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					THE NATURE OF APPROACHES AND METHODS IN
          LANGUAGE TEACHING
       PROF. DR. SÉRGIO AUGUSTO FREIRE DE SOUZA




                                         WWW.SERGIOFREIRE.COM.BR
A QUESTÃO DO SABER: O CONHECIMENTO E SUA TIPOLOGIA


• We have seen that foreign language studies have changed according to
  the movements in historical circumstances.
• Grammar-Translation Method was guided by tradition. Read and write.
  Use of native language. Deductive grammar.
• Reform movement: displacements in beliefs.
• Direct Method. Listening and speaking. Use of the target language.
  Inductive grammar.
• In the 1940’s, applied linguists started trying to conceptualize the
  nature of methods.
• What is a method? And an approach? It is necessary to define the
  concepts to analyze the methods.

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            APPROACH AND METHOD

• The difference between the philosophy of language
  teaching and the set of derived procedures for teaching a
  language is crucial to deal with the subject.
• Edward Anthony’s model (1963):
   – Approach: assumptions dealing with the nature of language
     teaching and learning. Axiomatic.
   – Method: an overall plan for the orderly presentation of language
     material. Procedural. Within one approach, there can be many
     methods.
   – Technique: what actually takes place in the classroom. Techniques
     must be consistent with a method, which must be in harmony
     with an approach.
       • E.g.: The proposals of the Reform movement were at the level of an
         approach; The Direct Method is a method derived from this approach.
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APPROACH AND METHOD

 HIERARCHICAL/VERTICAL MODEL

           Approach
               |
            Method
               |
          Techniques

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CRITICISM OF ANTHONY’S TAXONOMY
 – It leaves out teachers’ and learners’ role, as well as the role
   of instructional materials.
 – It lacks discussing how an approach becomes a method
   and how techniques are related to a method.




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RICHARD AND RODGERS’ MODEL




   Method = approach + design + procedure




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              RICHARD AND RODGERS’ MODEL
•   A) APPROACH: theories about the nature of the language and language learning.
          •   Theory of language
                – The Structural view: a system of structurally related elements: E.g. : Audiolingual method
                – The Functional view: a vehicle of expression for functional meaning: E.g.: The Communicative
                   movement
                – The Interactional view: a vehicle for the realization of interpersonal relations and the performance
                   of social transactions between individuals. A tool for the creation and maintenance of social
                   relations:
                   E.g.: Task-based learning
          •   Theory of language learning
                – Describe the psycholinguistic and cognitive processes involved in language learning.
                       » Process-orientated theories: build on learning processes
                              • E.g. Gardner’s Multiple Intelligence: right trigger
                       » Condition-oriented theories: build on the context of learning
                              • E.g. Curran’s Counseling Learning: environment
                              • E.g2. Krashen’s theory is both
                                    • Process: acquisition/learning
                                    • Condition: i+1
                              • E.g3. Asher’s TPR is both
                                    • Process: learning is based on motor activity
                                    • Condition: combination of language production and physical action provide the
                                        optimal condition for learning.
                                    Combinations: Structuralism (language theory) and Behaviorism (learning theory)
                                        produced the Audiolingualism.
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      RICHARD AND RODGERS’ MODEL
B) DESIGN: Design for an instructional system
     a) Objectives: teaching focus (grammar, oral skills, etc…)
     b) Content choice and organization: syllabus
     c) Types of learning and teaching activities: (dialogues,
        problem-solving, information-gap, drilling, etc.)
     d)Learner roles: learners’ contribution to the learning
        process
     e) The role of instructional materials: according to the
         previous items
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    RICHARD AND RODGERS’ MODEL
C) PROCEDURE: moment-to-moment techniques and
  practices that operate in teaching.




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         RICHARD AND RODGERS’ MODEL
                                            METHOD

       APPROACH                               DESIGN                                PROCEDURE

- A theory of the nature of the language       - Objectives                        - Classroom techniques,
- A theory of the nature of language learning - A syllabus model                     practices, and behaviors
                                               - Learning and teaching activities     observed when the method
                                                - Learner roles                       is used
                                               - Teacher roles
                                               - The role of instructional materials




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