SEO Essentials Seminar by alicejenny

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									                         SEO Essentials Seminar




SEO
3 Hr Essentials Seminar:




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                                              Cheltenham Group Pty. Ltd.




  Cheltenham Group Pty. Ltd. 8 Keel Place, Ocean Reef, 6027, WA Tel: 1300 852 204
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                                                   SEO Essentials Seminar




Contents
PURPOSE OF THIS SEO SEMINAR..................................................................................................9
    WHAT YOU WILL LEARN .......................................................................................................................9
SEO, BROWSERS AND SEARCH ENGINES: ................................................................................11
    IF YOU BUILD IT THEY WILL COME: ERR NOT REALLY:........................................................................11
    WHAT IS SEO? ...................................................................................................................................11
    ONSITE AND OFFSITE SEO:.................................................................................................................11
    WHITE HAT VS. BLACK HAT SEO:.......................................................................................................12
    BROWSERS VS. SEARCH ENGINES:.......................................................................................................12
    DIFFERENT SEARCH ENGINES:.............................................................................................................12
    HOW SEARCH ENGINES WORK:............................................................................................................13
    ORGANIC AND PAID SEARCH RESULTS: ...............................................................................................13
EXAMPLES OF SUCESSFUL SEO ..................................................................................................15
    COMPUTER TRAINING MATERIALS WEBSITE: .....................................................................................15
    VIDEO TO DVD TRANSFER SERVICE WEBSITE: ...................................................................................15
    PHOTOS TO DVD SERVICE WEBSITE:..................................................................................................16
    PERTH WILL WEBSITE: .......................................................................................................................16
    EMIGRATING PERTH WEBSITE:............................................................................................................17
ESSENTIAL SEO CONCEPTS:.........................................................................................................19
    URL NAMES: ......................................................................................................................................19
    INDEX.HTM - THE HOME PAGE: ..........................................................................................................19
    WEBPAGE STRUCTURE:.......................................................................................................................20
    PAGERANK:........................................................................................................................................20
    LINK JUICE: ........................................................................................................................................20
    HTML PAGE STRUCTURE: ..................................................................................................................21
    HTML HEADER AREA: ......................................................................................................................21
    HTML TITLE:.....................................................................................................................................22
    HTML DESCRIPTION:.........................................................................................................................22
    HTML KEYWORD META TAGS: ..........................................................................................................22
    HEADING TAGS WITHIN A WEBPAGE: ..................................................................................................23
    GRAPHIC FILES ARE STORED SEPARATELY:.........................................................................................23




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WHITE HAT SEO ...............................................................................................................................25
    GOOGLE WEBMASTER GUIDELINES: ....................................................................................................25
    CONTENT IS KING: ..............................................................................................................................25
    FRESHNESS:........................................................................................................................................25
    LOADING SPEED: ................................................................................................................................26
    QUALITY BACK LINKS:........................................................................................................................26
BLACK HAT SEO TECHNIQUES: ..................................................................................................27
    WHAT IS ‘BLACK HAT SEO’?..............................................................................................................27
    HIDING KEYWORDS IN TEXT AT THE BOTTOM OF A PAGE: ...................................................................27
    HIDING KEYWORDS WITHIN PICTURE ALT TAGS AT THE BOTTOM OF A PAGE:......................................27
    EXCESSIVE DOORWAY PAGES: ............................................................................................................27
    DUPLICATE CONTENT: ........................................................................................................................27
    AUTOBLOGS AND SYNDICATED CONTENT ...........................................................................................28
    GOOGLE PENALTIES:...........................................................................................................................28
NEGATIVE FACTORS AFFECTING YOUR WEBSITE SEO: ....................................................29
    SOME SEO ACTIVITIES CAN NEGATIVELY AFFECT YOUR GOOGLE LISTING:........................................29
    BROKEN LINKS: ..................................................................................................................................29
    BAD WEB CODING:..............................................................................................................................29

