School Bus Safety & Stabilization by 3Lj002v

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									                   School Bus
           Stabilization & Extrication




Developed by
FF Jon M. Graziani
Maple Valley Fire & Life Safety
               School Bus Statistics

 Each year, school buses provide
  an estimated 10 billion student
  trips in the United States.
 Every school day, 475,000 school
  buses transport 25 million
  children to and from schools and
  school-related activities.
                A little “History”

 The first school bus was
 horse-drawn, introduced in
 1827 by George Shillibeer, it
 was designed to carry 25
 children.
                                  Statistics

 Over the past 11 years school buses
  have annually averaged 26,000
  crashes, resulting in 10 fatalities:
  25% were drivers, 75% were
  passengers – National Highway
  Transportation Safety Administration
          School Bus Occupant Hazards

 Most school bus fatalities
  occur outside the bus
  during loading and
  unloading of children.
 Most school bus injuries
  occur inside the school
  bus, 2/3 of the injuries are
  minor – patients were not
  properly positioned inside
  the seating area.
                 School Bus Hazards

 Most fatalities and accidents
  occur in the afternoon and
  mid-year; students and drivers
  aren’t thinking about a “school
  bus”, they’re usually thinking
  about what they will do when
  they get home. Most fatalities
  occur between December and
  May of each year. – State
  education department.
                               Scene Control

 School bus crashes are extremely
 difficult, even for the seasoned
 veteran.
    Will draw enormous attention
        Students with cell phones will call parents,
         relatives or friends
        All of which will race to the scene frantic and
         worried
    News media will attempt to get pictures
     and stories
    As the clock ticks more and more people
     will be notified of the incident
        To deal with these people request law
         enforcement for traffic control and restrict
         access to unnecessary individuals
                           Scene Control

 Set up a Staging area for Parents,
  Media, School Representatives
     Assign a PIO
 Manage the Victims
     Follow Zone 3 MCI protocols
 Establish Pre-determined
  response so decisions aren’t made
  by the seat of your pants
     Fire Department & EMS
     Local School Representatives
     Law Enforcement
                     Component Hazards

 School buses pose the
  same hazards as most
  vehicles on the roadway
  today
     Size & Mass alone is a
      hazard to all working
      on/in/around a not properly
      stabilized vehicle
 Fires
     Dense toxic fumes due to the
      use of flammable materials
      in seats.
 Access
     Narrow aisle ways.
                  School Bus Systems

 Similar to other vehicles, School buses have batteries, fuel
  systems, air bags and seat belts.
                Storage Compartments

 Built around the chassis
   Provides “false” support system
    for struts & cribbing
   Light gauge steel / NO
    structural support
   Accessed from both sides

   “What’s inside the storage
    compartment?”
                        Battery Access

 Rear Drivers-Side
 Compartment
    3-6 batteries
    Slide tray
    Terminate “Negative”
      Disconnect (or)
      Double Cut
      Follow Dept Procedures
                    Engine Access

 All “cab-over” buses have
  engines mounted in the rear
  of the bus
                               Fuel Systems

 Fuel systems vary
    Diesel
    Gas
    Butane
    Propane
    Natural Gas
    Hybrid
        Be aware of the various fuel
         systems, be prepared to contain fuel
         spillage
                  Safety Features

 On-board Fire Extinguishers
 Emergency Escape Windows &
 Roof Hatches
                     School Bus Access

 The weakest to strongest parts
  of a school bus are as follows
  and should be considered as
  you gain access:
  1. Windows
  2. Windshield
  3. Doors
  4. The structure itself
                               Access

 Gaining access to the Cab can be
  simple to complex
     “Try before you Pry”
     Conscious driver, “ask them to open
      the door”
         Emergency Exits
           Windows, Doors, and/or Roof
            hatches
     Unconscious, utilize a pike pole
      through door window
     The goal is to find a way “IN” and a
      way “OUT”
                                Access Issues

 Resting on its wheels
     Emergency Exits
 Resting on its side
     Remove front window as the Entry Point
     Remove rear window as the Egress Point
         Best operation is to operate the locking
          mechanism from the inside
         Totally remove the door
 Resting on its top
     Remove windows and exit doors
                       Window Removal

 Remove two windows and the
  post to create a large
  access/egress point for rescuers
  and victims
 The window frame can be
  removed with a screw driver,
  window punch or hydraulic
  cutters
     Laminated Glass on Windshield
     Remove the rubber seal from window
      frame to pull windshield out intact
     Tempered Glass on sides
           Making a door from a window

