REVIEW OF FERTILITY AND AVAILABILITY OF NURSERIES (WORK IN PROGRESS) Dorota Szelewa and Hana Haskova Fertility in Visegrad countries before and after 1989 Visegrad countries in the 1980s - permanent childlessness low (5-10%) - mean age of women at first birth low (about 20-22 years) - fertility rates high (about 2 children per woman) Visegrad countries since the 1990s - lowest total fertility rates in Europe - 1,14 – 1,35 children per woman in 2000 - 1,32 – 1,5 children per woman in 2008 - rapid increase in the mean age of women at birth (28-29 years) - growing percentage of the (so far) childless in adult population How to explain fertility decline in Visegrad countries? What are the factors leading to different fertility outcomes among European countries? back Explanations of fertility decline in Visegrad countries (not mutually exclusive) Cultural factors Structural factors internalized values external conditions opportunities competing with barriers to parenthood parenthood positive aspects of transformations negative aspects of transformations similarities in demographic trends in differences in demographic trends in Europe Europe delayed second demographic demographic shock, human transition conduct under conditions of anomie, or strategic postponement evidence of growing postmaterialist evidence of growing insecurity on value orientations labour markets and reductions in welfare systems Correlation between total fertility rate and share of children <3 in daycare in Europe (Pearson's correlation coefficient = 0.65) The development of the nurseries after the fall of state-socialism % children under 3 1989 2009 attending nurseries Czech Republic 14,0% >1,0% Hungary 13,7% 11,0% Poland 4,0% 3,3% • Common trend: decentralisation of responsibility for financing and maintaining nurseries (exception: Hungary) Recent reforms/ alternative forms of daycare Czech Republic Hungary Poland family day- 2-year olds in care-service, “toddler’s kindergarten integrated clubs” Private forms nursery- Nanny of care (e.g. kindergarten, baby-sitters) domestic childcare, alternative day- care service Comparative studies Hobson and Oláh (2006): RQ: why delaying birth-giving ? Data: LIS, CZ and HU included Lowest or none birth-striking effect identified only in the dual earner countries (Sen’s capabilities and agency freedom approach) Oláh (2011): Risk aversion theory For fertility: stronger effects of daycare than part- time work Szelewa, Polakowski 2007 The Czech Republic (1) Lively debate between proponents and oponents of the impact of welfare provisions on fertility. Studies on attitudes to childcare services and financial support for mothers to provide home-based care. The Czech Republic (2) Work situation/ plans increasingly more influence childbearing plans. Conflict between work and childbearing plans highest among university degree women. University degree women and men with the lowest education the most and increasingly more without children in the household. Accessible quality childcare services reduce conflict between work and care in childbearing plans of high educated women. Hungary (1) Gábos and Tóth (2000) Decision about birth-giving – result of cost- benefit rationalisation Kapitány (2008) Small positive impact of GYED Bálint and Köllő (2008) Positive impact of in-kind benefits, but also related to status Hungary (2) Bass and Darvas (2008) Low-educated women prefer home-based care Highest rate of childcare use among well- educated women Poland (1) • Institute for Labour and Social Issues 1991 • Highest fertility among those who came back to work after childcare leave • Husband’s earnings (28%), better housing conditions (28%), and higher childcare benefit (21%) as most important factors influencing pro-creation decisions Poland (2): LFS module 2005 Use of external care as related to higher education, higher income and bigger cities, Procreation decisions: more emphasis on the availability of childcare services (in general) Birth striking as response to societal and structural changes. Gap: Linking nurseries availability to fertility absent Treating „external care” very generally (including nannies and family members not living in the household. Conclusions Differences in institutional arrangements of childcare policies Literature gap: need for systematic methodological approach and individual level data. Alternative forms of childcare: challenge for statistics …therefore survey data on the use of childcare might be more adequate. Thank you!
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