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    LINKS TO, OR FROM, BAD WEBSITES: ..................................................................................................29
    TAKE CARE WITH RECIPROCAL LINKS: ................................................................................................29
    SPELLING:...........................................................................................................................................30
KEYWORDS:.......................................................................................................................................31
    THINKING ABOUT KEYWORDS: ...........................................................................................................31
    COMPETITOR KEYWORDS: ..................................................................................................................31
    KEYWORD RESEARCH USING GOOGLE ADWORDS:.............................................................................31
    USING KEYWORDS WITHIN A WEBSITE:...............................................................................................33
LINKS: ..................................................................................................................................................35
    RECIPROCAL LINKS:............................................................................................................................35
    LINK ISSUES: ......................................................................................................................................35
    INTERNAL LINKS VS. EXTERNAL LINKS:..............................................................................................35
    INVESTIGATING INBOUND EXTERNAL LINKS: ......................................................................................35
    BUYING IN LINKS:...............................................................................................................................36
    USING DIRECTORIES, BLOGS AND SPECIALIST WEBSITES:....................................................................36
    AUSTRALIAN BUSINESS DIRECTORY SITES:........................................................................................37
    ARTICLE SUBMISSION WEB SITES: ......................................................................................................37
LOCALISED SEARCH ISSUES:.......................................................................................................39
    LOCALISING A SEARCH TO A SUBURB OR CITY: ...................................................................................39
    USE LOCAL PLACE NAMES IN THE KEYWORDS: ...................................................................................39
    GOOGLE LOCAL PAGE: .......................................................................................................................39
NEW MEDIA AND SOCIAL MEDIA:..............................................................................................43
    YOUTUBE:..........................................................................................................................................43
    GOOGLE +1: .......................................................................................................................................44
    FACEBOOK: ........................................................................................................................................44
    TWITTER:............................................................................................................................................44
    LINKEDIN: ..........................................................................................................................................44
TECHNOLOGY ISSUES:...................................................................................................................45
    BROWSER COMPATIBILITY, SCREEN SIZE AND SCREEN RESOLUTION:..................................................45
    HARDWARE COMPATIBILITY, MACS, PCS, MOBILE PHONES AND TABLETS: ........................................45
    FLASH AND JAVA ISSUES: ...................................................................................................................45
    STATIC VS. DYNAMIC WEB SITES: .......................................................................................................46
MISCELLANEOUS ISSUES: .............................................................................................................47




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    OPEN DIRECTORY PROJECT: ...............................................................................................................47
    SITE MAPS:.........................................................................................................................................47
    FAV ICON: ..........................................................................................................................................47
    SITE DESIGN ISSUES AND NAVIGATION: ..............................................................................................48
USEFUL SEO TOOLS: .......................................................................................................................49
    GOOGLE ANALYTICS:..........................................................................................................................49
    CHECKING FOR LIVE BROKEN LINKS: ..................................................................................................49
    CODE VALIDITY CHECKERS: ...............................................................................................................50
    SUBMITTING YOUR SITE TO GOOGLE AND OTHER SEARCH ENGINES: ..................................................51
    GOOGLE WEBMASTER TOOLS: ...........................................................................................................52
AUDITING YOUR OWN SITE FOR COMMON WEBSITE MISTAKES:..................................53
    ARE YOU USING THE RIGHT KEYWORDS TO OPTIMISE YOUR SITE? ......................................................53
    HOW WELL DOES YOUR WEBSITE SHOW IN GOOGLE, YAHOO AND BING?...........................................53
    WEBSITE LOADING SPEED ...................................................................................................................53
    BROKEN LINKS: ..................................................................................................................................53
    BROKEN IMAGES: ...............................................................................................................................54
    PICTURE ONLY WEBSITES: ..................................................................................................................54
    NO RELEVANT KEYWORDS IN A PAGE: ................................................................................................54
    NUMBER OF BACK LINKS: ...................................................................................................................54

              Cheltenham Group Pty. Ltd. 8 Keel Place, Ocean Reef, 6027, WA Tel: 1300 852 204
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                                                  SEO Essentials Seminar

