Learning older workforce Leeds Dec04 v4 by yh1s7G

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									  Learning and the older workforce


  Stephen McNair
  Director
  Centre for Research into the Older Workforce
  University of Surrey




Centre for Research into the Older Workforce
 What is the problem?
  • We are living longer
     – Life expectancy rose by 30 yrs in 20th century,
  • We are not replacing the workforce
     – lowest ever birth rate (1.6 per woman),
     – young people entering the workforce later,
     – largest ever age cohort approaching retirement,
     – ageing workforce a major constraint in 6/14 occupational sectors
  • We are saving less
     – lowest ever savings rate,
     – highest ever personal debt,
     – average pension yield halved 2000-2003
  • This is not sustainable – people will have to work longer
  • Age discrimination legislation is coming (2006)



Centre for Research into the Older Workforce
 What is CROW?
  • Response to labour market problems in the South East – but
    national/international interests
  • Based in University of Surrey, funded by SEEDA since 2002
  • Partnership with NIACE and PRA
  • Work to date
     – National survey of job change 20+
     – Postal survey 50-69 yrs
     – Qualitative interviews of older workers – gender and
       qualification
     – Study of employer behaviour for DTI (to inform legislation)
     – Literature/resource base
     – Briefing papers on key issues


Centre for Research into the Older Workforce
 Key questions

 • What would persuade people to stay in work longer?
 • What can employers do to make work more
   attractive?
 • What can Government do to help?




Centre for Research into the Older Workforce
 As people age

 • Capacity for work does not decline – for most
 • Poor health main cause of early retirement in 50s –
   can be reduced
 • Motivation to work does not decline – but flexibility
   becomes more important
 • Loyalty to employer rises
 • Participation in work and training declines
 • Styles of working and learning change
 • Some differences are effects of generation, not age

Centre for Research into the Older Workforce
  What people want
  •   To work
  •   Control and internally generated goals
  •   Skill use
  •   Variety
  •   Clarity of purpose
  •   Financial security
  •   Interaction with others (quality and quantity)
  •   Respect/ social position




Centre for Research into the Older Workforce
 CROW Omnibus Survey:
 How far are older workers different?
 •   A national Omnibus Survey (ONS) of 5400 job changers aged 20-69
 •   Spring 2003
 •   1136 in 50-69 age range
 •   Examining
      – job changes in last 5 years
      – reason for change
      – effects of change
      – support for change
      – usefulness of the support
      – aspirations for work after retirement


Centre for Research into the Older Workforce
 How different are older workers?
  •   Job mobility declines with age
  •   “Career” motivation remains most important
  •   Qualification levels of older people lower
  •   Until 60 most change results in more responsibility and skills,
      and longer hours
  •   After 60 pressure and flexibility become serious issues
  •   Declining health a major factor in early exit – much is
      avoidable
  •   Few people receive any support
  •   Most would consider work after “retirement” if it was
      sufficiently flexible
  •   Self employed stay longest


Centre for Research into the Older Workforce
 Older workers are not all alike:
 the choosers and the chosen:
  •   Choosers - choose paid work
       – qualified,
       – professional/managerial,
       – control over work,
       – mission/purpose
  •   Survivors - need paid work
       – unqualified,
       – unskilled/semi skilled,
       – least control over work
  •   Jugglers – choose a balance
       – Sub degree qualifications
       – Full social range
       – Overwhelmingly female
       – Balancing work and other commitments

                                                CROW/ONS Omnibus Survey 2003



Centre for Research into the Older Workforce
 CROW Postal Survey
 Individual attitudes to work
 •   Postal survey
 •   50-69 yr olds
 •   400 responses drawn from Omnibus sample
 •   Employed and retired
 •   Examining
      – Experience of work and discrimination
      – Attitudes to work
      – Attitudes to policy issues

Centre for Research into the Older Workforce
 Postal survey – key findings

 • 50% are in some form of work
         (8% describe themselves as “retired”)
 • Little difference in attitude between fully retired and employed
 • 18% report age discrimination
 • Retirement is natural – no “reason”
 • Workers want to go on working, non-workers don’t
 • Half of the retired would have liked to stay if work could have
   been flexible/part-time
 • Attitudes to work are positive



