FOOD AND NUTRITION

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					FOOD AND NUTRITION
   8TH GRADE
   BASIC SKILLS
   LAKE HAMILTON JR. HIGH
   VICKIE BRUCE
FOODS & NUTRITION UNIT
      TERMS &
     DEFINITIONS
CONVENIENCE FOODS


 Foods
      that are partially or
 completely prepared.
 EMPTY-CALORIE
 FOODS

Foods that are high
in calories and low
in nutrients.
FAST-FOOD
RESTAURANT
 Food operations that
 prepare and serve large
 amounts of food in a
 short time.
FOOD GUIDE
PYRAMID
 Organization of daily food
 choices into six basic
 groups by the United
 States Department of
 Agriculture.
MENU
Planof food to be
included in a meal.
NUTRIENTS
 Substancesobtained from
 food and used in the body for
 growth, repair, maintenance,
 and regulation of body
 processes.
NUTRITION
 The process of eating
 suitable food for growth,
 development, and
 maintenance of the body.
SANITATION
 Maintaining  a clean or
 sterile condition in order
 to promote hygiene and
 prevent disease.
WELL-BALANCED
MEAL
 Attractive,appealing
 meal composed of a
 variety of foods which
 contain essential
 nutrients.
REASONS PEOPLE
CHOOSE CERTAIN
FOODS
PHYSICAL
 NEEDS
 Examples: Growth, energy,
 and good health.
PSYCHOLOGICAL
INFLUENCES
Aperson is satisfying a
psychological need to eat when
he or she is not really hungry but
eats due to happiness,
unhappiness, guilt, nervousness,
boredom, entertainment, or for
other reasons.
CULTURAL
INFLUENCES
 American  cooking today is a
 unique blend of different
 foods from all over the world.
 As new immigrants arrive,
 cuisine in our country
 continues to evolve and
 change.
SOCIAL
INFLUENCES
 Examples:  Snacks at a
 party, birthday cake at a
 birthday party, special
 foods at Fourth of July
 picnic or barbecue, special
 meals for holidays.
TIME AVAILABLE FOR
FOOD PREPARATION
 Personswith limited time for
 food preparation may choose
 convenience foods, a salad, or
 a sandwich rather than a
 meal that takes a long time to
 repair.
COOKING SKILLS
   Persons that have the time and skills to
    prepare food at home can save the money
    because eating out is usually more
    expensive.
TYPES OF FOOD
  AVAILABLE
   In the past, people were limited in
    food choices due to location and
    climate. Due to advanced technology
    and transportation, today’s
    consumers have have access to food
    markets that provide a large variety
    of flesh, frozen, and packaged food
    all seasons of the year.
COST OF FOOD
Foods that are
plentiful in the local
area are less
expensive than out of
season foods.
SPECIAL HEALTH
    CONCERNS
 Examples:  Food allergies,
 low cholesterol, low fat,
 diabetes, kidney diseases,
 hypertension, weight
 problem.
BENEFITS OF GOOD
NUTRITION
  STATE OF
    WELLNESS
 Wellness refers to the health of
 the total person, including
 physical, mental, and emotional
 well-being.
BENEFITS OF GOOD
NUTRITION
 OPTIMUMPHYSICAL,
INTELLECTUAL,
EMOTIONAL, AND
SOCIAL
DEVELOPMENT.
BENEFITS OF GOOD
NUTRITION
 SOUND   MENTAL AND
    EMOTIONAL HEALTH
   Enthusiasm for life, feeling of self-
    confidence, ability to cope with problems,
    expression of anger in an acceptable
    manner, sensible attitude toward physical
    health, ability to cope with fear.
BENEFITS OF GOOD
NUTRITION
   HEALTHY,
     ATTRACTIVE
    APPERANCE
   Shiny hair; smooth skin; strong, healthy
    nails; good posture; cavity free teeth;
    desirable weight; good muscle tone.
BENEFITS OF GOOD
NUTRITION
 SUFFICIENT  ENERGY
    FOR BODY TO
    FUNCTION PROPERLY
   Energy is needed for everything a person
    does from quiet activities such as reading
    and thinking to active exercise such as
    playing tennis.
BENEFITS OF GOOD
NUTRITION
   6. PROPER FUNCTIONING OF
    MUSCLES AND NERVOUS SYSTEM
   7. EFFICIENT PERFORMANCE OF
    BODY PROCESSES
   8. GREATER ABILITY TO FIGHT
    AGAINST ILLNESS AND DISEASE
   9. FASTER RECOVERY FROM
    ILLNESS AND INJURY
KEY (BASIC) NUTRIENTS
   1.   FATS
   2.   CARBOHYDRATES
   3.   PROTEINS
   4.   MINERALS
   5.   VITAMINS
   6.   WATER
FATS
   FUNCTION
   help body store reserve energy; store fat
    soluble vitamins
   SOURCES
   Meat, milk, cheese, butter, salad dressings,
    nuts
CARBOHYDRATES

