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Omega-3 For Life Application through Life’s Stages Mark Lange, PhD Director, Quality Control Market America Disclaimer The statements contained in the following presentation have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. The ingredients discussed are not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease. Essential Fatty Acids ALA deemed “Essential” because of its apparent benefits in animal studies. Later found that DHA provides the health benefits to eye and brain. ALA is converted to DHA (<1% efficient). Therefore, DHA is “Conditionally Essential” because the body can make it – but not enough. Plant and Marine Sources of Omega-3 Vegetable oils contain significant ALA, but no EPA/DHA. Fish oils have concentrated EPA/DHA and trace ALA. Typical America diet provides 2-3 g/day ALA and 50-80 mg/day EPA/DHA. Omega-3 Health Benefits DHA is required at high levels in the brain and retina for optimal learning ability and mental development and visual acuity. DHA/EPA support cardiovascular health. Pregnancy Stage Taken to support the health of the baby during neonatal period. Particularly important during last trimester. Consuming fish is risky because of mercury contamination. Take at least 300 mg DHA per day. Pregnancy Stage Clinical trials show that women with higher DHA intake have infants with higher cognitive development scores and children with higher IQ scores. Daniels, J.L. Fish intake during pregnancy and early cognitive development of offspring. Epidemiology. 15:394-402, 2004 Cohen, J.T. A quantitative analysis of prenatal intake of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and cognitive development. Am. J. Prev. Med 29(4):366-374, 2005 Pregnancy Stage Evidence that mothers with higher intake of DHA give birth to infants with improved sleep patterns. Cheruku, S.R. Higher maternal plasma DHA during pregnancy is associated with more mature neonatal sleep-state patterning. Am. J. Clin. Nutri. 76:608-613, 2002 Low Omega-3 Intake Linked to Depression in Pregnancy Women consuming 1500 mg omega-3 from seafood per week were less likely to have depressive symptoms than those consuming none. Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Epidemiology 2009, Jul; 20(4); 598-603 Postpartum Depression and Fish Consumption Hibbeln, J.R. (2002) Journal of Affective Disorders 69(1-3) 15-29 25.0 South Africa Brazil 22.5 New Zealand r = - 0.76 Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale W. Germany p < 0.0001 20.0 Australia Postpartum depreessed % 17.5 Saudi United States Arabia Italy 15.0 Netherlands UK Canada 12.5 France Ireland Israel Chile 10.0 Switzerland Sweden 7.5 Hong Kong 5.0 Malaysia Japan 2.5 Singapore 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 Fish Consumption (lbs/ person/year) Pregnancy Stage Higher intakes of DHA/EPA during pregnancy (150+ mg/day) have increased birth weights and reduced risk of preterm delivery. Lucas, M. Gestational age and birth weight in relation to n-3 fatty acids among Inuit. Lipids. 39:617-626, 2004. Olsen, S.F., Low consumption of seafood in early pregnancy as a risk factor for preterm delivery. BMJ. 324:1-5, 2002 Lactation/Infancy Stage The level of DHA in breast milk is very low because fish is only consumed about every 10 days. (80 mg/day average.) Women consuming 11,000 mg ALA/day still have very low DHA in milk. Taking 300 mg DHA/day elevates breast milk levels from 0.14% of total milk fats to 0.39%. Lactation/Infancy Stage Supplementing with 200 mg/day DHA for four months after delivery resulted in higher scores on the Bayley Psychomotor Development Index at 30 months of age. Jensen, C.L. Effects of maternal DHA intake on visual function and neurodevelopment in breastfed term infants. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 82:125-132. 2005 Lactation/Infancy Stage There is a positive correlation between mother supplementing with fish oil EPA/DHA during lactation and their child’s visual acuity at 4 months age. Lauritzen, L. Maternal fish oil supplementation in lactation: effect on visual acuity and n-3 fatty acid content of infant erythrocytes. Lipids. 38(3): 195- 206, 2004 Pregnant and Lactating Women World Association of Perinatal Medicine, the Early Nutrition Academy, and the Child Health Foundation support: – Pregnant and lactating women should get at 200 mg DHA per day. – Infant formula contain 0.2 – 0.5% DHA of total fat. – Baby should continue taking omega-3 after first 6 months of life. J. Perinat. Med. 2008; 36(1);5-14 Infancy Stage Infant formulas containing 0.36% DHA provided 8% improved performance on the Mental Development Index, a measure of memory, problem solving, vocalization, and math. Birch, E.E. A randomized controlled trial of early dietary supply of long- chain polyunsaturated fatty acids and mental development in term infants. Dev. Med. And Child Neur. 42:174-181,2000 Childhood Stage ADHD children have low blood levels of DHA. A study using functional food sources of omega- 3 providing 514 mg DHA + 100 mg EPA showed significant reduction in aggression. Hamazaki, T. The effect of DHA-containing food administration on symptoms of ADHD – a placebo-controlled doubled blind study. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. 58:838,2004 Voight, R.G. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of DHA supplementation with AD/hyperactivity disorder. J. Ped. 138(2): 189-196,2001 Omega-3s Help Prevent All-Cause Adult Mortality and CVD Events Placebo controlled study of 563 men aged 64 – 76 years for three years. Diet counseling plus 2.4 g EPA+DHA per day. Omega-3 reduced all-cause mortality by 47% and heart attack risk by 11%. Einvik, G. et al. Euro. J. Cardiovas. Prev. & Rehab. 10 April 2010 (online) Management of Adult Hypertriglyceridemia Fish oil effective at lowering triglycerides. 2-4 g total EPA/DHA per day lower TGs 30-50%. Can be used in combination with statins with doctor’s supervision. Bucher HC, Griffith LE, Guyatt GH. Systematic review on the risk and benefit of different cholesterol-lowering interventions. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 1999;19:187–95. Fish Consumption and the Annual Prevalence of Major Depression 6 Annual prevalence, (rate /100 persons) New Zealand (5.8%) 5 Canada (5.2%) r=- 0.84 France (4.5%) p< 0.005 W. Germany Major Depression, (5.0%) 4 3 United States Puerto (3.0%) Rico (3.0%) Korea (2.3%) 2 1 Taiwan (0.8%) Japan (0.12%) 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 Apparent Fish Consumption (lbs./ person/year) Hibbeln, The Lancet, 1998 Age Related Eye Disease Study An average intake of 64 mg/day DHA and 42 mg/day EPA associated with 27% reduction in age-related macular degeneration. Omega-3s and Inflammation The application of omega-3 FA’s for long- term pain relief and management of inflammation is warranted. Dose for analgesia effect is 3 grams or more daily of EPA plus DHA. Nutrition & Dietetics. 2009:66;4-6 Conclusion DHA is essential for the growth and functional development of the brain in infants. The visual acuity of healthy, full-term, formula- fed infants is increased when their formula includes DHA. Decreases in DHA in the brain are associated with cognitive decline during aging. Strong correlation between fish consumption and reduction in sudden death from myocardial infarction.
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