   GOOGLE PAGERANK: .........................................................................................................................55
   ALT TAGS: ..........................................................................................................................................56
   WEBSITE TITLE: .................................................................................................................................56
   WEBSITE DESCRIPTION: .....................................................................................................................57
   WEBSITE KEYWORDS: ........................................................................................................................57
   EASE OF NAVIGATION AND MENU ISSUES: ..........................................................................................57
   SPELLING AND GRAMMATICAL ISSUES:...............................................................................................57
   FLASH AND JAVA ISSUES: ...................................................................................................................57
   WEBSITE APPEARANCE IN DIFFERENT BROWSERS:..............................................................................57
   COMPUTER MONITOR SIZE AND SCREEN RESOLUTION (LEFT-RIGHT SCROLLING). ...............................57
   FAVICON: ...........................................................................................................................................58
   HEADING TAGS:..................................................................................................................................58
   SITE MAP: ...........................................................................................................................................58
   OPEN DIRECTORY PROJECT: ...............................................................................................................58
   HOW MANY PAGES OF YOUR WEBSITE ARE INDEXED IN GOOGLE? ......................................................58
   W3C VALIDATION: .............................................................................................................................59
   HOME PAGE PRINTABILITY: ................................................................................................................59
   FILE NAMES:.......................................................................................................................................59
   PDF FILE SIZE ISSUES: ........................................................................................................................59
   COPYRIGHT STATEMENTS AND PRIVACY POLICIES:............................................................................60
   DO ALL THE MAJOR SEARCH ENGINES KNOW ABOUT YOUR WEBSITE? ................................................60
   FLASH FILE SIZES................................................................................................................................60
   GOOGLE MAP:.....................................................................................................................................60
   GOOGLE PLACES PAGE.......................................................................................................................60
   UNDERLINED TEXT: ............................................................................................................................61
   PAGE ‘UNDER CONSTRUCTION’...........................................................................................................61
   FLASH OR GRAPHICAL INTRO PAGES: ..................................................................................................61
   TEXT USED WITHIN LINKS:..................................................................................................................61
   ONLINE PAYMENT SYSTEM AND SECURITY ISSUES:.............................................................................61
   HOME PAGE FILE SIZE: ........................................................................................................................61
   JAVA ISSUES: ......................................................................................................................................61
   CONTACT PAGE: .................................................................................................................................62
   DISPLAY YOUR PRICES:.......................................................................................................................62
   INTERNATIONAL ISSUES:.....................................................................................................................62
   OPENING LINKS IN NEW WINDOWS:.....................................................................................................62
   TEXT SIZE:..........................................................................................................................................62
   USE OF STYLES: ..................................................................................................................................62
   USE AN EXTERNAL CSS FILE: .............................................................................................................63
   '404 ERROR PAGE' HANDLING: ............................................................................................................63
   BLIND ALLEY PAGES:..........................................................................................................................63




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   POP-UPS:.............................................................................................................................................63
   BACKGROUND MUSIC: .......................................................................................................................63
   DO NOT USE HIDDEN TEXT TO TRY AND TRICK THE SEARCH ENGINES: ................................................63
   USE STANDARD FONTS: ......................................................................................................................64
   FRAMES:.............................................................................................................................................64
   DO NOT USE AUTO RUN VIDEOS: .........................................................................................................64
   DO NOT USE ANIMATED GIFS: ............................................................................................................64
   KEEP CONTENT UP TO DATE:...............................................................................................................64
   BEWARE OF SEASONAL MESSAGES: ....................................................................................................64
   LOW CONTRAST BETWEEN THE TEXT AND BACKGROUND COLOURS: ..................................................65
   BEWARE OF BACKGROUND GRAPHICS: ...............................................................................................65
TRUST FACTORS – TURNING YOUR WEBSITE VISITORS INTO CUSTOMERS: .............67
   ON THE WEB, YOU ARE YOUR WEBSITE:..............................................................................................67
   BROKEN LINKS AND BROKEN GRAPHICS WILL HURT YOUR CREDIBILITY:............................................67
   SECURE ENCRYPTION: ........................................................................................................................67
   NORTON, MCAFEE AND AVG SAFE SITES: .........................................................................................67
   TRUST ACCREDITATION SCHEMES: .....................................................................................................68
APPENDIX 01 - EVALUATING SEO COMPANIES:.....................................................................69


             Cheltenham Group Pty. Ltd. 8 Keel Place, Ocean Reef, 6027, WA Tel: 1300 852 204
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                                                  SEO Essentials Seminar

