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Algae For Fuel, Algal Oil, Biofuels, Ethanol, Biodiesel And The Future
Of Petroleum And Green Energy: Global Markets, Technologies, And
Opportunities: 2009-2020 Analysis and Forecasts

Description:    This research provides an overview on what could become one of the most significant technological
                and economic events of the early 21st century: turning algae into fuel, i.e. algal oil, on a
                commercial scale. If this feat is accomplished, and it’s not certain it will be, it will have dramatic,
                disruptive consequences to oil producers, oil refiners, ethanol, biodiesel and other biofuels
                producers, biotechnology companies, agricultural producers, consumers, motor vehicle makers,
                regulators, R&D activities and investors, among others.

                However, from this change will come enormous opportunities, including less dependence on
                petroleum oil, more geopolitical independence, reductions in CO2 and global warming, technological
                advancements, very large, new industries and markets, and huge profits.

                The report provides a review of algae in terms of biology, classifications, photosynthesis and
                applications and discusses algae for fuel in terms of its history, applications, cultivation
                technologies and R&D. Analysis of the algal oil market in terms of its advantages, challenges,
                production costs, scale-up, market opportunity and sector investments is given. The biofuels
                market in terms of technology generations, market drivers, industry consolidation, next generation
                technologies, fuel standards, winners/losers, government policies, the oil majors, capital costs and
                future outlook is discussed. An analysis of the biodiesel market as regards production technology,
                end use, global production, addressable market, feedstocks, market conditions, environmental
                controversies, jatropha oil and major players is given. An analysis of the ethanol market in terms of
                first, second and third generation technologies, food vs. fuel, global production, risks and
                opportunities, government incentives and major players is provided. Profiles of 56 major players in
                the algal oil market are given and 175 biofuels, ethanol and biodiesel companies and organizations
                are discussed.



Contents:       EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
                INTRODUCTION
                Background
                Methodology and Sources
                Statistical Notes

                MARKET OVERVIEW:

                -   Biofuels in Context
                -   Technology Developments
                -   First Generation
                -   Second Generation
                -   Third Generation
                -   Petroleum Oil Market
                -   Biodiesel Market
                -   Ethanol Market
                -   Ethanol and Biodiesel Market
                -   Algal Oil Market
                -   Algae Politics
                -   Algal Oil Benchmarks
                -   Algae Politics
                -   Algal Oil First Mover Advantage
                -   Algal Oil Sector Investments
                -   Algal Oil Competitive Environment
                -   Risks To The Future of Algal Oil
                -   Other Biofuels Markets
- Market Drivers
- Future Supply-Demand Imbalances
- Polyculture
- Industry Consolidation
- Next Generation Technology Themes
- Food vs. Fuel
- Biodiesel From Waste Feedstocks
- Regional Biofuels
- Alternate Fuels Mandates
- Production Costs And Disruptive Technologies
- Investment Themes
- New, Cheaper Capacity
- Alternatives To Yeast and Corn for Ethanol Production
- Intellectual Property
- Integration vs. Platform Companies
- The Oil Majors
- Distribution
- Engines
- Feedstocks
- Land
- Water Issues
- Capacity and Capital Issues
- Winners and Losers
- Government Policies: US, Brazil, Europe, Asia Pacific
- Subsidies
- Politics
- Optimistic Scenario
- Companies/Organizations Discussed: ADM, BP, Chevron, ConocoPhillips, DOA, DOE, Dow, DuPont,
EIA, Environmental Protection Agency, ExxonMobil, Fulcrum BioEnergy, Monsanto, Nova Biosource
Fuels, NRDC, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Origin Agritech Ltd, Petrobras, PetroChina, Sandia
National Laboratories, Synthetic Genomics, The Andersons, Tyson, Valero, Verasun, Verenium,
Weiming, ZeaChem

ALGAE:

