French Revolution and Napoleon
1. Louis XVI – (1754 – 1793) Married to the Austrian Arch - Duchess Marie
Antoinette, appointed competent and upright ministers, did not possess character
needed to lead France in such a conflicted time – indecisive, young, did not want
to be King. Appointed Jacques Necker as director of the treasury, intervened in
American Revolution, brought financial ruin to France, and was beheaded on
January 21, 1793 by French populace.
2. Marie Antoinette – (1755 – 1793) Queen of France, wife of King Louis XVI.
Led a life of pleasure and careless extravagance, lacked understanding of
economic problems, hostile toward Jacques Necker, urged Austrian intervention
in the French Revolution, tried for treason in October 1793, and guillotined
October 16, 1793.
3. Jacques Necker – (1732 – 1804) French financier and statesman. In 1777, made
director general of finances in France. Sought to restore the nation’s financial
credibility and gained popular confidence of French people. Loved by the
populace as a man of the people, forced to resign the office in 1790. Spent
remainder of his life at his Swiss estate.
4. Abbé Emmanuel Joseph Sieyés – (1748 – 1836) French revolutionary and
statesman. Attacked noble and clerical privileges, elected deputy from the third
estate in 1789. Wrote a famous pamphlet What is the Third Estate? Helped to
write the Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen and the Constitution of
1791. Formulated theory of national sovereignty and representation. Lived
through the Reign of Terror. Served as a member of the Directory
5. Marquis de Lafayette – (1757 – 1834) French general and political leader.
Appointed major general of the American colonial army. Negotiated for French
aid in the American Revolution, distinguished himself in the Yorktown campaign.
Commander of the National Guard of France, which earned him immense
popularity. Formed an army in preparation for war with Austria, eventually
relieved of command and was captured and imprisoned in Austria. Released and
died in France.
6. Jean-Paul Marat – (1743 – 1793) French revolutionary and propagandist.
Formed the Journal, which vented his bitter hatred and suspicion of those in
power, his inflammatory articles helped to ignite the Revolution. He was
eventually stabbed to death by Charlotte Corday, became a revolutionary martyr.
7. Georges-Jacques Danton – (1759 – 1794) French statesman and one of leading
figures of French Revolution. Member of the Commune of Paris, became minister
of Justice in the new republic, not included in new Committee of Public Safety
and later retired from politics. Executed as a traitor on March 30, 1794.
8. Olympe de Gouges – (1745 – 1793) “The Rights of Women”. Staunch
unyielding feminist, opposed the death of the king and royal family. Produced
over 30 pamphlets during Revolution and spoke out against Robespierre and
Marat. Guillotined in 1793 as a reactionary royalist.
9. Maximilien Robespierre – (1758 – 1794) One of the leading figures of the
French Revolution. Known as the “Incorruptible”. Elected to the Commune of
Paris in 1792, played an important part in the struggle for power between
revolutionary groups. Demanded the execution of the king, elected to the
Committee of Public Safety on July 27, 1793. Became leader of said group,
emphasized need to maintain order, inaugurated Reign of Terror which he himself
became a victim of. His death ended the Reign of Terror and brought relative
peace to France.
10. Mary Wollstonecraft – (1759 – 1797) English author and feminist. Wrote “A
Vindication of the Rights of Women” in 1792, lived in Paris during the
Revolution and was close to many of the revolution’s political leaders. Died
during childbirth of Mary Shelley.
11. King Leopold II of Austria – (1747 – 1792) Holy Roman Emperor, king of
Bohemia and Hungary, and Grand Duke of Tuscany. Planned if all other
European powers would join him to restore monarchy to France.
12. Frederick William II of Prussia – (1744 – 1797) King of Prussia. Reformed the
oppressive French system of tax collecting, used practical experiments to promote
his economic theories. Enlightened despot who patronized academic thought.
13. Napoleon Bonaparte – (1769 – 1821) French general and first emperor of France
from 1804 to 1815. Revolutionizes military organization and training, prototyped
civil law codes know as the Napoleonic Codes, and brought great military and
territorial expansion to France. Believed that political change was imperative
through reading works of Voltaire and Rousseau (Great Man theory). Was exiled
to Elba after abandoning army in disastrous Russia campaign. Returned to France,
and was again exiled following defeat at the Battle of Waterloo. Died on Saint
14. Edmund Burke – (1729 – 1797) English lawyer, writer, and politician. Wrote “A
Vindication of Public Society”. Favored stability in society and conciliation with
American colonies. Also wrote “Reflections on the French Revolution” in 1790.
15. Josephine de Beauharnais – (1763 – 1814) French Empress and consort of
Napoleon I. Married Napoleon before he became emperor, annulled their
marriage due to alleged infertility. Took a prominent part in social life of the time.
16. Jacques-Louis David – (1748 – 1845) French painter. Art dictator of France for
an entire generation. Determined the course of fashion, design, and decoration.
