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Social medicine involves the

VIEWS: 5 PAGES: 41

									Chapter1 Introduction to Social
Medicine


              Section 1
         The object, Content, Nature
         and Task of Social Medicine
            1、 concept


    sociology medicine
                          Social
                         medicine

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•

                     sociology




    Social statics          Social dynamics
                                       Chinese
      1、 what’s the merits and the     medicine
                    Traditional
    demerits of the medicine
                                      Other Folk
         folk medicine ?               medicine
       2、what’s your idea about the
    development of
medicine
          folk medicine?
                                        basic
                                       medicine

                  Modern              Application
                  medicine             medicine

                                      Theoretical
                                       medicine
• Social medicine is a newly developed
  overlapping course of study composed of
  sociology and medical science.
• Though the basis is medical science and
  sociology, the nature of social medicine makes
  it inclined to medical science. The introduction
  in the textbook Internal Medicine (third edition),
  tells us that the three pillars of modern medical
  science are clinical medicine, preventive
  medicine and social medicine.
    2.The objectives and contents of social
      medicine

   In clinical study when you are faced with a
    patient, what kinds of knowledge do you
         individual
    must have ?
                                  groups
   social medicine is a subject about people’s
    social physiological phenomenon, social
    pathological phenomenon, and undertakes
    diagnoses of social medical problems of
    people in order to prescribe for them.
2.1 Social physiological phenomenon:
 to study mutual actions and its laws
 between social factors and people’s health,
 social hygienic situations, and the tactics
 of social hygiene.
       2.2 Social pathological phenomenon
   Sociology and medicine overlap, because man
    has sociality as well as biotic properties.
    “Childbearing is for the continuity of society”.
   It is man’s sociality that makes the biological
    properties of human beings to be under the
    control of certain regulations, which harmonize
    society.
    Biotic medicine model emphasizes the study of
    man’s biotic properties, but often overlook man’s
    psychological needs socially.
   At present, medicine is becoming more and
2.3 Social diagnosis


 To   research into the interaction
 between social factors and state
 of health.
 Study   social hygienic conditions.
2.4 Social prescription

  The social health strategy
 The health services research
 Community health services
 The social security system
 The education of health
for example
 kick network addiction
3.The nature of social medicine


   Overlapping   of the social
    medicine
   Synthetic research method
   The practicality of social
    medicine
      ①Overlapping of the social
      medicine.
   Sociology and medicine overlap, because man has
    sociality as well as biotic properties. “Childbearing is for
    the continuity of society”.
   It is man’s sociality that makes the biological properties of
    human beings to be under the control of certain regulations,
    which harmonize society.
    Biotic medicine model emphasizes the study of man’s
    biotic properties, but often overlook man’s psychological
    needs socially.
   At present, medicine is becoming more and more
    socialized.
      ② Synthetic Research Method
• Being an overlapped subject between sociology
  and medicine, it needs to use the methods of
  physical science and social science which
  include making social investigation, psychology
  method, anthropology method, epidemiological
  method, statistics method, economics method
  and management method.
• For example, when we study patients’
  behavior, and people’s life style quality, we
  prefer to use social investigation and
  psychology methods. But when our goal is
  to study health service efficiency we always
  choose economic and management methods.
  In some synthetic research work, many
  kinds of methods are used together.
          ③The Practicality of Social
•                      Medicine
    Solving actual problems that emerged from
  health practice enlightens he practice of social
  medicine research.
• Other basic features of social medicine are there
  are no regular patterns of research, which gives
  an even wider scope to our study, and it does not
  easily degenerate into dogmatism. Of course,
  social medicine needs to take further steps to be
  specialized and theorized, which is also the only
  road to the development of social medicine.
    4.The principal tasks of social
              medicine
• Providing social health information
  for policy makers.
• Raise people’s health level and life
  quality.
• The education propagation of social
  medicine.
① Providing Social Health Information for Policy
  Makers
 The most important tasks of social medicine is
  to get a clear understanding of the social
  health situation, find out major problems
  through social investigation, and provide
  information for the Chinese government’s
  health programs.
 In the early 1980’s, many Health Care
  Management Departments were established in
  some medical colleges in China. Since then
  China’s social medicine has developed rapidly.
②Raise People’s Health Level and Life Quality