   BUYER BEWARE: ................................................................................................................................69
   WHAT IS THE GOOGLE PAGERANK OF THE SEO COMPANY’S OWN WEBSITE?....................................69
   HOW WELL DOES THE SEO COMPANY’S WEBSITE SHOW UP IN THE GOOGLE SEARCH RESULTS? ........69
   DOES THE SEO COMPANY’S OWN WEBSITE HAVE BROKEN LINKS? ....................................................70
   HOW MANY BACK LINKS ARE THERE TO THE SEO COMPANY’S OWN WEBSITE? .................................70
   IS THE SEO COMPANY’S WEBSITE EASY TO NAVIGATE?.....................................................................70
   CLEAR PRICING POLICY: .....................................................................................................................70
   DO THEY PROVIDE EXAMPLES OF THEIR SEO SUCCESS STORIES? .......................................................70
APPENDIX 02 - COMMON CLAIMS FROM SEO COMPANIES YOU SHOULD AVOID: ....71
   TAKE YOU TIME WHEN SELECTING AN SEO COMPANY. ......................................................................71
   SEO SCAM # 1 - SPAM EMAILS THAT OFFER CUT PRICE SEO SERVICES. .............................................71
   SEO SCAM # 2 - FIRST PAGE GOOGLE RANKING GUARANTEED IN 24 HRS. .........................................71
   SEO SCAM # 3 - COMPANIES THAT GUARANTEE TOP 10 GOOGLE RANKING.......................................71
   SEO SCAM # 4 - COMPANIES THAT OFFER TO SUBMIT YOUR WEBSITE TO 'HUNDREDS OF SEARCH
   ENGINES'.............................................................................................................................................72
   SEO SCAM # 5 - COMPANIES THAT OFFER TO SUBMIT YOUR WEBSITE TO 'THOUSANDS OF DIRECTORY
   LISTINGS'. ...........................................................................................................................................72
   SEO SCAM # 6 - COMPANIES THAT CLAIM TO HAVE CRACKED THE GOOGLE SEARCH ALGORITHMS...72
   SEO SCAM # 7 - COMPANIES THAT CLAIM TO 'KNOW SOMEONE THAT WORKS FOR GOOGLE'..............72
   SEO SCAM # 8 - COMPANIES THAT REFUSE TO DISCUSS THEIR METHODS OF GETTING YOU A HIGHER
   RANKING, AS IT IS A SECRET FORMULA!..............................................................................................72
   SEO SCAM # 9 - COMPANIES THAT GUARANTEE THE LOWEST PRICED SEO SERVICE..........................72
   SEO SCAM # 10 - COMPANIES THAT OFFER SEO SOFTWARE THAT YOU CAN RUN TO TOTALLY
   OPTIMIZE YOUR WEBSITE AND GET A GUARANTEED PAGE ONE RANKING............................................73

APPENDIX 03 - SEO GLOSSARY: ...................................................................................................75




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             Cheltenham Group Pty. Ltd. 8 Keel Place, Ocean Reef, 6027, WA Tel: 1300 852 204
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                              SEO Essentials Seminar



PURPOSE OF THIS SEO SEMINAR

What you will learn
      This short seminar will introduce you to the topic of SEO, Search
       Engine Optimisation.
      At the end of the seminar you will have a better understanding of
       issues involved in successful SEO.
      You will understand some of the pitfalls associated with SEO.
      You will learn enough to help recognise a good SEO company from
       bad one.
      You will have a good grounding in SEO techniques that will enable you
       to confidently tackle a more advanced SEO course.




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SEO, BROWSERS AND SEARCH ENGINES:

If you build it they will come: Err not really:
That was just a line in a film. You see this phrase repeated endlessly by website
designers. It could not be further from the truth. If you want visitors to your website
and if you want to be ranked highly in the search engines, you have to work at it, and
keep working at it. Unlike painting a picture, website SEO is never finished, you
need to keep up with changes in how the search engines rank websites.



What is SEO?
SEO is short for search engine optimisation. As the term implies, SEO is all
about optimising a website to gain maximum visibility within the search engine
results. As we will see, SEO takes time and effort. Do not be fooled by e-mails
turning up unannounced in your inbox, promising instant SEO results.



Onsite and offsite SEO:
When you are optimising your website for search engine visibility there are
two distinct aspects to the optimisation.

