AT our of the Cell by 0ww0RNy

VIEWS: 0 PAGES: 29

									4-2 Parts of the
Eukaryotic Cell

    Part 2
       Mitochondria
the Site of Cellular
 Respiration, or the place
 where energy is released
 from food and stored in ATP
the “Powerhouse” of the cell.
        Mitochondria
have  their own DNA.
can reproduce themselves.
may have been independent
 cells at one time.
       Ribosomes
containno membranes.
are made up of 2 pieces
 made of protein and RNA.
make or synthesize proteins.
  Ribosome Locations
When   Free in the cytosol…..
 they make proteins for use in
 the cytosol.
When Attached to the
 Endoplasmic Reticulum…..
 they make proteins that are
 exported from the cell.
Ribosomes
  Endoplasmic Reticulum
is often called ER.
is made of stacks of flattened
 sacks.
is a highway system or path for
 moving molecules through the
 cell
is involved in the production of
 proteins, sugars, fats, etc.
  Rough ER
When   ribosomes
 are attached to
 ER, we call it
 Rough ER
RER makes
 proteins for
 export
             is Endoplasmic
Smooth ER     Reticulum without
              Ribosomes…..
             is responsible for
              making lipids and
              hormones,
             in muscles regulates
              Calcium levels,
             in liver cells breaks
              down toxins and
              drugs.
         Golgi Apparatus
   AKA Golgi bodies or Golgi Complex

Structure: parallel array of
 flattened sacs arranged in a
 stack. (looks like a stack of
 Pita bread)
3 to 20 per cell.
Likely an outgrowth of the ER
 system.
The Golgi Apparatus package and
  modify proteins and lipids into
 vesicles (small, spherical shaped
   sacs that bud form the Golgi
  apparatus). The vesicles often
 merge and merge with the plasma
 membrane to release contents to
      the outside of the cell.
         Lysosome
  Vesicles   from the Golgi
apparatus that contain digestive
enzymes. They breakdown food,
   cellular debris and foreign
   invaders such as bacteria.
   Important in cell death.
 Not present in plant cells.
       Peroxisomes
Organelles  that breakdown
  various substances. During
 digestion 0xygen is produced
and combines with H2O to form
 Hydrogen Peroxide…. a toxin.
 Peroxisomes break down
      Hydrogen Peroxide.
          Nucleus
Most conspicuous organelle.
usually spherical, but can be
 lobed or irregular in shape.
 Function of the Nucleus
Controlcenter for the cell.
  Contains the genetic
      instructions.
Structure of the Nucleus

   Nuclear Envelope
   Nuclear pores
   Nucleolus
   Chromatin
  Nuclear Envelope… the
 outer boundary of the nucleus
Double membrane separated
    by a 20-40 nm space.
Inner membrane supported
 by a protein matrix (braces)
 which gives the shape to the
           nucleus.
     Nuclear Pores
Regular“holes” through both
        membranes.
   100 nm in diameter.
 Allows materials in/out of
          nucleus.
         Nucleolus
Dark  area in the nucleus.
0 - 4 per nucleus.
Storage area for ribosomes.
          Chromatin
Chrom:  colored, tin: threads
  DNA and Protein in a “loose”
 format (stringy form of DNA) Will
     eventually form the cell’s
          chromosomes.
    Chromosomes
 Rod-shaped  bodies made up of coiled DNA.
 The DNA is wrapped around proteins called
                   histones.
  The histones are coiled into nucleosomes




   Histone                    Chromatin
  Molecules
              Nucleosome
To be continued…….
        go to
 Cell Biology Part 3
To be continued…….
        go to
     4-2, Part 3

								
To top