2.1   System Concept
      2.1.1 Overview of Computer Systems     Define computer systems

        A Computer System is defined as combination of component designed to process data and store files.
       State the meaning of input, process, output and storage.

          CPU or Central Processing Unit/ Processor/ Microprocessor is an electronic component on a computer’s
          motherboard that interprets and carries out the basic instructions that operate the computer.
          Example of devices:
          Intel® Core™2 Duo Processor, AMD Athlon, G4, Mac


          Any data and instructions entered into the memory of a computer. There are four types of input which are:
          text, graphics, audio and video.
          Example of devices:
          Keyboard, mouse, digital camera, joystick, trackball, touch screen, microphone, pointing stick, graphic tablet
          and scanner, barcode reader.

          The result of raw input data that has been processed by the Central Processing Unit (CPU) into meaningful
          Example of devices:
          Speaker, monitor, LCD projector, printer and plotter.

          A location in which data, instructions, and information are saved for future use.
          Example of devices:
          CDROM, diskette, hard disk, flash disk.       Describe the information processing cycle which includes input, process, output and storage.

         Input                                       Process                                        Output



     Information processing cycle of computer can be well described by the following points: (1) input, (2)
     processing, (3) output and (4) storage
         1. Input-entering data into the computer.
         2. Processing-performing operations on the data.
         3. Output-presenting the results.

     User will input the data to be processed by the processor.
     The storage holds databases, files & programs. The output devices present the processed data as useful
     information products for the user.

         4. Storage-saving data, programs, or output for future use.


      STORING                                                                                    DECODING


                                               MACHINE CYCLE

4    Basic operation called Machine Cycle
     FETCHING : the process of obtaining a program instruction or data item from memory
     DECODING : the process of translating a program instruction into signal that the
                     computer can execute
     EXECUTING : the process of implementing the instructions in a program
     STORING : the process of writing the result to the storage or memory
2.1.2 Data Representation    State the relationship of data representation: bit, byte and character.

                  Computer recognizes 2 discrete: ON and OFF that represented by 2 digits 1 and
                  8 bits = 1 byte
                  8 bits = 1 character

2.1.3 Introduction to Binary Coding    Explain the function of ASCII code

                          DEFINITION: American Standard Code for Information
        ASCII              Interchange & was proposed by ASA in 1963 & was finalized in 1968.
                          ASCII is standard of 7-bit code used to represent characters, which include
                          letters, numbers & punctuation marks.

       Function of ASCII

               ASCII was established to achieve compatibility between various types of data processing
                equipment making it possible for the components to communicate with each other successfully.
               ASCII enables manufacturers to produce component that are assured to operate correctly in a


             ASCII makes it possible for humans to interact with a computer. It also enables users to purchase
              components that are compatible with their computer configurations.
             Example 
              1. Number 9 is typed using the keyboard
              2. Electronic signal in sent to CPU for the computer to process.
              3. Number 9 is converted to 00111001
              4. Computer finishes processing the byte.
              5. The software converts the byte back to the number 9
              6. Number 9 is displayed on the monitor screen

2.1.4 Data Measurements   State the unit of data measurement
          1 Bit                         Single Binary Digit (1 or 0)

        2        Byte                         1 Byte = 8 bits

        3        Kilobyte (KB)                1 KB = 1024 bytes or 1 KB = 2 10 bytes

                                              1 MB = 1 048 576 bytes or 1 MB = 2 20 bytes
        4        Megabyte
                                              1 MB = 1024 KB

        5        Gigabyte                     1 GB = 1 073 741 824 bytes or 1 GB = 2 30 bytes

        6        Terabyte (TB)                1 TB = 1 099 511 627 776 bytes or 1 TB = 2 40 bytes
       Additional notes: A petabyte (PB) is 1,024TB. Indiana University is now building storage systems capable of
       holding petabytes of data. An exabyte (EB) is 1,024PB. A zettabyte (ZB) is 1,024EB. Finally, a yottabyte (YB) is

      2.1.5 Clock Speed Measurement     State the units of clock speed measurement: (Megahertz and Gigahertz)

                  When people talk about a computer’s ‘speed’, they mean how fast it can process data. In
                   other words, this means the speed the computer can turn data into information.
                  Every microprocessor contains a system clock. The system clock controls the speed of all the
                   operations within a computer.
                  The speed of the clock in measured by how many cycles per second the clock makes.