- Algae Biology
- Photosynthesis
- Etymology and Study
- Classification
-- Green algae
-- Red algae
-- Brown algae
-- Golden algae
-- Yellow-green algae
- Relationship To Higher Plants
- Morphology
- Symbiotic Algae
- Life-Cycle
- Numbers of Species
- Distribution
- Locations
- Uses
-- Agar
-- Alginates
-- Fertilizer
-- Fuel
-- Nutrition
-- Pollution Control
-- Pigments
-- Stabilizing Substances

ALGAE FOR FUEL:
- Background
- History
- Aquatic Species Program Recommendations
- DARPA Initiative
- Potential Algal Oil Fuels
-- Biodiesel
-- Bioalcohols
-- Biobutanol
-- Biogasoline
-- Jet Biofuels
-- Straight Vegetable Oil
-- Methane
-- Hydrogen
- Algae Cultivation Overview
- Siting
- Strain Selection
- Cultivation
-- Open Pond Systems
-- Raceway Ponds
- Photobioreactors
- Harvesting and Dewatering/Drying
- Extraction
- Conversion
- Policy and Regulatory
- System Integration
- Algae Types For Algal Oil
- Algae Growth Factors
- Yields
- Wastewater
- Universities Research
- Companies & Organizations Discussed: A2BE Carbon Capture, Air New Zealand, Algal Biomass
Organization, Algaewheel, Algenol , Aquaflow, Aurora Biofuels , Bionomic, Boeing Commercial
Airplanes, Continental Airlines, Diversified Energy Corporation, Earthrise Farm , Green Flight
International, Harbor Branch (Florida Atlantic University), International Air Transport Association,
Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, MTU Aero Engines, NASA Glenn Research Center , National
Algae Association, NREL, Sandia National Laboratories, Sapphire Energy, Scripps Institution of
Oceanography, Solazyme, Tecbio, UOP LLC , US Air Force Research Laboratory, Valcent Products,
Virgin Atlantic, Wageningen UR, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution

ALGAL OIL MARKET:

- Algae Advantages vs. Other Feedstocks
- Yield Issues
- Existing Refinery Infrastructure Utilization
- Algae Challenges
- Cost Concerns
- Production Costs
- Scale-Up
- Process Challenges
- Price of Oil
- Market Opportunity
- Market Projections
- Sector Investments
- First Mover Advantage
- Competitive Environment
- Prize Capital
- Companies & Organizations Discussed: Dow, EESI, ExxonMobil, General Atomics, GreenFuel
Technologies, Live Fuels, NREL, PetroAlgae, Seambiotic, Solix, University of New Hampshire,
Synthetic Genomics

BIODIESEL MARKET OVERVIEW:

- Definition
- Production Technologies
- End Use
- First-Generation Biodiesel Costs
- Global Biodiesel Market
- US Market
- Feedstock Constraints
- US Biodiesel Tax
- Current Market Conditions
- Multiple Feedstocks and Arbitrage Opportunities
- Standards
- Quality Issues
- Environmental Controversies
- Cloudpoint
- Water Contamination
- Major Biodiesel Players: US, Canada, Brazil, Europe
- Second-Generation Biodiesel Feedstocks
- Jatropha Oil
- Biomenthanol
- Companies & Organizations Discussed:
ADM, Allegro Biodiesel Corporation, ASTM, BioPetrol Industries, Biox Corporation, BP, Bunge,
Canadian BioEnergy Corporation, Cargill, Cargill Energy Paseo Biofuels, Caterpillar, ConocoPhillips,
D1 Oils, Desmet Ballestra, EOP Biodiesel, Global Clean Energy Holdings, GreenHunter Biofuels,
Homeland Energy Resources Development, INEOS, Innovation Fuels, John Deere, Mission Biofuels
India Private Limited, Mission NewEnergy Limited, National Biodiesel Board, New Holland, Nova,
Petrobras, Pure Biofuels Corp, REG, Rocky Mountain Biodiesel Consulting, Rothsay, SG Biofuels,
Technology Alternatives Ltd, The Energy and Resources Institute, Tyson Foods

