hpr 450 chapter 3 by VI802W

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									   HPR 450

       Chapter 3
Facilitation Techniques
Facilitation Techniques (Interventions)
• From Austin text chapter 3
• We will not cover all in depth
• Presentation later this month allows opportunity to research
    in greater detail
•   I will try to focus on those you are most likely to encounter
    and/or those you may be most likely to introduce/use in
    settings
•   For CTRS exam, a general familiarity/ability to define and to
    differentiate is probably sufficient – For practice more
    knowledge and ability is needed
•   Review and begin to consider what you would prefer to use
    for presentation
•   Note that there are broad categories but some techniques
    belong in multiple categories
Leisure Education
To be covered more in-depth later in semester
 Learning about leisure-related information, values,
  attitudes, skills
 Used to be called “Leisure Education” or ‘Leisure
  Counseling” – now just Leisure Education
 Includes
   Leisure appreciation                Leisure Activity Skills
   Self-Awareness                      Community Skills
   Decision Making                     Social Skills
   Self Determination                  Leisure Resources
                            (Dattilo and Williams, 2000)
Values Clarification
 Technique used to help clients make decisions consistent with
  their values
 Values – Deeply held beliefs about truth, beauty or worth of
  a person, object, idea or action
 V C activities could include
   Pie of Life
   20 Things You Love to do
   Spending an Unexpected Free Day
Media or Culture Therapies
• Cinematherapy – movies (easier to watch than read
  book)
• Bibliotherapy – novels, plays, short stories, pamphlets to
  show clients others have similar problems
  – Choose works that are appropriate for client
  – Discussions following movie or reading can reveal unexpected
    interpretations by clients
  – Goals: develop self-concept, foster self-appraisal, relieve
    emotional or mental pressure, provide a means to find interests
    outside ones self, more on pg 71 (Jake, 2001)
Media or Culture Therapies cont’d
 Computer/internet/technology therapy
   Wii or other games
   How can you use computers or the internet for TR/RT?
   Would social networking be good for your clients? Why or why
    not?
 Music therapy – (listening, not performing)
 Theater therapy – ditto
 Museumotherapy
 Any other ‘experiences’ (passive) of art and culture
Horticulture Therapy
 Plants – small/indoor under lights, window sill, outdoor
  gardens, greenhouse
 Raised and rolling gardens, rooting house plants, using
  flowers, plants, etc with crafts
 Goals: Instill a sense of purpose, life satisfaction, mild to
  moderate exercise, interaction with environment, enjoy
  beauty, develop leisure activity, etc (see pg 74)
Relaxation Techniques/Stress Management
• 67% of adults report experiencing “great stress” weekly
• Is relaxation a skill? Can it be acquired, learned or
  mastered?
• Do RT/TR practitioners need to be able to help clients
  relax?
  – Relaxation as an activity in itself
  – Relaxation to help clients with other activities
    • Social stress
    • Performance nerves
    • Stressful (unfamiliar, new) situations
     Relaxation Techniques/Stress Management
• Massage
  – Should obtain training; many TR/RTs are certified massage therapists
• Self-massage
  – May be more appropriate with some clients
• Deep Breathing
  – As an activity or with activities (Yoga)
  – Belly breathing (Yoga or singing)
• Alexander Technique (not from text)
  – Focus on improper posture and positioning as root of many
    physiological disorders. Working on proper alignment
• Progressive relaxation
  – Progressive muscle relaxation. Also used in Yoga
    Relaxation Techniques/Stress Management
 Transcendental Meditation® (maybe)
   TR/RT should have training or become familiar with techniques
    before teaching
   Cannot teach TM® without specific training
   Other methods covered in books
 Qigong (chee goong)
   Instructor guided relaxation combining postures and visualization
 Visualization/Creative Visualization
   Also a means of assertiveness training
Physical/Activity Therapies
 Mental and physical benefits
 Vigorous or moderate?
   Current thinking is moderate better than nothing
 How long, how often
   Current thinking is some is better than none
 Fear that asking people to do too much will result in people not
  doing anything
Physical/Activity Therapies
 Recommendations for 30 mins moderate, non consecutive,
 per day
   “Paradigm shift” in book may or may not be a good or appropriate
    thing
   Think about what bodies are ‘engineered’ to do
   Modern society demands less and less movement or activity – is it a
    good idea to recommend less and less physical activity?