 Once the glass is
 removed, utilize the
 cutters or
 reciprocating saw
    Determine the size of the
     opening
    Cut away the pillars
    Cut down to the floor
     board
                              Stabilization

 School buses are large vehicles
  weighing up to and in excess of 12 tons.
     Overall Size: Height and Weight
     Requires a large amount of cribbing
     Box cribbing will eventually distribute the
      weight
     Struts prevent horizontal movement
 Their size creates stabilization obstacles
  not normally dealt with in passenger
  vehicles
 Any shifting can harm rescuers and victims
     Be aware of surroundings, identify a way out if
      conditions change
                 Stabilization Concerns

 Traditional Stabilization
 techniques
    Chock the wheels
    Terminate electrical system
    Set Airbrake
    Turn OFF ignition
    Do NOT deflate tires
      6 or more inches of downward
       movement on one side may cause a
       drastic tilt
      Bus may not be totaled and will
       need to be moved or towed
                       Stabilization Basics

 Utilizing Stabilization
 Struts
    Remove compartment door (s)
     for proper anchoring point
        You must find a “safe” & “solid”
         anchoring point
    The “black” band is a safe
     anchoring point
                 Stabilization Basics

 If you choose to utilize box cribbing you must
  gain access to the frame rails
 Standard to Large dimensional lumber will be
  required
                        Extrication Tools

 The tools needed for bus
 extrication operations are
 carried on most fire engines
    The reciprocating saw is an
     excellent tool, it is light weight,
     smaller, allowing firefighters to
     cut overhead and in tight spaces
    Allows for quick work, electric
     powered are more reliable then
     battery powered
    Require 25+ replacement blades
                       Extrication Tools

 Tools and equipment that may be
 needed:
    Axes, Sledgehammers, Pry bars, Pike
     Poles, Utility Knives
    Hydraulic Spreaders/Cutters/Ram
    Cribbing (standard and large
     dimensional lumber)
    Struts
    Lifting Airbags
    Air Chisels
    PERSONNEL
          Bus Vs. Vehicle “Under-Ride”

 “Tunneling” Operations are
 labor intensive and time
 consuming
    The bus must be properly
     stabilized/to include
     suspension
    The vehicle must be
     stabilized / strap
     suspension to gain
     additional work space
              Bus Vs. Vehicle “T-Bone”

 Perform all standard
  stabilization procedures
  before extrication
  operations begin
 Due to the height of a bus
  most accidents will be
  “under-ride” accidents that
  require some form of
  “tunneling” procedure
 Depending on patient
  location extrication
  procedures can be simple
  to technical
                            Rear Access

 Similar to a third
 door conversion on
 an “extended” cab
 vehicle:
    Cut the top pillar
    Make a relief cut and or
     cut the remainder of the
     paneling away with the
     cutters or Reciprocating
     saw
        Reciprocating saw is the
         preferred tool
                                    Photo’s courtesy of Brian Craig photography
                            Roof Removal

 Roof construction consists of two
  layers of metal separated by
  insulation
 Time consuming if correct tools
  are not utilized
     Circular saw
         Plunge blade deep enough to cut
          through both layers of metal and
          bracings
     Reciprocating saw
         Have extra blades on hand
     Air chisel
         Have extra SCBA bottles available
                          Seat Removal

 Once access is gained to the
  seat and floor board the
  hydraulic cutters or
  spreaders can be utilized to
  remove the seat mounts from
  the floor board:
     Place the tips of the spreaders
      between the floorboard and
      mounting brackets and “pop” the
      seats from the floor
     Place the cutting blades at the
      lowest point on the mounting
      brackets, then cut through the
      light gauge steel                 Photo’s courtesy of Brian Craig photography
                            School Bus Fires

 Traditional “vehicle” fire tactics
  should be used
     Fuel Tanks are major hazard
         Up to 100 gallons of diesel
           Greater than 55 gallons is
             considered a Hazardous Material
         Plastic fuel tanks mounted under the
          chassis
         Major fuel spill hazards
              Suppression Operations

 Follow all vehicle fire suppression
 tactics
    Conventional Cab / Front mounted engine
    Cab-Over / Rear mounted engine
                         The END

 There is a great deal to learn about
  school buses and the challenges
  posed at a crash scene.
 Training & Preplanned coordination
  between fire & emergency services
  and local school transportation
  representatives can lead to a more
  effective and efficient operation
                          References:

 Paul Hasenmeier, City of Huron Fire Department
 Tom Kiurski, Livonia MI Fire & Rescue
 Gig Harbor Fire & Medic One
 Brian Livingston, LN Curtis

								
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