 FUNCTIONS
 Supply   ready energy and
  fiber
 SOURCES
 Grains and grain products,
  rice, pasta, fruits, vegetables
PROTEINS
 FUNCTIONS
 Build and repair body tissues; help
  regulate body processes; provide
  energy if diet is deficient in
  carbohydrates
 SOURCES
 Meat, fish milk, eggs, vegetables,
  fruits, and grains
MINERALS
 FUNCTIONS
 Make     up part of the hard and
    soft body tissues; assist in body
    functions
   SOURCES
   (Sources for specific minerals listed
    below)
CALCIUM AND
PHOSPHORUS
   FUNCTIONS
   Help build and maintain strong bones
    and teeth; regulate actions of nerves and
    muscles
   SOURCES
   Dairy products, leafy green vegetables,
    broccoli
IRON
   FUNCTION
   Helps build red blood cells; helps prevent
    anemia
   SOURCES
   Liver and other meats, egg yolks, leafy
    green vegetables, enriched breads and
    cereals
IODINE
FUNCTION
Helps prevent goiter
SOURCES
Iodized salt, seafood
VITAMINS
Regulatebody
processes; help body
use other nutrients
B - COMPLEX
VITAMINS
   THIAMINE
  RIBOFLAVIN
    NIACIN
B - COMPLEX
VITAMINS
 Help body use carbohydrates to
  release energy .
 Promotes normal appetite and
  digestion
 Promote healthy nervous system
 Help keep skin smooth
B - COMPLEX
VITAMINS
 Sources:
 MilkProducts
 Meats
 Breads
 Cereals
VITAMIN C
 Helps build and maintain
  healthy gums and teeth
 Helps fight infection
 Helps prevent bruising and
  bleeding gums.
VITAMIN C
 SOURCES:
 Citrusfruits
 Leafy Green Vegetables
VITAMIN A
   FUNCTION
   Helps eyes adjust to darkness after exposure
    to bright light; promotes healthy skin
 SOURCE
 Dark green and yellow fruits and
  vegetables
VITAMIN D
   FUNCTION
   Helps body use calcium and phosphorus to
    build strong bones and teeth
   SOURCE
   Egg yolk, liver, tuna, milk fortified with
    vitamin D
VITAMIN E
   FUNCTION
   Works with vitamins to maintain healthy
    red blood cells
   SOURCE
   Fats, oils, whole grain cereals and breads,
    liver, eggs, leafy green vegetables
WATER
   FUNCTION
   Helps carry nutrients through the body
    and removes body wastes; helps move
    food through digestive system; helps
    regulate body temperature
   SOURCE
   Water, milk, clear soup, coffee, tea, fruit
    juice, other beverages
BASIC FODD GROUPS IN THE
FOOD GUIDE PYRAMID
   BREAD, CEREAL, RICE, AND PASTA
    GROUP
   VEGETABLE GROUP
   FRUIT GROUP
   MILK, YOGURT, AND CHEESE GROUP
   MEAT, POULTRY, FISH, DRY BEANS,
    EGGS, AND NUTS GROUP
   FATS, OILS, AND SWEETS GROUP
SPECIFIC FOODS IN THE
 BASIC FOOD GROUPS
BREAD, CEREAL, RICE, AND
PASTA GROUP
   BISCUITS       MUFFINS
   CAKES          NOODLES
   COOKIES        OATMEAL
   CORNBREAD      READY-TO-EAT
   CRACKERS        CEREALS
   ENRICHED BREAD RICE
   GRITS          ROLLS
   MACARONI       SPAGHETTI
                   WHOLE WHEAT
                    BREAD
VEGETABLE GROUP
   ASPARAGUS        GREEN BEANS
   BEETS            GREEN PEPPER
   BROCCOLI         LETTUCE
   CABBAGE          ONIONS
   CARROTS          POTATOES
   CAULIFLOWER      RADISHES
   CELERY           SPINACH
   CORN             TURNIP GREENS
FRUIT GROUP
   APPLES          ORANGES
   BANANAS         PEACHES
   BERRIES         PEARS
   CANTALOUPE      PINEAPPLE
   CHERRIES        PLUMS
   GRAPES          PRUNES
   GRAPEFRUIT      RAISINS
   KIWI            WATERMELON
MILK, YOGURT, AND CHEESE
GROUP
   AMERICAN            LOWFAT MILK
    CHEESE              PUDDING
   BAKED CUSTARD       SHERBET
   BUTTERMILK          SKIM MILK
   CHEDDAR CHEESE      SOURCREAM
   CHOCOLATE MILK      SWISS CHEESE
   COTTAGE CHEESE      WHIPPED TOPPING
   HALF-AND-HALF       WHIPPING CREAM
   HOT CHOCOLATE       WHOLE MILK
MEAT, POULTRY, FISH, DRY
BEANS, EGGS, AND NUTS
GROUP
   BACON(FRIED)      PEANUTS
   BOLOGNA           PEANUT BUTTER
   CHICKEN           PECANS
   DUCK              PORK CHOP
   EGGS              RED KIDNEY
   FISH               BEANS
   HOT DOGS          ROAST
   HAM               SAUSAGE
   HAMBURGER         STEAK
                      SUNFLOWERSEEDS
FATS, OILS, AND SWEETS
GROUP
   BUTTER             SALAD OILS
   CANDIES            SOFT DRINKS
   CREAM              SUGAR
   MARGARINE          SWEET DESERTS
   SALAD DRESSINGS
 DAILY REQUIREMENTS FOR
FOOD GROUPS IN THE FOOD
     GUIDE PYRAMID
FOOD GROUP & DAILY
REQUIREMENTS FROM
FOOD GUIDE PYRAMID
FOOD GROUP & DAILY
REQUIREMENTS FROM
FOOD GUIDE PYRAMID

