Burton and Coser by nAnN0r


									       A Framework for Understanding
                       Levels and Sources of Conflict                                      Extrinsic
  Negotiable                                                                             Manifestation







Non-Negotiable                                                                             Intrinsic
Adopted from: Polkinghorn, Brian. (2000). “A Multi-Disciplinary Approach to Managing and Resolving
Environmental Conflicts,” in Frodeman, Robert (editor) Earth Matters: The Earth Sciences, Philosophy, and the
Claims of Community. Prentice-Hall.
Burton – Human Needs Theories
       Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
Burton – Human Needs Theories
   Burton says that conflict stems from unsatisfied
    human needs
   In conflict, people represent their interests, but
    not their underlying needs; however, they will
    use power and coercion to meet those needs
    Burton – Human Needs Theory
   consistency in response
   stimulation                    To solve the conflict,
   security                        meet the underlying
   recognition                     needs
   distributive justice
   appearance of rationality      If the underlying needs
                                    are not met, the conflict
   meaning                         will continue
   control
   defense of role
Coser – function of social conflict
   Conflict is not always dysfunctional for the
    relationship within which it occurs; often,
    conflict is necessary to maintain such a
    relationship. Without ways to vent hostility
    toward each other, and to express dissent, group
    members might feel completely crushed and
    might react by withdrawal. By setting free pent-
    up feelings of hostility, conflicts serve to
    maintain a relationship.
Coser – function of social conflict
   Conflict not only generates new norms, new
    institutions…it may be said to be stimulating
    directly in the economic and technological
    realm. Economic historians often have pointed
    out that much technological improvement has
    resulted from the conflict activity of trade
    unions through the raising of wage levels.
             Coser’s conclusions
   If Coser is correct, and conflict serves a socially
    useful function, then should conflicts be
   Upon which basis should those resolving
    conflicts choose the right conflicts to resolve?

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