Chapter 18: Cold War Conflicts Section 3: The Cold War At Home California Academic Standards: 11.8.7 & 11.9.3 11.8 Students analyze the economic boom and social transformation of post-World War II America. .7 Describe the effects on society and the economy of technological developments since 1945, including the computer revolution, changes in communication, advances in medicine, and improvements in agricultural technology. 11.9 Students analyze U.S. foreign policy since World War II. .3 Trace the origins and geopolitical consequences (foreign and domestic) of the Cold War and containment policy, including the following: The era of McCarthyism, instances of domestic Communism (e.g., Alger Hiss) and blacklisting The Truman Doctrine The Berlin Blockade The Korean War The Bay of Pigs invasion and the Cuban Missile Crisis Atomic testing in the American West, the "mutual assured destruction" doctrine, and disarmament policies The Vietnam War Latin American policy Objectives: Following lecture and reading of this section, students will be able to: 1. Describe government efforts to investigate the loyalty of U.S. citizens. 2. Explain the spy cases of Alger Hiss and Julius and Ethel Rosenberg. 3. Describe the efforts of Senator Joseph McCarthy to investigate alleged Communist influence in the United States. Fears of Communist Influence Americans are worried about the U.S. security because they saw Eastern Europe and China fall to Communists and feared it could happen any where anytime. Also about 100,000 Americans claimed membership in Communist parties in the U.S. Loyalty Review Board Truman accused of being soft on Communism. Purpose: to investigate gov’t workers and dismiss any that were disloyal to the U.S. Belonging to certain groups was cause for suspicion 3.2 million investigated; 212 dismissed as threats; 2,900 resigned to avoid or protest investigations. House Un-American Activities Committee Purpose: one of several agencies that investigated Communist influence both inside and outside the U.S. gov’t. Famous for investigating movie industry in 1947 believing Communist propaganda had infiltrated Hollywood. Many in Hollywood agreed, and supported belief in accusations The Hollywood Ten refused to testify claiming the hearings and investigations were unconstitutional, and were imprisoned. Because of investigation, a blacklist of about 500 was compiled in which names of suspected communists were placed and could no longer find work. McCarran Act Purpose: Make any act that would lead to the establishment of a totalitarian gov’t unlawful. Spy Cases Stun the Nation Alger Hiss Convicted of perjury for lying about passing soviet gov’t documents. Ethel & Julius Rosenberg Minor activists in the American Communist Party Found guilty of espionage and sentenced to death, for leaking information on our atomic bomb to the USSR allowing them to develop it years earlier than they would have. 1st U.S. civilians executed for espionage. McCarthy Launches His “Witch Hunt” Senator Joseph McCarthy of Wisconsin (Republican), charged that Communists were taking over the gov’t. McCarthy’s Tactics Accused people in the gov’t of disloyalty without providing evidence. Only made claims in the senate where he had legal immunity from slander. Republicans did little to stop him, because they thought they would win 1952 presidential election if America saw them as ridding the gov’t of Communists. McCarthy’s Downfall 1954, McCarthy bullied witnesses in a televised investigation and cost him public support. Other Anti- Communist Measures By 1953, 39 states passed laws making it illegal to advocate the violent overthrow of the gov’t. People had to take loyalty oaths, people were afraid to sign petitions quoting the Declaration of Independence fearing they were Communist ideas. Union leaders, librarians, reporters, and scientists were investigated. The Cold War at Home Duringthe late 1940s and early 1950s, fear of communism leads to reckless charges against innocent citizens.