On-site optimisation refers to any changes that you make to the actual content
of the website. This on-site optimisation may relate to the text that your
visitors can see when they visit your website or it may relate to the code
behind the website that the search engine will see, but that your visitors will
not necessarily view.

For instance, as we will see elsewhere, within the ‘head’ section of the HTML
code for each page of the website, you may optimise the title, description and




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keywords. There are also many other on-site optimisation opportunities, such
as using header tags, alt tags and comments.

In many ways the most important part of on-site optimisation is to make sure
that all your keywords are displayed within the body text of the page.

Offsite search engine optimisation consists of numerous activities, such as
requesting links from other websites to your website. In addition this now
includes activities ranging from posting videos on YouTube through to setting
up Facebook and Twitter accounts.

The single most important offsite activity is the acquiring of links from other
websites, to your website. Within reason the more of these the better.
However it is also important that these links are high quality links, which
means that you should be linking from related sites and also sites that host
quality information and that are highly rated by Google. Links from sites with a


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high Google PageRank are much more valuable than links from website
pages that have a low PageRank value.



White hat vs. black hat SEO:
White hat SEO uses techniques that are acceptable to Google and other search
engines, while black hat SEO uses techniques that go against the terms of service
published by Google and other major search engines.

If you employ an SEO company that uses black hat techniques you may find that
instead of being easy to find, your website may disappear from search engines
altogether as search engines such as Google, will penalise websites that use
techniques that they consider attempts to spam their listings.

There are numerous examples of companies who have been delisted by Google or
have had the search engine results moved down the page compared to their
competitors. Even large well-known companies such as BMW have had their details
removed altogether from Google when they use techniques that Google disapproved
of.



Browsers vs. search engines:
A web browser such as Microsoft Internet Explorer allows you to view web pages.
Other examples of Web browsers include Chrome (which is supplied by Google),
Firefox and Opera.

A search engine is essentially a giant database that contains details about websites.
It is important to realise that search engines only know about websites that have
been submitted to that search engine or which that search engine has discovered by
crawling the web.



Different search engines:




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There are many different search engines available today the most famous of which is
Google. Other examples include Bing from Microsoft and Yahoo. It is important that if
you are promoting a website you make sure that each individual search engine is
aware of your particular website. The easiest way to do this is to search each search
engine using your company name and seeing if you can find the website.

Alternatively many search engines will allow you to examine the search engine to see
if a particular website is listed by that search engine. You may well have received
spam e-mails offering to submit your website to thousands of search engines but in
reality there are only a handful of search engines that actually matter.

Do not be seduced by the idea is that a one-off cost will get your website listed with
thousands of search engines and all of a sudden you will start getting lots more
visitors to your website.




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How search engines work:
The first thing to realise about search engines is that they only know about websites
that are submitted to them directly or that they have found when searching the web.

This means that when you search the web using a particular search engine that, the
results that are displayed, only relate to websites that the search engine knows
about. It stands to reason if the search engine does not know about your website you
will not be listed within the search results by that search engine.

Search engines use automated software called spiders or crawlers to search through
websites on the web and then indexes the results in giant databases.

When you search for information about a particular product or service within a search
engine the search engine will display the results of your query on a page normally
containing approximately 10 results. The search engine will determine the order in
which the results are displayed. If, for the sake of argument, there are 20 companies
offering a particular product or service, then one of those companies will be listed in
first place, and one will be listed in last place. The whole point of SEO is to try and
make sure that your company is listed as close to the top of the results as possible.



Organic and paid search results:
When Google displays the search results, you will normally see what are
called ‘paid for’ results displayed at the top of the page and sometimes down
the side of the page. The ‘paid for’ results section is normally lightly shaded
and is frequently labelled as ‘sponsored’ links or advertisements.

If you want your company to be displayed within the ‘paid for’ results section,
then you need to register with Google, and take part in a global auction. This
global auction will determine which company is displayed at the top of the
paid for results, and which companies are displayed further down the list. The
more you bid, the more likely that you will be displayed at the top of the paid
for results section.




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Using the paid for results service from Google can be attractive to new
companies that have not yet fully developed their website, but nevertheless
need to attract business via the search engine results.

