SEVERE ONES
     2.   THIRD SERVILE WAR 73-71 B.C.
          a.    70,000 SLAVES IN ITALY REVOLTED
          b.    LED BY INTELLIGENT GREEK GLADIATOR SLAVE, SPARTACUS
          c.    SPARTACUS DEFEATED 1 ROMAN FORCE AFTER ANOTHER THRU
                HIS MILITARY ABILITY
          e.    TERRIFYING ITALY 3 YRS AS ATTEMPTED TO ESCAPE ITALIAN
                PENINSULA
          f.    BUT UNABLE TO CONTROL HIS FOLLOWERS
          g.    AS THEY LOOTED & PILLAGE & BROKE AWAY INTO SMALLER
                GROUPS
                                                                               7
                 h.   SPARTACUS FINALLY DEFEATED & KILLED
                 i.   6000 OF HIS FOLLOWERS CRUCIFIED
                 j.   THEIR BODIES LEFT TO ROT ALONG 130 MILE APPIAN WAY ON
                      CROSSES
            3.   PASSED LAW
                 a.   IF 1 SLAVE MURDERED HIS MASTER
                 b.   THEN REST OF SLAVES IN HOUSEHOLD
                 c.   EVEN IF HUNDREDS OF THEM
                 d.   WOULD BE KILLED ALSO
                 e.   NO FURTHER SLAVE OUTBREAKS OCCURRED