 BREAD,   CEREAL, RICE &
  PASTA GROUP
 6-11 Servings
 VEGETABLE GROUP
 3-5 servings
FOOD GROUP & DAILY
REQUIREMENTS FROM
FOOD GUIDE PYRAMID

 FRUIT      GROUP
 2-4   SERVINGS
      YOGURT, &
 MILK,
 CHEESE GROUP
2   - 3 SERVINGS
FOOD GROUP & DAILY
REQUIREMENTS FROM
FOOD GUIDE PYRAMID
 MEAT,   POULTRY, FISH, DRY
    BEANS, EGGS, & NUTS
    GROUP
   2 - 3 SERVINGS
 FATS,      OILD, AND SWEETS
   USE SPARINGLY
     Guidelines for Selecting Food
     that Promotes GOOD
     NUTRITION

   1. Includes requirements from the Food
    Guide Pyramid in the daily diet.
   2. Eat a variety of foods each day.
   3. Choose foods that promote and
    maintain desirable weight.
   Being overweight or underweight
    increases chances of developing medical
     Guidelines for Selecting Food
     that Promotes GOOD
     NUTRITION

   4. Eat foods with adequate starch and fiber.
   Examples: Fruits, vegetables, whole-grain
    breads and cereals, legumes, nuts, & seeds.
   Some researchers believe that a diet high in
    fiber reduces the risk of colon cancer.
  Guidelines for Selecting Food
  that Promotes GOOD
  NUTRITION

 5.Limit foods high in fat.
 Examples:Butter, Margarine,
  Cream, Shortening, Oils, Salad
  Dressings
    Guidelines for Selecting Food
    that Promotes GOOD
    NUTRITION
 6. Limit Foods with EXCESS
  SUGAR.
 Examples: Candy, cakes, cookies,
  sugared soft drinks, sugared cereals,
  fruits canned in syrup, sugared frozen
  desserts, syrups.
 Guidelines for Selecting Food
 that Promotes GOOD
 NUTRITION
 Limit foods HIGH in
  SODIUM.
 Examples: Potato Chips,
  Soy Sauce, Pickled Foods,
  Cured Meats.
SAFETY & SANITATION
PROCEDURES TO OBSERVE
DURING STORAGE &
PREPARATION:
 KITCHEN AREA SAFETY
 1. Use a ladder or step stool to
  reach high items.
 2. Keep cabinets clean &
  uncluttered.
SAFETY & SANITATION
PROCEDURES