You should read all the available information from Google, prior to entering
into their paid for service and you should know how to cap expenditure within
a certain time period. Also be aware that this form of advertising can be very
expensive, but on the other hand, if you are getting results it may well be
worth the expense.

The organic results, also referred to as natural results, are displayed beneath
the paid for results. There is no charge for having your web pages displayed
within the organic results section. The order in which web pages are displayed
within the organic section is determined by a series of complex algorithms
used by Google to rank websites.



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Search engine optimisation is all about getting your website to be displayed
as high as possible within the organic results section of the search engine
results.




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EXAMPLES OF SUCCESSFUL SEO

Computer Training Materials website:
Keyword Search Phrase:          Computer Training Materials
Google Position:                First in Google out of 50,700,000 results.




Video to DVD transfer service website:
Keyword Search Phrase:            Video to DVD Transfer Service
Google Position:                  First in Google out of 40,400,000 results.




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Photos to DVD Service website:
Keyword Search Phrase:                Photos to DVD Service
Google Position:                      First in Google out of 576,000,000 results.




Perth Will website:
Keyword Search Phrase:             Perth Will
Google Position:                   First in Google out of 173,000,000 results.




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Emigrating Perth website:
Keyword Search Phrase:          Emigrating Perth
Google Position:                Displayed on the first page of results within
                                the UK version of Google (this site is aimed at
                                UK residents).




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ESSENTIAL SEO CONCEPTS:

URL names:
The URL is the address of your website. For instance the URL for Microsoft's
home page is:

http://www.microsoft.com

The URL is an opportunity to include an important key word or phrase. For
instance let's say you run a company involved in training dogs and you are
located in, or near the city of Perth. In this case an ideal URL would be:

www.dogtrainingperth.com.au

Google uses words within a website URL as one of many factors used to rate
the position of a particular website within the search engine results.

Many companies will use their company name as the URL of the website, and
in many cases because the website and the company are so well established,
this will work just fine.

However if you are a new, small company and want to get the maximum
benefit from SEO techniques you may wish to consider creating a new
website using the sort of URL outlined above.



Index.htm - The Home Page:
Every website has a homepage, which is the starting page for the website. This is the
page that you wish visitors to see when they first load up your website. This is the
page that will be displayed when you type in the base URL of a website. For




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instance, if you were to view www.ibm.com, you would see the homepage of the
IBM website.

In most cases the homepage has a special name, such as index.htm or index.html.
There are many other similar naming conventions that can be used and this will vary
depending on exactly how your Web server is configured.

In many ways the homepage is the single most important page within your entire
website. This is also the first page that most search engines will examine when
exploring your website and determining how to list your website within the search
engine results.

It is vital that you get everything right on your homepage as far as SEO is concerned.
This includes factors such as page loading speed, technical correctness of the
underlying code, spelling and grammar, SEO keyword density, as well as fully
optimising your header code such as the title, description and keyword tags.




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Webpage structure:
The logical structure of the website is identical to the sort of structure that you
are familiar with when organising files on your hard disk. The starting page
also called the ‘home page’ is normally called index.htm. Other webpage files
and graphics files can either be stored in the root folder or may be stored
within folders that lie beneath the root folder.


PageRank:
The Google search engine gives each website page a PageRank number. This
PageRank number is essentially an indication that Google assigns to the value of a
particular web page. The PageRank numbering system ranges from 0 at the bottom
to 10 at the top, and it is important to realise that this is a non-linear scale.

You will find that many website pages have a PageRank of zero which could indicate
either that Google has yet to discover and rank this page or it could indicate that the
particular page has been penalised by Google for attempting to spam the search
engines, and has been de-listed by the search engine.

It is important to realise that PageRank is just one of the many factors that will affect
the position of the page within the search engine listings. All things being equal, the
higher the PageRank the higher a particular page will be listed in the search engine
results, compared to other pages of lower PageRank.

In order to view the PageRank of a particular page you should install the Google
toolbar, and then if necessary activate the PageRank tool. The PageRank tool will
display a short horizontal bar and moving the mouse over the bar will display the
actual PageRank for that particular page.

You should endeavour to achieve the highest possible PageRank for your homepage
and other important pages within your website.

The PageRank that is publicly displayed within the Google toolbar is only updated
periodically, typically every few months. This means that if you are engaged in
intensive SEO work on a website you cannot expect to see the PageRank move up




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overnight.