               MEGAHERTZ (MHz)
                Mega is prefix that stands for million
                Example  one computer that operates at 933 MHz has 933 million clock cycles in one

               GIGAHERTZ (GHz)
                Giga is prefix that stands for billion
                1 GHz equal to one billion cycles of the system clock
                For example, a microprocessor that runs at 200 GHz executes 200 billion cycles per second.
                  This is what they a talking about if they say a computer is a 2.4 GHz machine. Its clock rate is
                  2.4 billion cycles per second.
                In relation with megahertz, 1.0 GHz is equivalent to 1000 MHz
                GHz is most often used as a measurement of a pc processor chip & power, with bigger
                  numbers meaning more speed and higher price.

             Hertz & Second
                     The clock speed unit is measured in hertz.

                       1 Hertz =

                       1 Megahertz (MHz) =

                       1 GHz =

                       1 GHz = 1 000 MHz

2.2   Hardware
      2.2.1 Input Devices    Identify the input devices used for text, graphic, audio and video.

                                  Any hardware component that allows users to enter
            INPUT Dat
                                  data and instruction into a computer.
              TYPES OF INPUT                             EXAMPLE OF INPUT DEVICES
      Text                              Keyboard, barcode reader
      Graphics                          Digital camera, scanner, graphic tablet
      Audio                             Microphone, MIDI keyboard, digital voice recorder pen
      Video                             Digital video camera, webcam, CCTV

2.2.2 Output Devices    Identify the output devices used for text, graphic, audio and video.

                        Any hardware that is capable of delivering or showing
      INPUT          o   Information to one or more user. An output device shows, prints
     DEVICES             and presents the result of a computer’s work.

              TYPES OF INPUT                            EXAMPLE OF OUTPUT DEVICES
      Text                              Screen (monitor), printer, plotter
      Graphics                          Screen (monitor),printer, plotter
      Audio                             Speaker, headphone
      Video                             LCD projector, screen (monitor)

2.2.3 Motherboard   Identify the location of the central processing unit (CPU), expansion slots, expansion cards, RAM
            slots, ports and connectors on the motherboard.

                                                                                                LABEL THE
Power port


serial port    printer (parallel


game port
                     line out
line in
svideo out    FM reception

                 cable TV
             COMPONENT                                                    FUNCTION
 Central Processing Unit                   The Central Processing Unit (CPU) controls the operation of the
                                           computer. It interprets and carries out the basic instructions that
                                           operate a computer
 Expansion Slot                            In computers, a slot or expansion slot, is an engineered technique for
                                           adding capability to a computer in the form of connection pinholes
 Expansion Card                            An expansion card is a circuitry designed to provide
                                           expanded capability to a computer.
 RAM Slot                                  The slot where the computer memory, also called as RAM is placed
                                           on the computer’s motherboard.
 Port and Connector                        A port is the point at which a peripheral attaches to a system unit so
                                           that the peripheral can send data to or receive information from the
                                           computer. A connector joins a cable to a peripheral


                    TYPE OF PORT                                              FUNCTIONS
 Serial Port                                          Connect modem and old printer
 Parallel Port                                        Connect printer
 USB Port                                             Printer, external hard disk, mouse, scanner
 Firewire Port                                        Require faster data transmission

2.2.4 Storage         Explain types and function of:
                  - Primary Storage
                  - Secondary Storage


       PRIMARY                                 SECONDARY

                                                                      Magnetic disk: floppy disk, hard disk,
                                                                      magnetic tape; video cassette, audio
 ROM              RAM                        Magnetic Medium          storage reel-to-reel tape

                                              Optical Medium          CD, CD-ROM, and DVD
                                                                      CD-RW, DVD-RW, and DVD-RAM

                                                                     Memory card, Flash drive
                                               Flash Memory
               PRIMARY STORAGE                                         FUNCTION
                    RAM                  o   RAM is volatile, which means the program and data will be lost
                                             when the computer is turned off.
                                         o   Data from RAM can be read or retrieved and written or stored
                                             during processing
                    ROM                  o   ROM is non-volatile which means is holds the programs and data
                                             event when computer is turned off.
                                         o   data from ROM can just be read only.

