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									Chapter 17 Health-Care Groups and Systems



Multiple-Choice
Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

 1.   Illness is always
      A) a physiological malfunction.
      B) scientifically defined.
      C) a psychosomatic phenomenon.
      D) a biological and social occurrence.
      Answer: D

 2.   Pathological illness is a(n)
      A) physiological malfunction.
      B) biological abnormality.
      C) physiological malfunction defined as an illness.
      D) illness occurring in epidemic proportions.
      Answer: C

 3.   Statistical illnesses are
      A) physiological processes that vary from the norm.
      B) pathological illnesses tracked by vital statistics.
      C) epidemics.
      D) social rather than physiological problems.
      Answer: A

 4.   Most cases of mental illness are examples of
      A) pathological illness.
      B) statistical illness.
      C) psychosomatic illness.
      D) physiological illness.
      Answer: B

 5.   Structural functionalists believe that people are labeled ill when they
      A) do not function well in their roles.
      B) have a physiological dysfunction.
      C) see a physician.
      D) have a pathological illness.
      Answer: A
 6.   The sick role is one
      A) people play when they want to get out of work.
      B) with expectations deviant from one’s normal role.
      C) without expectations.
      D) not recognized in social behavior.
      Answer: B

 7.   Society allows and expects more sick role behavior among
      A) children.
      B) teenagers.
      C) men.
      D) the elderly.
      Answer: D

 8.   One power physicians do not have is to
      A) declare people ill.
      B) assign people to the sick role.
      C) have people excused from work.
      D) allow patients to diagnose their own illnesses.
      Answer: D

 9.   Conflict theorists argue that physicians
      A) are not political.
      B) are interested only in making money.
      C) come from the upper middle class and therefore support the status quo.
      D) are motivated by a desire to change society.
      Answer: C

10. Symbolic interactionists believe illness is defined by
    A) interaction between physician and patient.
    B) meanings we give to symptoms.
    C) results of laboratory tests.
    D) symptoms of the patient, such as fatigue or dizziness.
    Answer: B

11. Symbolic interactionists believe that today
    A) people do not take enough responsibility for their health.
    B) there is a return to physical fitness.
    C) people believe health is a result of luck or fate.
    D) people tend to blame themselves for poor health.
    Answer: D
12. Americans favor fighting illness with powerful drugs because
    A) chicken soup and tender loving care are a waste of time.
    B) being in harmony with nature is silly.
    C) fighting disease with drugs is the only way to cure them.
    D) we have great faith in scientific medicine.
    Answer: D

13. The types of illness humans suffer from
    A) have remained stable over time.
    B) change from time to time and from society to society.
    C) change from time to time but do not vary from society to society.
    D) depend on the current waves of epidemics.
    Answer: B

14. The decrease in infectious diseases before the turn of the century was least influenced by
    A) vaccines and modern medicine.
    B) improved sanitation.
    C) better nutrition.
    D) better housing and plumbing systems.
    Answer: A

15. During this century,
    A) rates of death from heart disease and cancer have increased.
    B) childhood diseases have increased.
    C) deaths caused by accidents have tripled.
    D) there have been no dramatic changes in death rates.
    Answer: A

16.   Currently, the major causes of death in the United States are
      A) influenza, cancer, and heart disease.
      B) cancer, accidents, and heart disease.
      C) cancer, heart disease, and stroke.
      D) cancer, Alzheimer’s Disease, and pneumonia.
      Answer: C

17. Alcoholism
    A) kills very few people.
    B) is morally wrong.
    C) is a progressive, fatal disease.
    D) is neither progressive nor fatal.
    Answer: C
18. In the social model of illness, disease is cured by
    A) providing clean water supplies.
    B) providing pesticide-free food supplies.
    C) building clean transportation systems.
    D) all of the above.
    Answer: D

19. The medical model of illness refers to
    A) treating the sick individual.
    B) providing medicine as a cure for all illnesses.
    C) discovering the cause of diseases scientifically.
    D) programs such as cleaning up the food supply.
    Answer: A