 3. Close cabinet
  doors & drawers
  when not in use.
 4. Keep floor free of
  spilled ingredients.
SAFETY & SANITATION
PROCEDURES
 5. Make certain that handles
  and knobs on lids of
  cookware are securely
  fastened.
 6. Avoid wearing dangling
  jewelry or loose clothing.
SAFETY & SANITATION TO
PREVENT FOOD
CONTAMINATION
   NOTE: Contamination means being
    infected with bacteria. Bacteria is
    invisible and can cause food poising
    and sometimes death. For this reason,
    it is extremely important to observe
    sanitary practices and proper food
    storage techniques when handling
    food.
SAFETY & SANITATION TO
PREVENT FOOD
CONTAMINATION
 1. Wash hands before handling food.
 2. Avoid preparation when sick.
 3. Avoid handling food, or wear rubber
  gloves, when hands have an open or
  sore cut.
 NOTE: Open wounds can release
  bacteria that cause food poisoning.
SAFETY & SANITATION TO
PREVENT FOOD
CONTAMINATION
   4. Keep all dishes and utensils clean by
    washing them in hot soapy water and
    rinsing with warm or hot water.
   5. Keep countertop clean.
   NOTE: Avoid sitting or standing on
    countertop and keep pets off of countertop.
   6. Thaw frozen foods in a refrigerator or in
    a microwave.
SAFETY & SANITATION TO
PREVENT FOOD
CONTAMINATION
   NOTE: Foods thawed on a counter of in a
    sink are more likely to spoil.
   7. Keep foods cold.
   NOTE: Bacteria grows quickly in
    perishable foods such as eggs, meat, and
    milk when left at room temperatures for
    extended period of time.
SAFETY & SANITATION TO
PREVENT FOOD
CONTAMINATION
   8. Cook food thoroughly at room
    temperature.
   9. Use clean spoon when tasting food from
    cooking utensil or serving dish.
   NOTE: Avoid returning spoon to food after
    using for tasting.
   10. Keep food hot until eaten.
   11. Refrigerate leftovers as soon as possible
SAFETY & SANITATION TO
PREVENT FOOD
CONTAMINATION
 12.
    Avoid using food from
 containers that are leaking,
 bulging, or have a broken seal.
SAFETY WITH KNIVES
   1. Wash and store knives properly.
   NOTE: To prevent cuts, avoid placing
    knife of other sharp objects in sink full of
    soapy water.
   2. Keep knives sharp.
   3.Use a cutting board.
   4. Cut away from body and hold knife by
    handle.
SAFETY WITH MICROWAVES
   1. Use microwave safe dishes.
   2. Prick wrappers and foods with peelings
    before cooking to let steam escape.
   3. Use hot pads to handle dishes when
    needed.
   NOTE: Food heated or cooked in the
    microwave can cause dishes to become hot.
SAFETY GUIDELINES WHEN
COOKING ON A RANGE
 1.Keep fire extinguisher, baking
  soda, and salt near a range.
 NOTE: Smother a grease fire with
  pan lid, fire extinguisher, baking
  soda, or salt. Do not use water.
  Never attempt to carry a pan whose
  contents are on fire to the sink.
SAFETY GUIDELINES WHEN
COOKING ON A RANGE
   2. Avoid turning on gas stove or striking a
    match when there is a gas odor.
   3. Use flat, balanced pots and pans that will
    not tip over easily.
   4. Turn handles of cooking utensils inward
    on range and away from other burners or
    hot surface utensils.
SAFETY GUIDELINES WHEN
COOKING ON A RANGE
   5. Use thick, dry post holders to handle hot
    cooking utensils.
   6. Lift lids on pots from back and allow
    steam to rise away from the body.
   NOTE: Burns caused by hot steam can be
    serious.
   7. Keep paper towels, dry towels, electric
    cords, plastic dishes, combustible
    substances, and pressurized cans away.
SAFETY GUIDELINES WHEN
USING ELECTRICAL
APPLIANCES
 NOTE:  Persons can receive
 dangerous shocks and be
 seriously hurt if safety
 precautions are not followed
 when using electrical
 appliances.
SAFETY GUIDELINES WHEN
