A Framework for Understanding Conflict Levels and Sources of Conflict Extrinsic Negotiable Manifestation Data Positions Interests Beliefs Needs Values Non-Negotiable Intrinsic Manifestation Adopted from: Polkinghorn, Brian. (2000). “A Multi-Disciplinary Approach to Managing and Resolving Environmental Conflicts,” in Frodeman, Robert (editor) Earth Matters: The Earth Sciences, Philosophy, and the Claims of Community. Prentice-Hall. Burton – Human Needs Theories Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Burton – Human Needs Theories Burton says that conflict stems from unsatisfied human needs In conflict, people represent their interests, but not their underlying needs; however, they will use power and coercion to meet those needs Burton – Human Needs Theory consistency in response stimulation To solve the conflict, security meet the underlying recognition needs distributive justice appearance of rationality If the underlying needs are not met, the conflict meaning will continue control defense of role Coser – function of social conflict Conflict is not always dysfunctional for the relationship within which it occurs; often, conflict is necessary to maintain such a relationship. Without ways to vent hostility toward each other, and to express dissent, group members might feel completely crushed and might react by withdrawal. By setting free pent- up feelings of hostility, conflicts serve to maintain a relationship. Coser – function of social conflict Conflict not only generates new norms, new institutions…it may be said to be stimulating directly in the economic and technological realm. Economic historians often have pointed out that much technological improvement has resulted from the conflict activity of trade unions through the raising of wage levels. Coser’s conclusions If Coser is correct, and conflict serves a socially useful function, then should conflicts be resolved? Upon which basis should those resolving conflicts choose the right conflicts to resolve?
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