405cpacking of solid dosage forms by pw9Hlop


       it is an art, science and technology of
enclosing products in their respective containers or
packages to provide them mechanical, physical,
chemical and environmental protection during
distribution, storage, sale and use
       it can be defined as an means of providing
elegant presentation, good protection, necessary
identification, information and description of the
contents and product promotion. It also provides
convenience during its storage distribution,
transport, display and use until its expiry date
             WHY PACKGAGING?
      Without packages that contain and
protect and help us use it, most of the
foods and medicines in the market
places would not be there. We would not
have anything like the choice of foods
and medicines that we have & at the
price levels which mass packing and
distribution make possible. Without
packaging, our standard of living would
fall far below the present level.
               The duties of the packing:
Appropriate packaging
     Protects the product inside and environment outside
     maintain the properties of the product
     Enable effective production and delivery
     Informs about the product and its possible uses
     Increases the sales of the product
     Increase the hygiene and safety
     Contains an optimum amount of packaging
     Adds the usability of the product
     Reduces the waste
                        •Raw materials
       Economy                              Legislation
                        • need of
                        protection                Logistics
Packaging materials                               •Mechanical
and machines                                      stresses
•Methods                      Packed              •Time
•Barriers                     product
•Run ability                                      •Biological
•Closing                                          hazards
•Design                              marketing
                •Need of
•Hygiene        information          •Semiotics

                •Functionality       •Design
                •Empty               •graphics
Types of dosage forms:
        Dosage forms are classed in a number of
             Form wise
             Route wise
             Release rate wise
Materials used for packing :
 The following materials are used for
 the construction of containers. They
 are used singly or in combinations with
 each other. They are:
         i. Glass
Ideal characteristics of packing materials:
             A good packing material should have the
  following characters:
It should
       a. Maintain the integrity
       b. be Impermeable to moisture, gasses, vapours and
       c. Be Inert and nonreactive
       d. not absorb any constituents
       e. Be Adaptable to various sterilization techniques
       f. Protect photosensitive drugs
       g. Be approved by FDA
For the solid dosage form packing the following materials are
Mostly plastic, paper, aluminum are used
  Plastics are high molecular weight polymers possessing
  long carbon chains. They are two types:
            1. Thermo setting type
            2. Thermoplastic type
Thermo setting type:
   ‣ Usually hard and brittle at room temperature but
     become flexible on heating.
   ‣ They are used for making the closures for bottle and
Thermoplastic type:
For plastic containers mainly used for tablets
capsules ointments IV fluids and retention
The various thermoplastic polymers used for
manufacturing of containers are:
Low density poly ethylene- is used for bottles
jars and collapsible tubes
High density poly ethylene- bottles, jars and
closures. it is used for blister packing and
strip packing.
Poly vinyl chloride: unplastisized
which is used for bottle, jars and
extruded tubes.
Poly methyl methacrylate- is clear
and hard, strong and light.
It is used for bottles tubes and jars.
It becomes soft on heating so not
suitable for containers of sterile
Advantages of plastics:
  ↠They can be readily produced on large scale.
  ↠They are unbreakable, tough and flexible.
  ↠They can be molded into various shapes and
  ↠Light in weight.
  ↠Low cost.
  ↠They are permeable to moisture and gasses.
  ↠They cause pollution.
  ↠Poor barrier to non polars.
  ↠Transfer of taste ingredients.
 •It has a very low atomic weights. So it is very reactive.
 •The surface reacts with atmospheric oxygen to form a
 thin coherent, transparent of the epoxide of atomic
 thickness which protects the metal from further oxidation.
 •That materials are high or low pH and mercurials can form
 and evolve hydrogen.
 •It is mainly used for ointment tubes and containers for
 tablets and other unit dose products and screw caps.
 •for blister pack it is used in the following thickness
 0.020mm foil with heat lacquer, for strip packing 0.030
 with 30 g/m2 polyethylene.

Whenever cetrimide, neomycin and
hydrocortisone are packed in aluminum
tubes with phosphate buffer to prevent
the corrosion and evolution of hydrogen.
  They are used top prepare containers
  ranging from envelopes dispensing
  Few tablets or capsules can be stored.
  Some carton boxes are used for packing
  the pharmaceutical containers.
Types of packing used for solid
dosage forms:
  Strip packing
  blister packing
  Card board boxes or plastic
  Packing of powders
  Packing of cachets.

  It is a form of unit dose packing of tablets and
  Strip is formed by feeding two webs of a heat
  sealable flexible film through either a heated
  crimping roller or a heated reciprocating platen.
  The product is dropped into the pocket formed
  prior to forming the final set of seals.
  The strips formed are usually collated and
  packaged into a folding carton.
  The shape of seal is rectangle or picture frame
  or depend upon the shape of the product, for the
  moisture sensitive products.
Materials used are for
high barrier applications
are a paper or
polyethylene or
aluminum foil.
When product is visibly
important a heat sealable
cellophane or polyester
is used.
The choice of material
depends on both product
and equipment
                            Fig:- semi automatic strip
                                 packing machine



           Packed strips

Fig: Strip packing procedure
Blister package:
It is formed by heat softening a sheet of thermoplastic
resin and vacuum drawing the softened sheet of plastic
into a counter mould. After cooling transferred to filling
The semi rigid blister formed is filled with product with
lid –ded with a heat sealable backing material. It is
pushed through or peelable type.
For push through type the backing material is usually
heat seal coated aluminum foil. For peelable type it is
polyester or paper.
Commonly used Materials are aclar (fluoro halo
carbon), cellulose acetate, cellophane, polyester,
polyethylene,                      PVC, Saran

Fig:-Automatic blister
  packing machine
Fig:-Some examples for blister
       packed products
Packaging of powders:
 Bent the fore border over until it is about half an
 inch from the near border. Turn the margins
 upwards with the thumb and over to form a flap
 Fold the flap loosely over on itself to an extent
 which makes the packet slightly narrower than the
 interior box.
 Hold the packet over the drawer section of the
 box and turn the ends down slightly over the ends
 of the drawer so as to form a slight crease that will
 act as a guide to the length of the finished powder.
 Hygroscopic and volatile substances should be
 double wrapped.
Dispensing of cachets:
Cachets are dispensed in boxes or tins in which they are
packed on their edges on lying flat. Some manufactured
cachets are packed in plastic sleeves, each holding a
day’ treatment:.
Cachets should be labeled with direction for
For e.g.:- immerse in water for few seconds and then
swallow with water.

Dispensing of pills:
Pills are packed in plastic boxes or tins.
The mostly used materials for packing
Their usage depends on the type of
products packed in them.
Different materials are packed

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