KINGDOM ANAMALIA by 8Z84az

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									KINGDOM ANIMALIA
    CHARACTERISTICS
 EUKARYOTIC
 MULTICELLULAR
 HETEROTROPHIC   (by ingestion)
 MOVE AT SOME POINT IN LIFE
 DIGEST FOOD TO GET NUTRIENTS
 LACK CELL WALLS
TRENDS IN ANIMAL EVOLUTION
 CELL SPECIALIZATION
 CEPHALIZATION
 EARLY DEVELOPMENT
 BODY SYMMETRY
 BODY CAVITY FORMATION
       CELL SPECIALIZATION

   CELLS FORM TISSUES
    – EPITHELIAL (skin, lining of cavities)
    – CONNECTIVE (bone, blood)
    – MUSCULAR (heart, biceps)
    – NERVOUS (brain, nerves)
        CEPHALIZATION

   CONCENTRATION OF SENSE ORGANS
    AND NERVE CELLS AT FRONT END OF
    BODY
    EARLY DEVELOPMENT
 FERTILIZATION FORMS A ZYGOTE
 BLASTULA (hollow ball of cells)
 GASTRULA (stage when layers that
  produce adult tissues form)
 GERM LAYER
  FORMATION
GERM LAYERS

 ECTODERM




 ENDODERM




 MESODERM
            GERM LAYERS
 ECTODERM
 – Covers surface of embryo
 – Forms outer covering & CNS
 ENDODERM
 – Innermost germ layer
 – Forms lining of digestive tract, liver,
   lungs
 MESODERM
 – Located b/w ectoderm & endoderm
 – Forms muscles & most organs
 2 TYPES OF DEVELOPMENT
 PROTOSTOMES         DEUTEROSTOMES
 – mouth forms        – anus forms from
   from the             the opening
   opening              (blastopore) of the
   (blastopore) of      gastrula during
   the gastrula         development
     BODY SYMMETRY
 Animal’s  body plans are adapted
  for how they get their food
 they may be motile (move) or
  sessile (don’t move)
   3 TYPES OF BODY SYMMETRY
 Asymmetrical-no    symmetry (ex,
 sponge)
                Bilateral- body plan in
                which single line can
                divide body into 2
                equal parts

 Radial-bodyplan in which body
 parts repeat around center of
 body
   ANATOMICAL TERMS
 Dorsal- top or back
 Ventral- bottom
 Anterior- head end that goes first
 Posterior- tail end that follows
 Lateral- along the side (lengthwise)
           ANATOMICAL TERMS


              Dorsal
Anterior



                                 Posterior
                       Ventral
       BODY PLANS
OR BODY CAVITY FORMATION
   ACOELOMATE- no body cavity b/w
    digestive tract and outer body wall
       ex. Platyhelminthes (flatworms)
       BODY PLANS
OR BODY CAVITY FORMATION
   PSEUDOCOELOMATE- slight body cavity
    between the mesoderm and endoderm
        Ex. Nematoda (roundworms)
       BODY PLANS
OR BODY CAVITY FORMATION
   COELOMATE- body cavity forms and
    cushions organs, allows for growth of
    organs.
          Ex. Annelids (earthworm)
FEEDING HETEROTROPHS
 HERBIVORES-   eat vegetation such
 as plants
FEEDING HETEROTROPHS
   CARNIVORES- eat other animals
FEEDING HETEROTROPHS
 OMNIVORES-   feed on both
 vegetation & other animals
FEEDING HETEROTROPHS
 FILTER   FEEDERS- feed by straining
 tiny floating plants
FEEDING HETEROTROPHS
 DETRITUS   FEEDERS- feed on tiny
 bits of decaying matter




                           Sea Cucumber
FEEDING HETEROTROPHS
 PARASITES- feed on living organisms
 usually destroying or injuring the host
 organism
    2 MAIN GROUPINGS OF ANIMALS
   INVERTEBRATES        VERTEBRATES
    – 95% of animal       – 5% of animal species
      species             – Contains backbone
    – No backbone
     ESSENTIAL FUNCTIONS
         OF ANIMALS
 FEEDING
                 SEE PAGES 658-659.
 RESPIRATION
 CIRCULATION
 EXCRETION
 RESPONSE
 MOVEMENT
 REPRODUCTION
 VARIOUS ANIMAL FUNCTIONS HELP
  MAINTAIN HOMEOSTASIS OFTEN BY
  USING FEEDBACK MECHANISMS
  INCLUDING FEEDBACK INHIBITION
 EXAMPLE: DOGS GET HOT RUNNING,
  NERVOUS SYSTEM TRIGGERS PANTING.
  PANTING REDUCES BODY TEMPERATURE
  SO PANTING STOPS.

								
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