20. The profession of medicine developed high status because
    A) it took care of sick people.
    B) it became an exclusive and elite profession.
    C) it developed life-saving techniques.
    D) those who care for the ill have always had high status.
    Answer: B

21. Primary caregivers are those who
    A) see the patient before the doctor does.
    B) give the patient a general medical checkup.
    C) provide high-technology treatments in hospitals.
    D) tend the sick in the home.
    Answer: B

22. Municipal hospitals in urban areas are usually funded by
    A) groups of physicians who own the hospital.
    B) churches and other charitable organizations.
    C) tax dollars.
    D) patients who use the hospital.
    Answer: C

23. Medical centers in urban areas differ from general hospitals in that they
    A) have busier emergency rooms.
    B) are associated with medical schools.
    C) are funded privately.
    D) all of the above.
    Answer: B
24. Tertiary medical care is characterized by its
    A) low cost.
    B) very high technology.
    C) position outside the health care system.
    D) all of the above.
    Answer: B

25. The United States has high medical costs because
    A) physicians are so well paid.
    B) hospitals are overcrowded and inefficient.
    C) technology is used widely and inefficiently.
    D) DRGs are expensive.
    Answer: C

26. Nursing was traditionally
    A) an elite profession for well-educated women.
    B) a middle-class profession requiring an advanced degree.
    C) a working-class profession requiring hospital training.
    D) done on a volunteer basis by wealthy women.
    Answer: C

 27. AIDS is a(n)
     A) homosexual disease.
     B) degenerative disease.
     C) infectious disease.
     D) statistical disease.
     Answer: C

28. Prepaid health care provided by health maintenance organizations provides
    A) insurance for physicians’ visits and laboratory work.
    B) preventive health care programs, but not health insurance.
    C) a budget-payment plan for hospital costs.
    D) care by a physician and hospital care.
    Answer: D

29. In the past, health was associated with
    A) being slim and trim.
    B) a religious devotion to care of the body.
    C) a fragile makeup, especially for women.
    D) good medical care.
    Answer: B
30. The British and Chinese health care systems both
    A) combine Eastern and Western medicine.
    B) assure all members of the population health care.
    C) lack sophisticated technology.
    D) have discontented patients.
    Answer: B

Chapter 18 Collective Behavior and Social Movements



Multiple-Choice
Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

 1.   Collective behavior is the term used to describe the
      A) routine, predictable behavior of groups.
      B) organized behavior of collectivities.
      C) spontaneous, transitory behavior of groups.
      D) spontaneity of individuals.
      Answer: C

 2.   Institutionalized behavior is the term used to describe the
      A) predictable behavior of groups with stable goals.
      B) organized behavior of collectivities.
      C) spontaneous, transitory behavior of groups.
      D) spontaneity of individuals.
      Answer: A

 3.   Structural conduciveness to collective behavior includes
      A) individuals who are discontent.
      B) individuals who are unsocialized.
      C) organizations that cause conflict.
      D) organizations that might potentially cause conflict.
      Answer: D

 4.   Widespread unemployment among teenage African-Americans provides
      A) structural conduciveness to collective behavior.
      B) structural strain.
      C) a generalized belief for collective behavior.
      D) a precipitating factor for collective behavior.
      Answer: B
 5.   Generalized beliefs cannot be based on
      A) known facts.
      B) shared attitudes.
      C) common ideologies.
      D) differing interpretations.
      Answer: D

 6.   If unemployment is considered unfair, it may serve as
      A) structural conduciveness to collective behavior.
      B) structural strain.
      C) a generalized belief for collective behavior.
      D) a precipitating factor for collective behavior.
      Answer: C

 7.   Precipitating factors leading to collective behavior may include a(n)
      A) individual act.
      B) rumor.
      C) legal action.
      D) all of the above.
      Answer: D