ETHANOL MARKET OVERVIEW:

- Definition
- Technology Development
- First-Generation
- Second-Generation
- Cellulolysis (Biochemical Approach)
- Gasification (Thermochemical Approach)
- Cellulosic Ethanol and the Environment
- Third-Generation
- Food vs. Fuel
- Renewable Fuel Standard
- Global Mandates
- Global Ethanol Production
- US Production and Mandates
- Risks And Opportunities
- Margin Outlook
- Transportation Issues
- Yields, Process, Location and Cost Position
- First-Generation Major Ethanol Players: US, Brazil, Europe
- Cellulosic Ethanol Feedstocks and Government Incentives
- Second-Generation Bioethanol Players
- Cellulosic Costs
- Clean Technology
- E85 Ethanol Blend Fuel
- Biobutonol Alcohol
- Biomenthanol
- Companies & Organizations Discussed:
Abengoa Bioenergy, ALICO, Alliance of Automobile Manufacturers, American Energy Enterprises,
Archer Daniels Midland Co., Aventine Renewable Energy, BioMCN, BlueFire Ethanol, BP, Bunge
Alimentos, Cellulosic Ethanol LLC, Chrysler, Copersucar S.A., Cosan Group S/A, Coskata, Cristal
Union, Danisco, DOE, DSM, DuPont, DuPont Danisco, Ensus Group, EPA, Ford, Genencor, General
Motors, Gevo, Goldman Sachs, Greenfield Ethanol, Green Spirit Fuels Ltd., HR BioPetroleum, Husky
Energy, ICM, INEOS Bio, Inifinity Bio-Energy, Iogen Corporation, Jiangsu Lianhai Biological
Technology Co., Ltd, Kajima, KL Process Design Group, Lake County Solid Waste Management
District, Lignol Innovations, Marubeni, Mascoma, Mercedes, Michigan State University, Michigan
            Technological University, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Monsanto, Nippon Oil, Nissan, Novozymes,
            NRDC, NREL, Pacific Ethanol, POET, Powers Energy One, QTEROS, Range Fuels, Sapporo Breweries,
            Shell, Stora Enso North America, Suncor Energy, SunOpta, Syntec Biofuel, Tereos Group, Toray,
            Toyota, Tsukishima Kikai, University of Tennessee, VeraSun, VIASPACE, Verenium, ZeaChem

            LIST OF TABLES:

            Global Petroleum Production By Year (Volume/Value/Price): 2007-2020
            Global Biodiesel Production By Year (Volume/Value/Price): 2007-2020
            Global Ethanol Production By Year (Volume/Value/Price): 2007-2020
            Global Algal Oil Production By Year (Volume/Value/Price): 2009-2014
            US Renewable Fuel Standard By Fuel Type: 2008-2022
            Commercialization Targets By Algae For Fuel Companies
            Algal Oil Production Costs By Cost Component
            Global Algae Fuel Price And Capacity Projections: 2009-2014
            Capital Investments In Algae For Fuel Companies By Company
            Global Ethanol Blending Mandates By Country
            Global Biodiesel Production Volume By Region And Country: 2005-2017
            US Biodiesel Production, Imports, Exports And Consumption Volume: 2001-2008
            Global Oilseed Oil Production Volume And Biodiesel Equivalent Volume By Feedstock
            (Soybean/Rapeseed Oil/Palm Oil): 2007-2017
            Impact of Various Biofuels Sources on Climate Change
            Global Ethanol Production Volume By Region And Country: 2005-2017

            LIST OF FIGURES:

            Green Algae
            Red Algae
            Brown Algae
            Golden Algae
            Kelp
            Properties of Common Fuels
            Algae Efficiency
            Comparison of Fuel Yield and Water Consumption by Fuel Type and Conversion Process
            Algae Production Process



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                                       Petroleum And Green Energy: Global Markets, Technologies, And
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