Elected to the Revolutionary Convention and voted for the king’s death. Became
first painter of Napoleon and recorded events in Napoleon’s life in his artwork.
17. Horatio Nelson – (1758 – 1805) British admiral and most famous of Britain’s
naval heros. Defeated the French fleet in the Battle of the Nile and he crushed the
combined French and Spanish fleets at the Battle of Trafalgar which maintained
Britain’s prestigious position of naval superiority.
18. Pope Pius VI – (1717- 1799) Successor of Clement XIV. Protested Louis XVI’s
execution and sided with the Anti-French Coalition. Napoleon attacked the Papal
States and the Pope was taken to Florence where he died at Valence.
19. Toussaint L’Ouverture – (1743 – 1803) Leader of the Haitian revolution. Born a
slave, learned much from the Enlightenment and the French Revolution of 1789.
Used new philosophies to lead the people, wrote a constitution for Haiti that went
into effect in July, 1801. Led the a great slave uprising.
20. William Pitt the Younger – (1759 – 1806) British politician and Prime Minister.
Tried to delay intervention in European conflicts for as long as possible. When
France declared war on Britain, he could stay silent no longer. Suspended the writ
of habeas corpus and other personal liberties during wartime. Also combined
Great Britain and Ireland into one realm.
21. Arthur Wellesley – (1769 – 1852) First Duke of Wellington, British soldier, and
statesman. One of leading military figures of 19th Century. Defeated Napoleon in
the Peninsular War, Waterloo, and four other major battles. Served as Prime
Minister until his retirement in 1846.
22. Charles Maurice de Talleyrand – (1754 – 1838) French diplomat, regarded as
one of the most versatile and influential diplomats in French history. Member of
the First Estate, but supported the Revolution. Participate in writing of the
“Declaration of the Rights of Man”. Send to Britain to try to avert war. Became
foreign minister under Napoleon.
23. Prince Klemens von Metternich – (1773 – 1859) Austrian politician and
statesman. The most important diplomat of his era (Post Napoleonic Europe).
Dominant member of the Congress of Vienna who signed an alliance with France
and eventually with Russian. Reactionary protector of the rights of kings and
24. Viscount Robert Castlereagh – (1769 – 1822) Irish politician who represented
the English at the Congress of Vienna. Secretary of State for War and Colonies.
Instrumental in negotiating the Quadruple Alliance between the United Kingdom,
Austria, Russia, and Prussia. Formed collective security called the Congress
Identify the significance of the following treaties:
1. Peace of Amiens – Signed on March 25, 1802 that marked the end of the Second
Coalition. Also called the “Definitive Treaty of Peace” between France and Great
Britain. Britain now recognized the throne of France. Britain gave up some
territory in the West Indies and France surrendered its claim of the Papal States.
2. Treaty of Campo Formio – Signed October 17, 1797 that marked the collapse of
the First Coalition. It concluded Napoleon’s successful campaigns in Italy and the
end of the first phase of the Napoleonic Wars. The Austrian Netherlands,
Belgium, and Italian territories were seeded to France by Austria.
3. Treaty of Lunéville – Signed February 9, 1801 between France and Austria. It
required Austria to enforce the obligations of the Treaty of Campo Formio and
also gained for France possession of both East and West banks of the Rhine and
lands surrounding. Boundaries of Italy are also set. Together with Peace of
Amiens marked end of Second Coalition.
4. Treaty of Tilsit – Signed July 7, 1807 by Russia and July 9, 1807 by Prussia.
Ended a series of wars between France and Russia and ensured peace /
cooperation between the two countries in France’s goal of isolating Britain.
Helped set up Napoleon’s continental system.
5. Treaty of Fontainebleau – Signed April 11, 1814 that exiled Napoleon to the
island of Elba and payed him a salary of 2 million francs yearly from France.
6. Treaty of Paris – Signed November 20, 1815 following Napoleon’s defeat at the
battle of Waterloo. France was reduced back to its territorial size of 1790 and its
army was reduced to the size of that of 1792. France was ordered to pay an
indemnity of 700 million francs and submit to Allied occupation. It also restored
the Bourbon dynasty to France.
7. Treaty of Chaumont – Created the Quadruple Alliance and was intended to
solidify unity between allies for 20 years. Formulated to control Napoleon and
reorganize European scene. 1 month later Napoleon will abdicate his throne.
8. Treaty of Schönbrunn – Signed between Austria and France in 1809. Austria
was forced to recognize Napoleon’s previous conquests and the Bonaparte
stationed on the throne of Spain. The Austrian army was reduced; they paid a
large indemnity to France and sacrificed a small amount of territory.
9. Treaty of Pressburg – Signed December 26, 1805 by Napoleon and Francis II of
Austria. Concluded another Austrian defeat. Austria paid 40 million francs to the
French government and succeeded all claims to German territories to France.
Marked end of Holy Roman Empire and initiated rise of Napoleon’s
Confederation of the Rhine.