   That said, moderate to vigorous activity can be achieved through
    many means – yard work, housework, gardening, other hobbies
    Adventure Therapy
 Elements
   Active engagement in risk or adventure activity
   Individuals may be seeking change
   Novel nature of activity creates “disequilibrium”
   Environment emphasizes community and cooperation
   Demand of problem solving
   Perception that activity is challenging
   Feelings of accomplishment
   Changes occur based on processing (generalization of these
    experiences to other things in their lives)
    “Adventure” Therapy cont’d
 Ropes courses
      Non competitive, teamwork, etc
   How often can you do this and have it be fresh/effective?
   Critical to have trained leader and appropriate ‘processing;’
    otherwise the experience loses much impact
 Outdoor adventure interventions
   Camping, hiking, etc.
   May make great progress during event but when real life is very
    different, ultimate success of intervention may be questionable
    Sensory Therapies
 Aromatherapy
   Using scent to promote relaxation
   Massage or baths
   Training, familiarity with essential oils – can be caustic/dangerous in
    pure forms
 Sensory training
   For children with perceptual-motor problems, older adults who are
    disoriented
   Stimulus bombardment directed at all 5 senses; interactive with
    discussions
   Hope is to improve individual’s perception and alertness in
    responding to environment
    Sensory Therapies cont’d
 Sensory Stimulation
   Treatment for TBI patients in coma
   Multimodal (all senses at once) unimodal (only one sense per
    session); very high degree of stimulation
   Looking for any patient reaction
   May reduce depth and duration of coma
Creative Arts (doing, not passive)
 Painting, drawing, sculpture, photography, music (drum
  circles!), theater, creative writing (poetry, journaling,
  fiction), jewelry making, etc.
   Provides means of self-expression
   May be easier, ‘safer’ way to communicate
   Mental health and physical health (gross, fine motor skills)
   VSA – here and elsewhere
Social Skills Training
 Activities that help people develop or improve their
  skills for dealing with social situations
 Uses classroom instruction, modeling, demonstrations,
  and role play with social reinforcement as a reward
 Helps develop skills that help individuals with other
  aspects of life, including leisure/recreation participation
 May benefit chemically dependent, developmental
  disabilities, residents in long-term care, some mental
  health (depression, children with learning disabilities
Assertiveness Training
 Therapy that helps people become more assertive (not
  aggressive) in social situations
 Role playing, modeling, reinforcement, practice in ‘safe’
  and controlled settings
 Helps people change habits and behaviors and learn to
  stand up for their legitimate rights, leads to
  improvements in self-esteem
 Can benefit anyone with a deficit in this area
Cognitive Rehabilitation
• Multi-disciplinary interventions using varied activities that
  use client’s cognitive and/or motor functions
• Uses games, activities, outings, anything that appropriately
  combines cognitive and motor activities
• Ideally will improve cognitive functioning and lead to
  neuropsychological recovery
• For individuals with ABI including TBI
Remotivation
 Technique used with small groups to inspire interests of
  participants
 Uses weekly group meetings to promote discussions of topics
  that may bring participants in closer touch with the world
  beyond the institution
 Goal is to reawaken interests in facility residents for things
  that brought gratification in the past and may lead to sense of
  control over leisure activities
   Self-selection of activities found to help replace feelings of
    helplessness with feelings of mastery or control
 Used with moderately confused elderly in facilities
Resocialization
 Small group format to combat isolationism and to improve
  satisfaction
 Groups meet 3 times weekly with staff member/leader who tries
  to maintain a free and accepting atmosphere
 Goal is to increase social functioning of residents in geriatric
  settings by increasing awareness of self and others by helping
  clients to form relationships and friendships and to discover new
  interests
 Used in geriatric facilities
Validation Therapy
 Developed by Naomi Feil in response to RO to meet the
  social and psychological needs of primarily disoriented
  individuals
 Therapists use empathy and acceptance in dealing with
  clients – maintain eye contact, rephrase while
  responding, speaking in a caring tone of voice
 Help clients regain dignity, reduce anxiety, accept their
  own ‘reality’ without trying to correct them (as RO
  does)
 Persons with Alzheimer’s type dementia

								
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