          SECONDARY            Secondary storage is an alternative storage.
           STORAGE             It is very useful to store programs and data for future use.

        TYPE                               DESCRIPTION                                      EXAMPLE
Magnetic Medium       Magnetic Medium is a non-volatile storage              Magnetic disk: floppy disk, hard disk,
                      medium. It can be any type of storage medium that      magnetic tape; video cassette, audio
                      utilizes magnetic patterns to represent information.   storage reel-to-reel tape
                      The devices use disks that are coated with
                      magnetically sensitive material.
Optical Medium        Optical Medium is a non-volatile storage media that    CD, CD-ROM, and DVD
                      holds content in digital form that are written and     CD-R:
                      read by a laser. These media include various types     CD-RW, DVD-RW, and DVD-RAM
                      of CDs and DVDs.
Flash Memory          Flash Memory is a solid-state, non-volatile,           Memory card, Flash drive
                      rewritable memory that functions like RAM and a
                      hard disk drive combined. Flash memory store bits
                      of electronic data in memory cells just like DRAM
                      (Dynamic RAM), but it also works like a hard disk
                      drive that when the power is turned off, the data
                      remains in the memory.
2.3           Software

          o    Software is a program which consists of a set of instructions that tells the computer how to perform
               a specific operation.

                                                     TYPES OF

               SYSTEM SOFTWARE                            ASPECT                      APPLICATION SOFTWARE
      o       A system software is a                                                 o all programs that perform
              program that controls or                                                 specific tasks for users.
              maintain the operations of a
              computer and its devices
      o       Microsoft Windows, MS-DOS                  Examples                    o   Microsoft Word, Microsoft
              and MAC OS.                                                                Excel, Outlook Express and
                                                                                         Internet Explorer.

      o       Enables the computer to                     Usage                      o   Enables users to work
              function properly.                                                         efficiently with
                                                                                         documentation such as
                                                                                         letters, accounting reports
                                                                                         and presentations.
      o       Compulsory- each computer                    Need                      o   Optional- depends on usage
              must have a system software                                                and needs. Without an
              to function                                                                application software, the
                                                                                         computer is still able to
      o       Each computer only needs              Number of Software               o   Each computer can have more
              one system software.                                                       than one application
      o       Independent- system                      Dependency                    o   Dependent- application
              software can function without                                              software cannot work without
              an application software.                                                   system software.
      o       Provides the environment in                Function                    o   Provides the environment to
              which the applications run.                                                enable users to accomplish
                                                                                         specific tasks.

                                                          1. Operating System
                                                          2. Utility Program
2.3.1   Operating System (OS)

                                             OPERATING SYSTEM

    An operating system is a set of programs that schedule tasks, allocates storage and presents a default
    interface to the user between applications.

 State the various types of OS used on different platforms.

                       PLATFORM                                                     TYPE OF OS
                       PC Platform                                   o Disk Operating System
                                                                     o Microsoft Windows XP
             Cross-platform operating systems                        o UNIX
                                                                     o LINUX
            Apple Platform Operating Systems                         o Mac OS
                                                                     o Mac OS X

       State the function of OS
                                                                                Providing a user interface
   Starting a computer
                                                                                   - When we start a computer, it
       - When we start a computer,                                                     loads the operating system into
           it loads the operating
                                                                                       the computer’s memory.
           system into the computer’s
                                                                                   - This process is called booting.
                                                   FUNCTION OF OS                      Booting means to load and
       - This process is called                                                        initialize the operating system on a
           booting. Booting means to
                                                                                       computer machine. it can happen
           load and initialize the
                                                                                       in two ways: warm boot or cold boot.
           operating system on a
           computer machine. it can
           happen in two ways: warm                                                 Configuring devices
           boot or cold boot.                                                          - Another function of an
                                            Managing memory                                operating system is handling
Managing data and programs                     - optimizing the use of random              input and output, as well as
   - When we start a computer, it                 access memory (RAM)                      enabling communication with
      loads the operating system into          - allocating data and                       input and output devices.
      the computer’s memory.                      instruction to an area of            - Most operating systems
   - Multitasking operating                       memory while being                       come with drivers for popular
      systems enables users to                    processed                                input and output devices.
      work with two or more                    - monitoring the contents of            - These drivers install new
      application programs at the                 memory                                   devices and check whenever
      same time.                               - releasing data and                        there is conflict with these
                                                  instructions from being                  devices.
                                                  monitored in memory when
                                                  the process is done
    COMMAND LINE INTERFACE                          MENU-DRIVEN                     GRAPHICAL USER INTERFACE

