Infectious Disease: Pathogenic

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					Infectious Disease:
    Pathogenic
   Disease-any change, other
than an injury, that disrupts the
  normal functions of the body
 Pathogen-Disease Causing
            Agent
Bacteria Virus Protozoa Fungi
            Animal

  Greek: pathos “suffering”
       genes “born”
   1st and 2nd Line of
         Defense

  Nonspecific protection
           Skin
    mucus membranes - cilia
   stomach acids / eyes tears
inflammatory response- injured
           cells
Fighting Infectious Diseases

Antibiotics- are compounds
 that kill bacteria without
   harming the host cell

NO EFFECT ON VIRUSES
Fighting Infectious Diseases

   Vaccine-preparation of
weakened or killed pathogens

  Body Produces Immunity
   Body’s Defense Against
          Diseases

     The Immune System

  Immunity- produce cells that
inactivate foreign substances or
               cells
                  Wound
Skin

                          Phagocytes move into the
                          area and engulf the bacteria
                          and cell debris


 Bacteria enter
 the wound
                                   Capillary
 Immune Response



 Antigen- Any foreign
substance in the body
 (bacteria, virus, etc.)
 Immune Response


Macrophage-Engulfs
     antigens
   Immune Response:
    Specific Protection

  Lymphocytes- White
blood cells specialized to
    recognize and rid
        antigens
   (produced in bone
        marrow)
     Specific Defenses

      Immunity Types

    Humoral Immunity-
 B cells provide inactivation
of antigens in the body fluids
   Specific Defenses
    Immunity Types

Cell Mediated Immunity-
T Cells provide a defense
against abnormal/infected
cells or pathogens inside
        living cells
                     Humoral Immunity
           Section 40-2


                                        Bacterial antigens
                                        also stimulate B cells
            Bacteria With Antigens
                                                             B cell   Helper T cell
            on Surface                                                assists the                          Active B cells
                                                                      activated B cell                     proliferate to
                                                                      to develop into                      produce clones
                                                                      an antibody-                         of memory cells
                                                                      producing
A large phagocyte                                                     plasma cell
called a
macrophage
                                                                                                 Plasma cell produces
engulfs a
                                               T cell binds to                                   large amounts of antibody
bacterium
                                               activated              T cell, activated          proteins, released into
                                    T cell     macrophage             by macrophage,             the bloodstream
                                                                      becomes a
                    Macrophage                                        helper T cell

                          Antigens are
                          displayed on
                          surface of                                       Circulating antibodies bind to bacterial antigens,
                          macrofage after                                  helping other immune cells to identify and destroy
                          digestion of                                     bacteria
                          bacterium
  Specific Proctection
     B cells (2 types)
 1.Plasma Cells: produce
        antibodies
     2. Memory cells:
“Remember” or recognize
         antigen
 Immune Response



Antibody-proteins that
recognize and bind to
      antigens
    Antigen-
    binding
     sites




Antigen        Antibody
                                  Cell-Mediated
          Section 40-2
                                    Immunity
                                                                           Helper T cell activates
Macrophage                T cell binds to                                  killer T cells and B cells
                          activated
                          macrophage                                 Helper                   Killer
                                                                     T Cell                   T Cell




                                       T Cell
                                            T cell, activated by macrophage,
                                            becomes a helper T cell
  Antigens are displayed on
  surface of macrophage                                                                       Infected Cell
                                                                                              Killer T cells bind to infected cells,
                                                                                              disrupting their cell membranes and
                                                                                              destroying them
Cell-Mediated Immunity

     T Cell (2 types)
    Important in fighting
  infected cells as well as
     Fungi and Protists
     1. T Cell (2 types)

 Helper T Cells- Activated by
 Macrophage, then Activates
    Killer T cells and B cells
Killer T Cells- Bind to infected
  cells and destroy them by
       breaking down cell
           membranes
    Antigen-
    binding
     sites




Antigen        Antibody
    Developing Immunity
Active - body produces own antibodies
 Natural - recover from the disease ex.
           chicken pox, colds
 Artificial- shot(s) of dead or weakened
                 antigen
   Passive- receive antibodies from
another source
Natural - from mother through placenta,
              mothers milk
 Artificial - antibodies from an animal
More ways to stop pathogens
     Complement system-
blood proteins that form holes
 in the pathogens membrane
    Interferon- Infected cells
 produce group of proteins to
  help other cells by stopping
       viral reproduction
    Antigen-
    binding
     sites




Antigen        Antibody
    Antigen-
    binding
     sites




Antigen        Antibody
         Bacteria
    Produce disease by:

1. Damaging cells and tissue
     2. Releasing toxins
                   Mycobacterium
                    Tuberculosis
                   consumes and
                 damages living cells


  E.coli can
Release Toxins
                Virus

•Nucleic Acid in a
  Protein Coat

Enter Living Cells
   and THEN
   reproduce
  Viral Infections

   Like Bacteria
Viruses disrupt the
  body’s normal
    equilibrium
            Viroids
single stranded RNA with no
            capsid
        (Infect Plants)
             Prions
       No DNA or RNA
 “Protein infectious particles”
       (Infect Animals)
   Protists
  (Malaria)


     Fungi
(Athlete’s foot)
 How Diseases are Spread

      Physical Contact
Contaminated Food or Water
 Infected Animals (vectors)
Fighting Infectious Diseases

  Chemicals-Disinfectants

   Sterilization by HEAT
      HIGH TEMPS
Fighting Infectious Diseases

         Fungus?

         Protists?

What are some drugs used?
   The Immune System:
    Fighting Pathogens

 Immunity- produce cells that
inactivate foreign substances
            or cells

				
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posted:9/15/2012
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