 8.   News that a police officer has shot a minority youth may provide
      A) structural conduciveness to collective behavior.
      B) structural strain.
      C) a generalized belief for collective behavior.
      D) a precipitating factor for collective behavior.
         Answer: D

 9.   Mobilization for action refers to
      A) police action to maintain social control.
      B) a spontaneous response by a crowd.
      C) the generalized belief of crowds.
      D) the organization of factions.
         Answer: B

10. High levels of anonymity, suggestibility, contagion, and emotional arousal are
    characteristic of
    A) groups.
    B) crowds.
    C) neurotics.
    D) panic.
    Answer: B
11. The difference between casual crowds and conventional crowds is that the latter are
    A) lacking in a specific goal.
    B) more structured.
    C) more tradition-oriented.
    D) more expressive.
    Answer: B

12. The most dramatic form of acting crowds is
    A) mobs and riots.
    B) strikes.
    C) demonstrations.
    D) organized crowds.
    Answer: A

13. In his classical theory of crowd behavior, Le Bon held that crowds were controlled by
    A) spirits.
    B) emergent norms.
    C) the collective mind.
    D) outside agitators.
    Answer: C

14. Herbert Blumer argued that crowd behavior results from
    A) social unrest.
    B) mental unity.
    C) the group mind.
    D) circular reactions.
    Answer: D

15. Which of the following is not a type of circular reaction?
    A) milling
    B) collective excitement
    C) social contagion
    D) the collective mind
    Answer: D

16. Emergent norm theory assumes that everyone
    A) knows the emergent norms.
    B) acts by the same norms.
    C) acts according to interpretations of the situation.
    D) acts homogeneously.
    Answer: C
17. The perspective on collective behavior that suggests that crowds behave rationally is the
    A) classical perspective.
    B) emergent norm perspective.
    C) interactionist perspective.
    D) game perspective.
    Answer: D

18. Game theory assumes that
    A) crowds do not take what they are doing seriously.
    B) actors consider crowd behavior fun.
    C) actors use strategy in crowd behavior.
    D) crowds respond emotionally to events.
    Answer: C

19. The most common type of spatially diffuse collectives is
    A) crowds.
    B) masses.
    C) fashions.
    D) strikers.
    Answer: B

20. A mass is a group
    A) whose members are of the same socioeconomic status.
    B) that is large and interacting.
    C) whose members have similar family backgrounds.
    D) that focuses attention on the same object.
    Answer: D

21. Forms of mass behavior include all but which of the following?
    A) fads and fashions
    B) hysteria
    C) marches
    D) panic
    Answer: C

22. Trying to flee from danger can lead to
    A) mass hysteria.
    B) panic.
    C) propaganda.
    D) milling.
    Answer: B
23. Fear of AIDS could reach the level of
    A) mass hysteria.
    B) panic.
    C) propaganda.
    D) milling.
    Answer: A

24. Public opinion is influenced by
    A) the mass media.
    B) cultural values.
    C) organizations.
    D) all of the above.
    Answer: D

25. Public opinion is known because the public
    A) interacts.
    B) normally agrees.
    C) is studied through surveys.
    D) all of the above.
    Answer: C

26. Propaganda is
    A) information used to shape public opinion.
    B) always false.
    C) based on disclosure of little-known facts.
    D) all of the above.
    Answer: A

27. Propaganda does not
    A) give selective information.
    B) avoid the merits of various positions.
    C) play on the emotions of people.
    D) present opposite views without distortion.
    Answer: D

28. Censorship manipulates public opinion by
    A) presenting distorted information.
    B) giving incomplete information.
    C) withholding information.
    D) avoiding the merits of differing positions.
    Answer: C
29. According to Blumer, early stages of social movements are marked by
    A) social unrest.
    B) popular excitement.
    C) formalization.
    D) all of the above.
    Answer: A

30. As social movements develop, they acquire
    A) mobs and crowds.
    B) diversity.
    C) institutionalization.
    D) all of the above.
    Answer: C


