SAC AND EXAM
Use in conjunction with your geography manual.
PART 1: MAPS OR ANNOTATING PICTURES.
HOW TO ANNOTATE PICTURES:
E.g. Annotate one of your sketches or photos of Toolangi state forest to show how
the four spheres are working together to create this changing landscape. You may
use colour coding to make your annotations clearer.
1. Select one of your sketches or photographs that shows what is asked for or draw a
new one to match.
2. To ANNOTATE a picture means you CHANGE it by drawing ON the top of it, adding
labels, adding comments, arrows, symbols or colour. It should not look the same after
3.WRITTEN ANNOTATIONS or comments around the EDGES of the picture joined to it
by ARROWS show you know what processes are working in the picture, what things
are called using their proper names and if they are related to each other or
impacting/changing each other.
4. Make sure you show what is asked for!! Tick off parts of the question as you go.
5. Add a LEGEND to your picture to explain the changes you made.
Steam rises out of the vent Height of mountain before
the shape of rivers
Poisonous gases and pyroclastic
Flows kill plants and animals
The mouth of the volcano
is called the caldera.
The main type of rock is basalt
The volcanic soil is full of nutrients
ANNOTATING PICTURES OR MAPS TO SHOW SPATIAL CHANGE OVER TIME:
e.g. Annotate one of your sketches or photos of a logging coupe or area after fire to
show spatial change over time (e.g. ash bed, colonizer species, change species,
senescent) and indicate what the land might have looked like in the past. Use the
words, succession, senescent etc.
1. SPATIAL just means what space things are located in, how much space they take
up and if there is a pattern to it all.
2. Showing SPATIAL CHANGE over time on a picture of map means to show BEFORE
and AFTER pictures showing location, size or pattern of things either on the original
picture/map or on top of a one you drew to answer the question.
HOW TO ANSWER LOCATION MAP QUESTIONS:
1. All maps must be at least half a page in size no smaller!!
2. Using a combination of information from the background booklet or from memory
of what you saw draw a NEW map of the region do NOT copy one already done!
3. Make sure you have included ALL the features mentioned or asked for.
4. Always include B.O.L.T.S.S:
Border- around your map – to show where it ends
Orientation –a compass showing which way is north
Legend- a key showing what each symbol or colour on your map stands for
Title- gives the map its name so we know what you are showing us! Try to use a
spatial concept in the title, e.g. distribution of cool temperate rainforests on a global
Scale- most important let us know what one centimetre on your map equals in the
real world. e.g.: 1cm=5km
Source – where the map is from
HOW TO ANSWER CREATE A TABLE QUESTIONS:
1. Create a table means make up a totally brand new table from the
information given to you, collected on fieldtrips or from memory. Rule up the
table, if you don’t have a ruler use a book edge or draw freehand.
2. You will know what columns to use by looking at the key words mentioned as
things to show, demonstrate, things to include or even rank. Use a
highlighter to note these key words. They become the headings for each
3. If you are given two sets of words to show, demonstrate or include that
means they want you to present it as a grid with headings across the top and
down one side.
E.g. Create a table to show the range of human activities at Toolangi state forest,
their impact on landforms, plants and animals. Rank these activities from best to
worst. Include recreational activities, conservation, tourism, agriculture and land
uses on the edge of the National Park.
HUMAN ACTIVITIES IMPACT ON IMPACT ON IMPACT ON RANK
LANDFORMS PLANTS ANIMALS
LAND USE ON
EDGE OF FOREST
PART 2: WRITTEN ANSWERS.
SOME KEY WORDS – see the geography text book/manual
EVALUATE: Make a judgement about something but back it up with proof or
EFFICENCY: Efficient or efficiency is how something works. Make a judgement that
you have to back up with proof or evidence from research and or field work.
IMPACT: Impact is the results of change whether they are positive (good) or negative
ANSWERING DISTRIBUTION QUESTIONS:
P- Pattern: Describe the pattern type using words like, cluster, linear, random,
Q-Quantity: Use keys and scales to estimate quantities, size or number.
E- Exception: there will always be a feature or thing outside the pattern or unusual in
its quantity compared to the others. This is the exception.
HINTS ON HOW TO ANSWER DESCRIBE AND EXPLAIN QUESTIONS:
1. If you have been asked to DESCRIBE something you need to describe its
appearance, or size, or features, or locations and patterns. Tell as much as you know
about it using the correct terms and names for things.
2. To EXPLAIN means you understand WHY the thing is the way it is. You use the
words due to, caused by, because of, a result of, therefore.
HINTS ON HOW TO ANSWER DOMINANT QUESTIONS:
EG: The Organ Pipes are an example of a Volcanic Environment. Are any of the
spheres more dominant? Support your answer using evidence.
1. Questions that ask you if something is DOMINANT they are asking you to make a
JUDGEMENT about what is the majority, biggest number, more important, or most
of the type of thing asked for is.
2. Making this judgement means you have to IDENTIFY the dominant thing, identify
what order the other things come in and explain WHY it was the dominant thing and
NOT the other things.
3. Support your answer using evidence means you can prove this by telling us about
an example you saw on a field trip that backs up your answer.
4. Each of the above steps becomes one sentence in your written answer DONT’ DO
HOW TO ANSWER DESCRIBE AND EXPLAIN PROCESS QUESTIONS:
1. If you have been asked to describe something NATURAL don’t mention humans!!
2. If you have been asked to DESCRIBE a natural PROCESS this means you have to say
HOW something works or happened step by step over time in ORDER of how it
happens using the correct names for each step.