III.   ROMAN LAW
       A.  GENERAL REMARKS
           1.   GENERAL AGREEMENT 1 OF MOST NB LEGACIES ROMAN SYSTEM OF
                LAW
           2.   ROMAN LAW BECAME FOUNDATION OF CIVIL LAW OF ALMOST ALL
                MODERN EUROPEAN NATIONS
           3.   CODES FROM REPUBLIC FOUNDED ON TWELVE TABLES C. 450 B.C. &
                LAWS FOR PROVINCES
           4.   AUGMENTED BY EDICTS OF PRAETORS
                a.    MAGISTRATES WHO HAD AUTHORITY TO DEFINE & INTERPRET
                      LAW IN PARTICULAR SUIT
                b.    & ISSUE INSTRUCTIONS TO JURY FOR DECISION OF CASE
           5.   & LATER EMINENT JURISTS HAD RIGHT TO DELIVER OPINIONS ON
                LEGAL ISSUES OF CASES UNDER TRIAL IN COURTS
           6.   OPINIONS FROM THESE JURIES CAME TO EMBODY ROMAN
                JURISPRUDENCE
           7.   ROMAN LAW AS IT DEVELOPED UNDER INFLUENCE OF JURISTS
                COMPRISED 3 GREAT BRANCHES OR DIVISIONS
                a.    CIVIL LAW
                b.    LAW OF PEOPLES
                c.    NATURAL LAW
           8.   CIVIL LAW OF ROME & ITS CITIZENS
           9.   IT EXISTED IN BOTH WRITTEN & UNWRITTEN FORMS
           10.  LAW HELD TO BE COMMON TO ALL REGARDLESS OF NATIONALITY
                a.    SUCH THINGS AS CONTRACT, PARTNERSHIPS, REAL ESTATE LAW
                      CAME UNDER THIS
           11.  MOST INTERESTING & IN MANY WAYS MOST NB BRANCH OF ROMAN
                LAW NATURAL LAW
           12.  PRODUCT NOT OF JUDICIAL PRACTICE BUT OF PHILOSOPHY
           13.  STOICS HAD DEVELOPED IDEA OF RATIONAL ORDER OR NATURE
           14.  WHICH IS EMBODIMENT OF JUSTICE & RIGHT
           15.  THEY HAD AFFIRMED ALL MEN BY NATURE EQUAL
           16.  ENTITLED TO CERTAIN BASIC RIGHTS WHICH STOICS HAVE NO
                AUTHORITY TO TRANSGRESS
           17.  CICERO FATHER OF LAW OF NATURE
           18.  FUNDAMENTAL CONCEPT WAS THAT ALL FREE MEN WERE EQUAL
                BEFORE THE LAW
           19.  CHIEF FEATURES
                a.    A MAN WAS INNOCENT UNTIL PROVED GUILTY
                      (1)   ALTHOUGH LATER ON WILL BE OPPOSITE TO THIS &
                                                                     8
                    ENGLISH COMMON LAW WILL HAVE THIS
         b.   THE ACCUSED GIVEN THE RIGHT TO FACE HIS ACCUSERS
         c.   THE ACCUSED HAD THE RIGHT OF APPEAL
     20. UNDER EASTERN EMPEROR JUSTINIAN IN EARLY 6TH C.
     21. ALL OF ROMAN LAW WOULD BE CODIFIED
         a.   INTO 3 SEPARATE ELEMENTS
         b.   BACKBONE OF CORPUS JURIS CIVILIS = BODY OF CIVIL LAW
         c.   FOUNDATION OF LAW FOR NEARLY EVERY MODERN EUROPEAN
              NATION
     22. SHAPED LAWS OF MEDIEVAL CHURCH
     23. REACHED APEX OF INFLUENCE W/DOCTRINE OF 18TH C
         ENLIGHTENMENT
         a.   PHILOSOPHICAL FOUNDATION OF AMERICAN & FRENCH
              REVOLUTIONS
B.   ROMAN EDUCATION
     1.  PURPOSE
         a.   NOT INTELLECTUAL ATTAINMENT NOR PROMISE OF BETTER JOB
              SKILLS
         b.   FOR MOLDING CHARACTER & CONDUCT
     2.  ORIGINALLY ALL EDUCATION TOOK PLACE AT HOME
     3.  WEALTHY BOUGHT EDUCATED GREEK SLAVES TO BE TUTORS
     4.  ALL CULTURED ROMANS PRIDED THEMSELVES ON MASTERY OF GREEK
     5.  INCLUDING WOMEN
     6.  LATE REPUBLIC SONS SENT TO SCHOOLS
         a.   BUT NOT DAUGHTERS
              (1)   THEY STILL TAUGHT AT HOME
     7.  NO SYSTEM OF FREE PUBLIC EDUCATION
     8.  ONLY WELL-TO DO CHILDREN EDUCATED
     9.  ROMAN CURRICULUM
         a.   7 LIBERAL ARTS
         b.   LIBERAL = RELATED TO BOOKS = LIBER, LATIN
         c.   CONTINUED AS BASIS OF ED IN MIDDLE AGES
         d.   FIRST 3 LEARNED = TRIVIUM
              (1)   GRAMMAR, RHETORIC, LOGIC
              (2)   GRAMMAR
                    (a)   BASIC READING, WRITING
              (3)   RHETORIC
                    (a)   ART OF SPEAKING WELL
                    (b)   VERY NB ROMAN POLITICS & LAW
              (4)   LOGIC
                    (a)   ABILITY TO REASON & ARGUE EFFECTIVELY
         e.   GOOD DEAL OF SUBJECT MATTER INVOLVED CLOSED READING
              OF GREEK PHILOSOPHY, DRAMA, POETRY
         f.   ROMANS ALWAYS FELT SLIGHTLY INFERIOR TO GREEKS
         g.   TRIED TO MAKE UP BY PRODUCING OWN VERSIONS OF GREEK
              WORKS
              (1)   BEST EG AENEID
                    (a)   VIRGIL
                    (b)   EPIC POEM OF FOUNDATION OF ROME TO COMPARE
                          W/ILIAD OF HOMER
                    (c)   STORY OF AENEAS = TROJAN WHO ESCAPED
                                                                  9
                      DESTRUCTION OF TROY
                (d)   POPULAR THROUGHOUT MIDDLE AGES
      h.   PERSON PROPERLY TRAINED IN TRIVIUM READY TO TAKE HIS
           PLACE IN SOCIETY
           (1)  WHERE PUBLIC SPEAKING HIGHLY PRIZED
10.   QUADRIVIUM = OTHER 4 LIBERAL ARTS
      a.   ARITHMETIC, GEOMETRY, ASTRONOMY, MUSIC
      b.   MUSIC
           (1)  EMPHASIS ON RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN NOTES
           (2)  STUDIED AS FORM OF MATH RATHER THAN AS A
                PERFORMING ART
      c.   ASTRONOMY
           (1)  BOTH OBSERVING MOVEMENTS OF STARS
           (2)  & USING THEM AS SIGNS & PORTENTS
      d.   ASTRONOMY & ASTROLOGY 1 DISCIPLINE
11.   HIGHER EDUCATION
      a.   ROMAN MEDICINE
           (1)  COMPOSED PRIMARILY STUDY & MEMORIZATION OF
                GREEK TEXTS ON ANATOMY
      b.   ARCHITECTURE
      c.   LAW
           (1)  ONLY LAWYERS CONSIDERED TO BE FOLLOWING A
                HONORABLE TRADE
           (2)  CF W/GREEKS WHO HAD NO PROFESSIONAL LAWYERS

				
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