   After evaluating people’s health status,
    health risk factors, life quality and
    investigations of people’s behaviors, a
    complete diagnosis of people’s health
    problems will be made and a recipe for
    efficient health care will also be given.
   Our goal is to make people change
    unhealthy behavior and harmful life-styles,
    to improve the social environment, and to
    raise people’s health level and life quality.
     ③The Education and Propagation
 Knowledge of social medicine is infiltrated
 into clinical medicine, preventive medicine,
 rehabilitation medicine, health education,
 and community medicine and health care
 management.
 It is quite clear that a modern medical model
 should assist health practice and
 management. Trained health and
 management personnel who will be able to
 keep abreast of the modern medical model
 are needed. Social medicine is playing an
 increasingly important role in modern
 society.
 Section 2 Using the Experience of
Other Major Subjects for Reference
1、Preventive medicine
• Prevention focus research on bio-
  factor ,the factors of physics and
  chemistry
• Need to support each other ,learn from
  each other
                 2. Sociology
• Sociology( 1838 ) and social medicine(1848)
  emerged almost from the same time and in the
  same place.
• Sociology is a basic subject of social medicine
• Medical sociology and social medicine are
  sisters of subject.
         3. Community medicine
• Community medicine provides basic health
  care services,which include medical
  treatment, prevention, health care,
  rehabilitation, health education and birth
  control for people who live in community .
• Social medicine is macroscopically
 Community medicine .
• Social medicine focused on theories;
  Community medicine focused on practice.
             4.Medicine ethics
• The concrete application of general ethics
  in medical practice.
• Ethics relates to “value”, “right”,
  “Responsibility”、 “conscience”
  “welfare” etc.
• what do doctors do for patients?
• Commonweal view: How do we
  distribute resource? (priority)
• It’s a doctrine of study of the origin and the
  development of morals, standards of behavior
  and obligations among humans. Now medical
  ethics has develops into bioethics.
• Social medicine inevitably will be influenced
  by theories in both values and public benefits.
• Ex. Which area or target population
  should have priority for health
  resources over others?
• Social medicine involves the “value”
  when studying health policy.
• Social medicine also involves the “justice”
  that how the resources were
  distributed.
Section 3 The History and the
Trend of Social Medicine

 1.The development western social
  medicine
 (1)The embryonic stage of social
  medicine
 Famous character 1:
 Hippocrates(450-377B.C.)
 Book: Air ,Water and Region
Famous Italian Ramazzini2 :
    The character (A.D.1669~1714) in his
         famous book Disease in Handicraft Industry
        described the health status of workers from 52
          different occupations and the effects these
         (about A.D pay attention to he city’s
Galen:Doctors should130-200,health;the is called the
      factors have on people’s an ancient doctor
       natural environment, such as
  in Romefather of Labor medicine wind direction,
               )                        by posterity.
     sunlight, and water quality, local plants’ growth
Paracelsus: (A.D 1493-1541) He thought that it
     and to the citizen’s life-style.
     was more important
 <mercury disease>to understand patients than
        patients’ disease during medical practice.
Ramazzini: (A.D 1669-1741)
 <disease in handicraft industry>
       New social health problems arose along with
       industrialization and urbanization, such as urban
During Industrial Revolutionworking
       environment, workers’ adverse
       conditions and food hygiene problems.
       “miserable life was a hotbed of diseases”
       “a medical supervision plan could be used to
 Johann Peter Frank: German social
       make
  hygienist the government take measures to protect
       public health”
   Friedrichwas the firsthis book British social
 《the national medicalwho usedWorkinghealth
        He Engel’s in man supervision
   Class Situation said :
       measures
  system》 to control disease,from the a and made
   British industry had been the development of
       great contribution to built up
       public Engels:
 Friedrich health andin health. And the workers’
   workers’ break down social medicine.
   movement promoted the establishment of the
  《British Working Class Situation》
   social health organization and social health
   measures were improved step by step.
2. The forming and development period


  Background:
   1784 steam engine
   1789 French revolution
  Jules Guerin (1801-1886)French doctor
   Social physiology
   Social Pathology
   Social Hygiene
   Social therapeutics
• Social physiology researching the relationship
  between people,s health status and social
  system;law,customs and habits。
• Social pathology researching the relationship
  between diseases and social problems。
• social hygiene researching how to promote
  health and protect disease。
• Social therapeutics researching how to cure
  disease when there was an abnormal social
  situation。
Rudolf Virchow (German pathologist)


  “the kernel of medical science is
   social science, while politics is just
   medicine in a broad sense ”
 How to understand the sentence?
    Social medicine as a course

   1920, the social hygiene course was given in
    Berlin University
   1940s a social medicine research institute was
    established in Oxford University
    Social medicine in Britain and America

   In Britain, in 1960s social medicine has been
    changed into community medicine.
   In America, social medicine was included and
    taught in the course of health management and
    health policy.
2.The development of social
medicine in China

  ancient time : forming nature
  philosophy medical model , there are
 Many Concepts of “heaven and man”,
  “correspondence between man and
  universe”.
    1949-1978

    With the spread of venereal disease and snail
    fever controlled, the mass health conditions
    have been changed greatly.
    A public health college was set up in the China
    medical university in 1949.
In Modern time since 1980s

 Academy:
  social medicine and health care management
  become independent subject in many
  academies; social medicine emerged as a
  main course in teaching.
 Journals:
 Medicine and philosophy
 Social Medicine of China
 Medical ethics of China
Education Degree of Social Medicine

   Bachelor
   Master
   Doctor
   Research :
   Health services research
   Sociopath( suicide , traffic
    accidents,Addictive Sociopath)
   The evaluation of quality of life
4. A comparison between China and
western countries


                  gap


 Reason: economic; government; and society



          Current situation
            question for review
1.What’s the objectives of social medicine?
2. what’s the nature of social medicine?
3. what’s the related subjects to social medicine?

								
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