Centre for Research into the Older Workforce
 People like work
         Enjoy work with colleagues

                Friendships at work

                   Job is enjoyable

           Suits my circumstances

       Job makes good use of skills

                      Not mundane

          Job contributes to society
             Employer values work

        Can balance home and work

                                       0   20   40       60   80      100
                                                     %

                                                                   CROW Postal Survey 2004


Centre for Research into the Older Workforce
 Would you like to do some paid work
 after retiring from your main job?

                                       definitely yes
                                            15%
                    definitely no
                        30%


                                               probably yes
                                                   17%




                     probably no
                        15%           maybe
                                       23%




                                                              CROW Postal survey - all

Centre for Research into the Older Workforce
 Education and training in
 later life: things we know
 • Those who had least get least, and less as they age
 • Most people get less as they get older
 • Most people get little advice
 • Neither employers nor individuals invest much –
   unfounded fears of poor returns and declining
   capacity (young people are less reliable and loyal)
 • No evidence of declining capacity if training provided
 • Little explicit education/training provision on any
   scale – except for highly qualified and unemployed

Centre for Research into the Older Workforce
 Things we don’t know?
  •   How far is the decline in training an issue of supply or demand
  •   What is currently offered, to meet what needs
  •   Who are the main providers – state, public, private, voluntary
  •   How many older people seek guidance and with what results
  •   Is the training offered appropriate:
       – learning styles
       – repetition of old training
       – trivial training issues or approaches
       – failure to use experience and expertise
       – unduly didactic approaches


Centre for Research into the Older Workforce
 Learning needs and the older
 workforce – an analytical framework
 •   Information, advice and guidance
 •   Lifecourse learning
 •   Retention
 •   Re-entry and return
 •   Second careers
 •   Succession and knowledge management
 •   Health
 •   Community engagement
 •   Role of informal learning and AP(E)L

Centre for Research into the Older Workforce
 Evaluating interventions – work and
 learning
 Does it provide:
 • control
 • opportunity to use of skills and experience
 • variety and work/life balance
 • clear purpose
 • financial security
 • physical security
 • social interaction
 • respect and status

Centre for Research into the Older Workforce
                   More information,
         including reports and briefing papers
                         from
         www.surrey.ac.uk/education/CROW




Centre for Research into the Older Workforce
 Advice, guidance and support

 •   Take up is minimal
 •   Policy discriminates
 •   Is it available?
 •   Where do people expect to get advice?
 •   What are the barriers
 •   Challenging Age




Centre for Research into the Older Workforce
 Retention

 • Easier than return
 • Remaining up to date to retain current employment
   status
 • Preparing for promotion/progression




Centre for Research into the Older Workforce
 Re-entry and return

 • Acquiring new skills and knowledge needed to
   practice one’s old occupation after a break
 • Confidence building
 • Discrimination proofing
 • Lessons from women returners and unemployment
   education?




Centre for Research into the Older Workforce
 Succession and knowledge transfer

 •   Mentoring
 •   Consulting
 •   Supervision
 •   Matching this with rapidly changing organisations
     and technology




Centre for Research into the Older Workforce
 Second careers

 • Is starting again different from starting first time?
 • Will apprenticeships help?
 • Self employment – learning to be entrepreneurial




Centre for Research into the Older Workforce
 Health

 • Understanding health at work – physical and mental
 • Learning to manage health positively




Centre for Research into the Older Workforce
 Community engagement

 • Making a contribution
 • Fighting isolation
 • Voluntary activity




Centre for Research into the Older Workforce
 Informal learning

 • Do older people do more informal learning?
 • What is the role of APEL?
 • Do older people recognise their continuing learning?




Centre for Research into the Older Workforce
 Lifecourse education

 •   learning to manage life changes
 •   plateauing
 •   children leaving
 •   caring roles
 •   retirement
 •   bereavement




Centre for Research into the Older Workforce

								
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