USING ELECTRICAL
APPLIANCES
   1. Follow manufacturer’s instructions that
    accompany electrical appliances.
   2. Keep all appliances in good working
    order.
   NOTE: Frayed cords should be repaired or
    thrown away.
   3. Avoid overloading electrical circuits.
SAFETY GUIDELINES WHEN
USING ELECTRICAL
APPLIANCES
   NOTE: Avoid plugging more than one than
    one outlet at a time.
   4. Keep electrical cords away from surface
    burners.
   5. Disconnect small electrical appliances
    when not in use.
   6. Do not jerk cords when disconnecting
    appliances.
SAFETY GUIDELINES WHEN
USING ELECTRICAL
APPLIANCES
   7. Keep appliances away from water.
   NOTE: Do not touch appliances with wet
    hands or while standing on wet floor.
   8. Disconnect portable appliances before
    cleaning.
   9. Do not bring metal objects in contact
    with working parts of an electrical
    appliance while is connected.
SAFETY GUIDELINES WHEN
USING ELECTRICAL
APPLIANCES
 NOTE: Keep metal forks and
  knives out of electric toasters that
  are connected.
GUIDELINES FOR MAKING WISE
FOOD CHOICES FROM FAST
FOOD RESTURANTS
   NOTE: Nutritious foods can be selected at
    fast-food restaurants if one chooses wisely.
    Select nutritious foods rather than foods
    high in fat, sugar, sodium, and calories. In
    addition, keep a mental note of what is
    eaten and make a habit of including
    requirements from the Food Guide Pyramid
    in the daily diet.
GUIDELINES FOR MAKING WISE
FOOD CHOICES FROM FAST
FOOD RESTURANTS
   1. Choose a restaurant that offers a variety
    of nutritious foods.
   2. Choose multi-grain bread.
   3. Request that breads be served without
    butter and margarine.
   4. Avoid fried or highly salted foods.
   NOTE: Grilled or broiled meats are lower in
    calories than fried ones.
GUIDELINES FOR MAKING WISE
FOOD CHOICES FROM FAST
FOOD RESTURANTS
   5. Ask that sandwiches be served with
    mustard or ketchup.
   NOTE: Mayonnaise is high in calories and
    in fat.
   6. Supplement a sandwich with a salad or a
    fresh piece of fruit.
GUIDELINES FOR MAKING WISE
FOOD CHOICES FROM FAST
FOOD RESTURANTS
   7. Select a salad as a main course.
   NOTE: Because an item is at the salad bar
    doesn’t mean it is nutritious and low in
    calories. Many foods on salad bars are fried,
    high in sodium, and come with high-calorie
    toppings and dressings.
   8. Eat salad without dressing or select a low
    calorie dressing.
GUIDELINES FOR MAKING WISE
FOOD CHOICES FROM FAST
FOOD RESTURANTS
 9. Choose milk or juice as a
  beverage.
 10. Avoid special sauces,
  mayonnaise-based salad dressings,
  and cheese slices if trying to
  restrict calories.
GUIDELINES FOR SELECTING
FOOD THAT PROMOTES GOOD
NUTRITION
   1. Include requirements from Food Guide
    Pyramid in a daily diet.
   2. Eat a variety of foods each day.
   3. Choose foods that promote and maintain
    desirable weight.
   4. Eat foods with adequate starch and fiber.
   5. Limit foods high in fat.
GUIDELINES FOR MAKING WISE
FOOD CHOICES FROM FAST
FOOD RESTURANTS
   6. Limit foods high in fat.
   7. Limit foods with excess sugar.
   8. Limit foods high in sodium.
GUIDELINES FOR MAKING WISE
FOOD CHOICES FROM FAST
FOOD RESTURANTS
   6. Avoids alcohol, tobacco, and drugs.
   7. Displays good posture and muscle tone.
   8. Stays fit by engaging in physical activity
    or exercise.
   9. Is able to relax and sleep
SIGNS OF SOUND PHYSICAL
HEALTH
   1. Is not susceptible to disease.
   2. Is appropriate weight for height, age and
    body build.
   3. Has sufficient energy for daily activities.
   4. Eats a balanced diet.
   5. Has healthy skin, eyes, hair, teeth and
    gums.

				
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