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									   REVIEW OF FERTILITY AND
  AVAILABILITY OF NURSERIES
       (WORK IN PROGRESS)




Dorota Szelewa and Hana Haskova
               Fertility in Visegrad countries
                   before and after 1989
Visegrad countries in the 1980s
- permanent childlessness low (5-10%)
- mean age of women at first birth low (about 20-22 years)
- fertility rates high (about 2 children per woman)

Visegrad countries since the 1990s
- lowest total fertility rates in Europe
     -   1,14 – 1,35 children per woman in 2000
     -   1,32 – 1,5 children per woman in 2008
-   rapid increase in the mean age of women at birth (28-29 years)
-   growing percentage of the (so far) childless in adult population

How to explain fertility decline in Visegrad countries?
What are the factors leading to different fertility outcomes among
  European countries?
back
  Explanations of fertility decline in Visegrad
          countries (not mutually exclusive)
           Cultural factors                      Structural factors
internalized values                     external conditions
opportunities competing with            barriers to parenthood
parenthood
positive aspects of transformations     negative aspects of transformations
similarities in demographic trends in   differences in demographic trends in
Europe                                  Europe
delayed second demographic              demographic shock, human
transition                              conduct under conditions of anomie,
                                        or strategic postponement
evidence of growing postmaterialist     evidence of growing insecurity on
value orientations                      labour markets and reductions in
                                        welfare systems
Correlation between total fertility rate and
share of children <3 in daycare in Europe
      (Pearson's correlation coefficient = 0.65)
The development of the nurseries
 after the fall of state-socialism
% children under 3       1989               2009
attending nurseries
Czech Republic           14,0%              >1,0%
Hungary                  13,7%              11,0%
Poland                   4,0%               3,3%


• Common trend: decentralisation of responsibility for
financing and maintaining nurseries (exception:
Hungary)
           Recent reforms/
     alternative forms of daycare
Czech Republic      Hungary             Poland
                  family day-
 2-year olds in   care-service,      “toddler’s
 kindergarten     integrated         clubs”
 Private forms    nursery-           Nanny
 of care (e.g.    kindergarten,
 baby-sitters)    domestic
                  childcare,
                  alternative day-
                  care service
        Comparative studies
Hobson and Oláh (2006):
   RQ: why delaying birth-giving ?
   Data: LIS, CZ and HU included
   Lowest or none birth-striking effect identified only
    in the dual earner countries (Sen’s capabilities
    and agency freedom approach)
Oláh (2011):
   Risk aversion theory
   For fertility: stronger effects of daycare than part-
    time work
Szelewa, Polakowski 2007
  The Czech Republic (1)
Lively debate between proponents and
oponents of the impact of welfare
provisions on fertility.

Studies on attitudes to childcare
services and financial support for
mothers to provide home-based care.
   The Czech Republic (2)
Work situation/ plans increasingly more
influence childbearing plans.
Conflict between work and childbearing plans
highest among university degree women.
University degree women and men with the
lowest education the most and increasingly
more without children in the household.
Accessible quality childcare services reduce
conflict between work and care in
childbearing plans of high educated women.
              Hungary (1)
Gábos and Tóth (2000)
   Decision about birth-giving – result of cost-
    benefit rationalisation
Kapitány (2008)
   Small positive impact of GYED
Bálint and Köllő (2008)
   Positive impact of in-kind benefits, but also
    related to status
           Hungary (2)
Bass and Darvas (2008)
 Low-educated women prefer home-based
  care
 Highest rate of childcare use among well-
  educated women
                     Poland (1)
•   Institute for Labour and Social Issues 1991
    •   Highest fertility among those who came back
        to work after childcare leave
    •   Husband’s earnings (28%), better housing
        conditions (28%), and higher childcare benefit
        (21%) as most important factors influencing
        pro-creation decisions
Poland (2): LFS module 2005
 Use of external care as related to higher
 education, higher income and bigger cities,
 Procreation decisions: more emphasis on the
 availability of childcare services (in general)
 Birth striking as response to societal and
 structural changes.
 Gap:
  Linking nurseries availability to fertility absent

  Treating „external care” very generally (including
   nannies and family members not living in the
   household.
           Conclusions
Differences in institutional arrangements
of childcare policies
Literature gap: need for systematic
methodological approach and individual
level data.
Alternative forms of childcare: challenge
for statistics
…therefore survey data on the use of
childcare might be more adequate.
Thank you!

								
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