Chapter 19 Population and Ecology



Multiple-Choice
Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

 1.   Demography is the study of
      A) the size and makeup of the population.
      B) population statistics.
      C) population changes.
      D) all of the above.
      Answer: D

 2.   Birth and death records have been collected
      A) in early Greek and Egyptian accounts.
      B) for at least two centuries.
      C) since the beginning of this century.
      D) since the computer made it possible.
      Answer: A

 3.   The size of the population of a given area can be changed by
      A) an increase or decrease in the birth rate.
      B) an increase or decrease in the death rate.
      C) migration.
      D) all of the above.
      Answer: D
4.   The crude birth rate is a measure of
     A) fertility.
     B) mortality.
     C) fecundity.
     D) age-sex ratios.
     Answer: A

5.   Fecundity is the number of children
     A) a woman expects to have.
     B) a woman is capable of having.
     C) a woman actually has.
     D) per one thousand population.
     Answer: B

6.   Mortality, like fertility, varies with the population’s
     A) age.
     B) wealth.
     C) sex.
     D) all of the above.
     Answer: D

7.   Push factors for migration are related to
     A) immigration.
     B) emigration.
     C) migrations of all kinds.
     D) none of the above.
     Answer: B

8.   Pull factors in migration include
     A) war.
     B) famine.
     C) jobs.
     D) bad climate.
     Answer: C

9.   At the turn of the twentieth century, Europeans migrated to the United States
     A) by the hundreds.
     B) by the thousands.
     C) by the millions.
     D) only illegally.
     Answer: C
10. Over the course of our history, Africans were forcibly moved to the Western Hemisphere
    A) by the hundreds.
    B) by the thousands.
    C) by the millions.
    D) only illegally.
    Answer: C

11. The most recent wave of immigrants to the United States has been from
    A) northern Europe.
    B) southern Europe.
    C) South America.
    D) Asia.
    Answer: D

12. A population pyramid shows
    A) the height and weight of a population.
    B) the age and sex of a population.
    C) who is on top of the population.
    D) all of the above.
    Answer: B

13. Birth rates in the United States were especially high between
    A) 1915 and 1924.
    B) 1930 and 1938.
    C) 1955 and 1964.
    D) 1975 and 1984.
    Answer: C

14. Harter calls the generation following the 1920s baby boom
    A) the good times cohort.
    B) the hard times cohort.
    C) the big wave generation.
    D) the young turk generation.
    Answer: A

15. The world population explosion has occurred because
    A) births have increased.
    B) births have decreased.
    C) deaths have increased.
    D) deaths have decreased.
    Answer: D
16. As societies abandon traditional ways and become more modern,
    A) birth rates increase and death rates decrease.
    B) birth and death rates increase.
    C) birth and death rates decrease.
    D) birth rates decrease and death rates increase.
    Answer: C

17. In the past thirty-five years, world population has increased by about
    A) three million people.
    B) thirty million people.
    C) one hundred million people.
    D) three billion people.
    Answer: D

18. Population density is greatest in
    A) Europe.
    B) the United States.
    C) China.
    D) Africa.
    Answer: A

19. The effects of an imbalance between the number of males and females in the prime
    marriage ages is known as
    A) the marriage squeeze.
    B) the demographic transition.
    C) fecundity rate.
    D) age-sex composition.
    Answer: A

20. In his theory of population, Thomas Malthus held that
    A) increasing population would spur rapid development to solve problems.
    B) population would increase much more rapidly than the food supply.
    C) starvation is caused by inequality, not a shortage of food.
    D) the species would die out as the birth rate fell.
    Answer: B

21. Karl Marx argued that
    A) increasing population would spur rapid development to solve problems.
    B) population would increase much more rapidly than the food supply.
    C) starvation is caused by inequality, not a shortage of food.
    D) the species would die out as the birth rate fell.
    Answer: C
22. During the Depression of the 1930s, it was believed by some that
    A) increasing population would spur rapid development to solve problems.
    B) population would increase much more rapidly than the food supply.
    C) starvation is caused by inequality, not a shortage of food.
    D) the species would die out as the birth rate fell.
    Answer: D