3. To EXPLAIN a process means you understand WHY the process led to a certain
RESULT. You use the words due to, caused by, because of, a result of, therefore.
4. Do a rough flow chart so you can remember the steps in the process.
WEATHERING: DEPOSITION: large scar in the
Rain on a dry slope TRANSPORTATION: soil piles up at original spot and
with no grass due to Soils loosen and move bottom of hill weakened earth
drought downhill with the water caused by makes it unstable
flow as a result of gravity collecting around and therefore
tree roots. further erosion.
5. WRITE out the steps above in SENTENCES, each box represents a small paragraph.
Just use the flow chart as a guide to help you remember, you will lose marks if this
is all you do!!
6. If they want you to explain the process for more than one of the same type of
feature they want you to identify WHAT exactly in the process has caused a
DIFFERENT result and WHY they all look different to each other. This is like changing
the last box in the flow chart.
HINTS ON USING DATA OR RESEARCH TO ANSWER QUESTION:
DATA= information that you collect in the field or from research e.g. field notes,
background notes or research from books or the internet.
RESEARCH= Finding the answer to your questions by either going into the field to
collect them or using the findings of others who have already done that and written
1. You must at all times say where you got the research from and who wrote
it. If you don’t in year 12 expect to be failed for the subject for Plagiarism;
that means trying to pass off someone else’s work as your own. If you do it in
the real world you get sued or arrested for fraud!! At school it’s considered
2. If it is not your thoughts, words or ideas you put them in quotation marks and
follow with the author’s name, book/site you found it on and date published.
E.g: “The Rosette Rock is an example of basalt columns formed from radial cooling
causing shrinking of the lava” (National Parks Service, “The Organ Pipes Teacher’s
ANSWERING QUESTIONS ABOUT CHANGES IN HUMAN ENVIRONMENTS:
Questions about change in human environments talk about WHAT those changes are
WHO or WHAT gets changed and the RESULTS of the changes. Use S.H.E.E.P.T
factors to answer.
E.g. describe and explain changes to Vietnam’s population and its economy after the
SOCIAL- The people, their community, society’s rules, type of society
e.g. rural area, traditional villages, urban centres .
HISTORICAL-What changes happened over time, when and what was the result e.g.
war, death, famine.
ECONOMICAL- wealth creation, who has the money, countries main exports
E.g. rice production or manufactured goods like clothing.
ENVIRONMENTAL-major environmental impacts like dam building, pollution or
climate and local weather.eg: monsoons, malaria mosquitoes, pollution of well water
POLITICAL- Who rules, who has control of the country, what type of government.
e.g. democracy or dictatorship
TECHNOLOGICAL- Is the country modern or developing; are its people educated e.g.
computer information industries or fishing in the village?
Is a way of outlining the impacts of an activity/issue; both positive and negative on a
wide range of social and environmental factors. It provides an overview of the
ANSWERING QUESTIONS ABOUT SPATIAL ASSOCIATION.
The key idea is SPATIAL, in other words where something located on a map as well
as its size or the shape of the phenomenon on the map or the patterns it makes in its
In answering SPATIAL ASSOCIATION questions there is a three part response.
1. Make a link. You are trying to discover the patterns of two different
phenomena occurring in similar or exact locations, in other words “where
you find one you often find the other”. For example most of the world’s
civilizations formed on rivers.
This is the main answer for Spatial Association. Unless it asks you to explain /
discuss the spatial association you don’t need to do step 3.
2. Determine the strength of this link. Decide if it’s high, medium, low or just a
3. Suggest possible reasons for the link. If you have made a link or think they
are linked you need to understand whether it’s just a coincidence or whether
there are geographical conditions needed by both phenomena e.g. where
you find rivers and humans you find rainfall high enough for human use and
rivers to flow.
E.g. There appears to be a strong spatial association between pastoral areas and
volcanic soils in Victoria’s western district.
Do not need to continue with the answer unless it asks:
Volcanic soils are very fertile and successfully grow grass full of nutrients, this means
the pastures are nutritious and support flocks of sheep. Good pastures mean success
for farmers so there are numerous sheep farmers in areas of volcanic soils which
equal a high spatial association between volcanic soils and sheep farming. However,
the quality of the pasture could also be because of the high rainfall in the area.
ANSWERING QUESTIONS ABOUT SPATIAL INTERACTION.
In answering SPATIAL INTERACTION questions it is a 4 part response.
1. Spatial interaction suggests a relationship between phenomena either
natural or human. The first step is to identify the type of relationship e.g.
consumed by one, natural processes done by one onto the other, used by
2. The key idea is movement between phenomena or environments. This
movement can be physical movement between locations or include ideas,
trends and information.
3. You need to identify the patterns of movement including directionality,
frequency and size.
4. What are the outcomes of the relationship between the two phenomena? Is
it positive or destructive, is it sustainable? Make a judgement.
E.g. A market place in a large town attracts women from outlying villages for the
sale of produce grown in their fields or trade for goods and services. The
interaction involves radial movement of villagers from several villages across the
catchment into the market place at its centre. They move along roads that lead
to the market place. This is a positive relationship because roads to the market
are well kept and looked after with taxes taken from store-holders and it
provides opportunities for socializing by the women of the village.