o   Requires a user to type commands o       Enables the user to avoid          o   makes use of the computer’s
    or press special keys on the             memorizing keywords such as            graphics capabilities to make the
    keyboard to enter data and               copy, paste and syntax.                operating system and programs
    instructions that instruct the       o   On-screen, menu-driven interface       easier to use, which is also called
    operating system what to do.             provide menus as means of              ‘user-friendly.
o   It has to be typed one line at a         entering commands. It shows all    o   On today’s PC’s and Macintosh.
    time.                                    the options available at a given       GUIs are used to create the
o   The command-line user interface          point in a form of text-based          desktop that appears after the
    is difficult to use because it           menu.                                  operating system finishes loading
    requires exact spelling, syntax or a o   Menu-driven user interfaces are        into memory.
    set of rules of entering commands        easy to learn.                     o   We can easily differentiate the
    and punctuation.                                                                interfaces between Mac OS,
o   We must observe the complicated                                                 Windows XP or Linux by looking at
    rules of syntax that specify exactly                                            their desktops.
    what you can type in a given                                                o   Graphical user interface interact
    place.                                                                          with menus and visual images
o   For example, if we want to                                                      such as buttons, icons and other
    rename a file name from ABC.txt                                                 graphical objects to issue
    to DEF.txt we use the following                                                 commands.
    command.                                                                    o   On the desktop, we can initiate
o   The command-line user interface                                                 many actions by clicking icons that
    also requires memorization. It is                                               represent computer resources
    also easy to make a typing                                                      such as files, programs and
    mistake.                                                                        network connections.
o   The advantage of command-line                                               o   Graphical user interface is
    interface is, it helps the user to                                              commonly used and has become a
    operate the computer quickly                                                    standard.
    after memorizing the keywords
    and syntax.

       2.3.2 Application Software     State the types of application software (word processing, spreadsheet, presentation, graphic).

          Types of software
                                                      Proprietary                            Open Source
1. Word processing                      Microsoft Word 2007,                    KWord
                                        Corel Word Perfect X3,         Write
                                        Lotus WordPro                           AbiWord
2. Spreadsheet                          Microsoft Excel 2007,                   wikiCalc
                                        Corel Quattro Pro X3                    KSpread
                                        Lotus 123                      Calc
3. Presentation                         Microsoft Power Point 2007,             StarOffice
                                        Corel presentations X3                  KPresenter
                                        Lotus Freelance                         JasperReports
4. Graphic                              Adobe Photoshop CS3,                    Ultimate Paint
                                        Adobe Illustrator CS3,                  GIMP
                                        Corel Draw X3                           PhotoPlus 6
                                        Jasc Paint Shop Pro                     TwistedBrush Free edition
                                        Ulead Photoimpact XL                    Pixia         Describe the uses of application software (word processing, spreadsheet, presentation, graphic).

     Word processing                   Spreadsheet                    Presentation                      Graphic
          Usage                           Usage                          Usage                           Usage

 o     A word processing           o   Spreadsheet software       o   Presentation software       o   Graphics software is
       software(word                   is an application that         is an application that          an application that
       processor)allows                allows users to                allows users to create          allows users to work
       users to create and             organize and                   visual aids for                 with drawings, photos
       manipulate                      manipulate data in             presentations to                and pictures.
       documents                       rows and columns.              communicate ideas,          o   It provides the users
       containing mostly           o   It produces                    messages and other              the ability of creating,
       text and sometimes              worksheets that                information to an               manipulating and
       graphics.                       require repetitive             audience.                       printing graphics.
 o     It provide the ability          calculations-
       to create, check                budgeting-
       spelling, edit and              maintaining a grade
       format a document               book, balancing
       on the screen before            accounts, tracking
       printing it to paper.           investment,
 o     A word processing               calculating loan
       software can be used            payments, estimating
       to produce                      project costs and
       documents such as               preparing financial
       letters memos,                  statements.
       reports fax cover
       sheets, mailing labels,
       newsletters, and web

       2.3.3 Utility Program      Differentiate between the types and usage of utility programs (file management, diagnostic and
                      file compression).