23. According to Malthusian theory
    A) population increases arithmetically.
    B) population increases geometrically.
    C) food supply increases geometrically.
    D) new technology would eliminate starvation.
    Answer: B
24. Cash crops are
    A) crops sold for cash.
    B) crops used locally.
    C) crops used by farmers.
    D) all nonfood crops.
    Answer: A

25. Acid rain is
    A) killing wildlife and fish.
    B) being reduced by increased timber farming.
    C) beneficial to modern water treatment facilities.
    D) not yet proven to be harmful.
    Answer: A

26. World conflict is related to population problems because there is contention over
    A) immigration and naturalization.
    B) scarce natural resources for existing populations.
    C) political power over potential armies of people.
    D) political ideology between different populations.
    Answer: B

27. U.S. population policy today is based on the assumption that
    A) increasing population will spur rapid development.
    B) decreasing population will improve the standard of living.
    C) both of the above.
    D) none of the above.
    Answer: B
28. Lowering the birth rate in some poor nations
    A) deprives parents of security in their old age.
    B) deprives families of extra hands to support them.
    C) encourages use of unsafe contraceptives.
    D) all of the above.
    Answer: D

29. Zero population growth means
    A) every couple has one child.
    B) every couple has 2.1 children.
    C) couples in a population average one child.
    D) couples in a population average 2.1 children.
    Answer: D


30. The United States has a population growth rate
    A) less than zero population growth.
    B) more than zero population growth.
    C) of about zero population growth but increasing rapidly.
    D) larger than that of the vast majority of countries.
    Answer: A

Chapter 21 The Nature of Social Change



Multiple-Choice
Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

 1.   Social change refers primarily to
      A) electing a new president and congressional leaders.
      B) advances in the economy, such as a rise in stock market prices.
      C) changing social institutions and the structure of society.
      D) all of the above.
      Answer: C

 2.   Evolutionary theorists such as Spencer believed that social
      A) stability is good.
      B) change is disruptive.
      C) change is progress.
      D) change may be good or bad.
      Answer: C
3.   Conflict theorists such as Karl Marx predicted the revolt of the masses under the
     A) socialist economic system.
     B) capitalist economic system.
     C) communist economic system.
     D) feudal economic system.
     Answer: B

4.   Spengler’s theory of civilization was that
     A) all social change is progress.
     B) all societies that don’t change die.
     C) all societies grow, decay, and then die.
     D) social change is unpredictable.
     Answer: C

5.   Sorokin believed that societies might emphasize religious beliefs, scientific beliefs, or
     sense experiences
     A) in the order listed.
     B) in reverse order.
     C) in random order.
     D) after they emphasize the familial.
     Answer: C
6.   Which theory views society as a balanced system of institutions rather than an ever-
     changing system?
     A) evolutionary theory
     B) structural functional theory
     C) cyclical theory
     D) conflict theory
     Answer: B

7.   Cultural lag refers to a(n)
     A) society without progress.
     B) society in a state of disequilibrium.
     C) society emphasizing scientific beliefs.
     D) oppressed society.
     Answer: B

8.   Ecological change refers to change in the
     A) atmosphere.
     B) relationship between fresh air and pollution.
     C) relationship between population and business.
     D) relationship between population and geography.
     Answer: D
 9.   Europe flourished as it did because
      A) its inhabitants were hard-working and intelligent.
      B) the land was fertile and rainfall was plentiful.
      C) constant invasions from the east pulled the inhabitants together.
      D) parasitic diseases spurred scientific research.
      Answer: B

10. Rational political systems developed in Europe because
    A) people valued democracy.
    B) it was one powerful kingdom.
    C) the church had power.
    D) of the existence of powerful competing groups.
    Answer: D