Identify the following concepts:
1. Confederation of the Rhine – united 16 states of the Holy Roman Empire
following Napoleon’s defeat of Francis II of Austria and Russia’s Alexander 1 in
the Battle of Austerlitz. Holy Roman Empire is dissolved and Napoleon is named
2. Napoleonic Code – French civil code signed into law by Napoleon in March of
1804. Initially it only dealt with filiations and civil issues but was later extended
to criminal law. Dealt mainly with the rule of law. Established familial monarchy
and prohibited ex post facto laws.
3. Directory – revolutionary government in France from 1795 – 1799. Five directors
shared the power of France. Included bicameral legislature consisting of two
houses, the Council of the 500 and the Council of the Ancients. Directory did not
emphasize authority, weak central government although it did resemble a
4. Plebiscite – a referendum in which an entire electorate is asked to either affirm or
reject a particular proposal. Napoleon used plebiscites to get himself elected
president and then emperor of the French empire.
5. Continental System – System utilized by Napoleon in an attempt to exclude
Great Britain from the European trade market. Each country allied with Napoleon
agreed not to trade with the British in Napoleon’s attempt to bring Britain’s
economy to its knees.
6. Berlin Decree - Issued by Napoleon in November of 1806, after French armies
decimated Prussia. The decree forbade France, any countries allied with France or
any French satelites to trade with Britain in an attempt to bring Britain to her
knees. This became known as the Continental System of Europe.
7. Milan Decree - Issued by Napoleon in 1806 to reinforce the Berlin decree. It
stated that no European country would be allowed to trade with Great Britain.
Russia ignored this decree and continued to trade with England.
8. Organic Articles - published by Napoleon in 1802 that that regulated public
worship and restated the traditional liberties of the Gallican church. These
articles implemented the Concordat of 1801 between Napoleon and Pope Pius VII
9. Concordat of 1801 - issued as an agreement between Napoleon and Pope Pius
VII in 1801. It reaffirmed the Catholic Church as the major church of France.
The state gained many powers over the Church, including the ownership of
Church lands and the ability to nominate bishops
10. “whiff of grapeshot” – Royalists and anti-revolutionaries were protesting in 1795
against the National Convention in Paris. Napoleon was put in charge of the
defense of the Tuileries Palace where the Convention was meetin. In order to
drive off protestors, Napoleon used cannon filled with musket balls. The effect
was similar to that of a shotgun and it killed approximately 100 protestors and
drove them off
11. Louisiana Purchase - France controlled the Louisiana area until 1803. Napoleon
needed money in order to fund his European wars and sold the entire area
(530,000 acres) to America for $15 million or 80 million francs. This purchase
doubled the size of America at the time.
12. Scorched earth - This is a military tactic used to great effect by Russia when
France invaded in 1812. Russian armies burned everything that may have been of
use to the French and the French armies, short on supplies, were forced to retreat
at the cost of nearly 500,000 of the 600,000 men.
13. Peninsular Campaign - In 1807, Napoleon required Spain's aid with the
Continental System, when Spain refused; Napoleon led an army into Spain and
defeated it. Spanish citizens revolted against French rule and at the same time,
Austria broke her alliance with France. The war lasted over a year and Napoleon
eventually came to a peace agreement with Austria.
14. Grand Armée - The name given to the main force of a French army. It was at its
height before the start of the Russian invasion in 1812, its numbers measuring at
about 600,000 men. About 1/2 of this enormous force was made of Frenchmen,
while the rest were drafted by French satellites. Defeated and returned with
15. Hundred Days - the name given to the time period between March and June of
1815 when Napoleon returned to France and regained control of the government
while he was supposed to be exiled on the island of Elba. His armies were
defeated at Waterloo and he was exiled to St. Helena island until he died
16. Congress of Vienna - A conference, orchestrated by Klemins von Metternich -
following the final defeat of Napoleon in 1814. It ignored nationalist and
liberalist urges and trying to uphold conservatism and created tensions that would
explode in 1914 - WWI
17. Quadruple Alliance - alliance between Great Britain, Russia, Prussia, and
Austria against Napoleonic France in 1814. It remained intact for a while after
the defeat of France and became known as the Quintuple alliance after France's
admission in 1818, Britain disbanded the alliance after she grew tired of her allies
18. Holy Alliance - alliance between Russia, Austria, and Prussia in 1815 that was
formed by Tsar Alexander I of Russia. It stated that the aforesaid countries were
bound together in Christian unity.
19. Concert of Europe - described the great cooperation between European powers
after 1815. It maintained the peace and agreements brought about by the
Congress of Vienna. The conductor of the Concert of Europe was Klemens
Wenzel von Metternich of Austria. Britain, Prussia, Austria, and Russia were all
members of this Concert.
20. St. Helena - small island off the coast of Africa were Napoleon was imprisoned
following his defeat at Waterloo in June 1815. Napoleon died there in 1821.