File Management                            Diagnostic                                File Compression
Usage: File management is a                Usage :A diagnostic utility               Usage: A file compression
utility program that performs              compiles technical information            software that we use to shrink
functions related to files and disk        about a computer's hardware               the size of files so they require
management.                                and certain system software               less storage space and reduce
It provides functions to delete,           programs and then prepares a              transmission time if we send
copy. move, rename and view                report outlining any identified           them over the internet.
files as well as create and                problems. Information in the              Example: WinZip, WinRar, PKZip
manage folders (directories).              report assists technical support
File manager performs tasks of             staff in remedying any problems.
formatting and copying disks,              Example: Norton Utilities
displaying a list of files on a
storage medium, checking the
amount of used or free space on
a storage medium, organising,
copying, renaming, deleting,
moving and sorting files and also
creating shortcuts.
Example: Windows Explorer
            2.3.4 Proprietary and Open Source Software
         Differentiate between proprietary and open source software

           OPEN SOURCE SOFTWARE                                 ASPECT                              PROPRIETARY SOFTWARE
Open source software is:
   o software provided for use,                                                                 o    Proprietary software is also
       modification and redistribution                                                               called closed source software.
   o software that any programmer                                                                    The closed source software or
       can download from the Internet                         DEFINITION                             proprietary software offers a
       for free and modify with                                                                      stable system with support if the
       suggested improvements.                                                                       software fails or malfunctions.
   o the only qualification is that
       changes can't be copyrighted
   o User can get open source                                                                   o    User must pay to get the
       software for free of charge                                                                   proprietary software
   o User can install software freely                                                           o    User must have a license from
       into any computer                                        LICIENSE                             vendor before install into
      o     No one responsible to the                                                           o    Full support from vendor if
            software                                            OWNER                                anything happened before install
                                                                                                     into computer
      o     Users can modify the software                                                       o    Users cannot modify the
      o     Linux, Ubuntu,                                                                      o    MS DOS, MAC OS, UNIX, Solaris,
      o Write                                EXAMPLE                              Windows
      o     GIMP                                                                                o    Adobe Photoshop CS3

2.4         Installation
            2.4.1 Personal Computer (PC) Assembling
        Assemble the components of a PC

      1        Assembling the Motherboard

      2        Fixing the Processor

      3        Installing the RAM

      4        Connecting the Cables: 1) Connect the IDE cables to the motherboard
                                      2) Connect other cables to their respective devices such as the processor
                                      fan, hard disk drive, floppy disk drive and CD-ROM drive

      5        Installing the Floppy Drive

      6        Installing the Hard Disk

      7        Installing the Optical Drive (DVD/CD-ROM)

      8        Installing Power Supply

      9        Connecting other Peripherals

      10       Powering the System

      11       Configuring the BIOS Setting
2.4.2   Hard Disk Partitioning and Formatting        Format and partition the hard disk.

                        When do we need to format the hard disk?
                        1. Once the partition is created, the next screen will ask for the type of disk formatting to be
                        2. Formatting is the act of creating a file system on a volume, so that the operating system can
                           store and retrieve data on that volume.

                        Why do we partition the hard disk?

                                1.   Limits accidental or deliberate damage of your data
                                2.   Increases security
                                3.   Making the computer run faster
                                4.   Organises Information
                                5.   Increases productivity

        2.4.3 Software Installation
    Install operating system, application software and utility programs.

                            o    Installing the operating system
                                 Example install Windows XP Professional

                            o    Installing an application software
                                 Example install Microsoft Office XP Professional with FrontPage

                            o    Installing a utility program
                                 Example install Antivirus Software - AVG Free Edition Anti-Virus

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