11. Science and rational religion developed in Europe because
    A) the people were intelligent.
    B) they valued rational thinking.
    C) they had negotiated rational laws.
    D) parasitic diseases spurred scientific research.
    Answer: C

12. An innovation is
    A) a discovery.
    B) an invention.
    C) both (a) and (b).
    D) none of the above.
    Answer: C

13. A discovery is
    A) the act of finding something that has always existed but no one knew about.
    B) the creation of something entirely new.
    C) a new way of synthesizing things already known.
    D) all of the above.
    Answer: A

14. An invention is
    A) the act of finding something that has always existed but no one knew about.
    B) the creation of something entirely new.
    C) a new way of synthesizing things already known.
    D) all of the above.
    Answer: C
15. Bus systems grew before 1950 because
    A) there was no other form of transportation.
    B) they were clean and efficient.
    C) they used automobile equipment, gasoline, and tires, and General Motors needed new
       markets.
    D) all of the above.
    Answer: C

16. The automobile has created changes in
    A) both ecology and international relations.
    B) technology and the nature of work.
    C) the seas.
    D) all of the above.
    Answer: D

17. Modernization in underdeveloped countries
    A) occurs as they industrialize, just as it did in industrial nations.
    B) has for the most part already occurred.
    C) will have to take a different course than it did in the industrialized nations.
    D) will depend on the willingness of the people to work.
    Answer: C

18. Dependency theory states that underdeveloped nations
    A) develop just as industrial nations did.
    B) exploit industrial nations for foreign aid.
    C) are exploited by industrial nations for their raw materials.
    D) have too many people who are unwilling to work.
    Answer: C

19. When preindustrial nations develop lower birth rates, better health care, and housing, this is
    called
    A) modernization.
    B) industrialization.
    C) urbanization.
    D) exploitation.
    Answer: A

20. Third world nations remain poor because
    A) they lack natural resources.
    B) they lack ambition.
    C) they lack modern education.
    D) they lack business skills.
    Answer: A
21. World Systems theory states that
    A) core nations dominate the economies of peripheral nations.
    B) peripheral nations threaten core nations with cheap labor.
    C) third world nations drain peripheral nations of cash.
    D) all of the above.
    Answer: A

22. Exploited countries could improve their situation by
    A) nationalizing foreign industries.
    B) banning most imports.
    C) generally oppose extreme inequality.
    D) all of the above.
    Answer: D

23. Durkheim thought specialization and greater division of labor would create
    A) interdependence and a more integrated society.
    B) a higher profit margin.
    C) greater productivity and efficiency.
    D) exploitation and alienation.
    Answer: A

24. Marx thought specialization and greater division of labor would create
    A) interdependence and a more integrated society.
    B) a higher profit margin.
    C) greater productivity and efficiency.
    D) exploitation and alienation.
    Answer: D

25. Tönnies believed that relationships between people in an industrialized society would
    become
    A) more like those in a gemeinschaft.
    B) more like those in a gesellschaft.
    C) more supportive.
    D) less impersonal.
    Answer: B

26. Weber believed that relationships between people in an industrialized society would
    become more
    A) like those in a gemeinschaft.
    B) like these in a gesellschaft.
    C) supportive.
    D) bureaucratic and rational.
     Answer: D

27. Maccoby maintains that the type of manager sought by corporations today is like a(n)
    A) individual entrepreneur.
    B) robber baron.
    C) football quarterback.
    D) long-distance runner.
    Answer: C

28. Futurists predict
    A) great devastation and the world’s end.
    B) progress.
    C) both (a) and (b).
    D) none of the above.
    Answer: C

29. Our present social system functions to support a cycle of
     A) profit and prestige.
     B) profit and production.
     C) production and consumption.
     D) conservationism.
     Answer: C
 30. When we understand how societies function, we can
     A) alter our social institutions.
     B) prepare for devastation.
     C) prevent natural disasters such as fire and floods.
     D) do nothing about it.
     Answer: A

								
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