Sometimes you may find a web page with a low PageRank displayed towards the top
of the search engine results. This may mean that competing pages simply have an
even lower PageRank. It can also mean that other factors are affecting the listing of
the page within the search engine results, apart from simply the PageRank itself.


Link Juice:
The idea behind the term link juice is that link juice flows from web pages with
a high PageRank to other pages on the Web.

If you have a web page with a very high PageRank and you place a link on
this page to another page, maybe on a different website, then link juice flows
to the page on the other website.

The more link juice that flows to a page, all other things being equal the higher
the PageRank of the target page will become.

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 If you have not one, but many links to external websites on a page, then the
 value of the link juice to the pages that you are linking to, will become diluted.

 In most cases the home page of a website will have the highest PageRank
 value of all the pages within a particular website, and you should think
 carefully about how you link to other pages within your website, so that you
 distribute link juice to the pages that you consider the most important.

 Often you will see companies advertising ‘links for sale’ from pages with a
 high PageRank value. If a company is selling hundreds of links from a single
 high PageRank page, then the value of the link in terms of link juice is greatly
 diluted.



 HTML page structure:
 It is important that you understand the basics of how the coding for a webpage is put
 together. You do not need to know the full technical details, but it would help to have
 a basic understanding of the sort of structure used within a web page.

 In order to view the HTML source that makes up a Web page, simply display a
 webpage within a browser such as Microsoft Internet Explorer, and then right click
 over the webpage. From the pop-up menu displayed, select a command such as
 ‘View source’. The source code would then be displayed within a window on your
 screen.

 If you look carefully you will see that the source code is divided into two basic areas.
 At the top is a header area while the rest of the source code is divided into the body
 area.



 HTML Header Area:




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 A typical HTML header area is shown below. This is a simplified example and you
 will normally find many other elements within the header area besides those
 illustrated below.

 As you can see the start of the header area is defined by a <head> tag, while the
 end of the header area is defined by a </head> tag.


<head>

<title>Computer courseware training materials</title>

<meta name="description" content="Computer courseware training
 materials inc courseware books and manuals">

<meta name="keywords" content="computer books, computer training">

</head>




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HTML Title:
As the name implies the title section within the HTML code defines the title of a
particular webpage. The Web page title is seen displayed within the title bar of your
web browser.

The title is also used by search engines such as Google to get an idea of what a
particular web page is about. The title should be as concise as possible and describe
exactly what that particular page is about.

A very common error on many websites is to have every single webpage within the
website displaying exactly the same title. You should always take the time to have
different titles on each individual webpage, and each title should exactly reflect the
content of their particular page.

All other things being equal getting the HTML title right is probably the single most
important factor affecting on-page SEO.

Within the title text use natural sounding language, rather than simply a list of
keywords. If geographical location is important to you then you may also wish to
include this within the webpage Title. As an example let's say you run a fish and chip
shop in the Ocean Reef suburb of Perth, Western Australia you could use a title such
as:


Fish and chips in Ocean Reef, Perth, Western Australia.




HTML Description:
The description in many ways is similar to the title and should relate to the text
contained within the title. As the name implies, the description is there to add extra
details to the information contained within the title and as you might expect, you can




SAMPLE
enter more information into the description area. Following on from the last example,
a description for a fish and chip shop in Ocean Reef might look like this.



Our award-winning Fish and chip shop in Ocean Reef, Perth, Western Australia
is open Monday to Saturday.




HTML keyword Meta tags:
The keyword Meta tags used to be very important for SEO, but due to misuse over
the years they have become less and less important. Some search engines will
ignore them altogether. That said, it won't do any harm to have a good set of
keywords, listed within the keyword Meta tag section. You should list your keywords
in order of decreasing importance and you should separate each word or phrase with
a comma.


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Heading tags within a webpage:
Within a webpage you will normally have a short piece of text, which acts as a
heading, and underneath you will have the body of the text associated with
that header.

You may be familiar with using headings within a word-processing application
such as Microsoft Word. The use of headings within an HTML document uses
exactly the same principles. The main header is normally labelled as Header
1, while you can also use sub-headers which we labelled as header 2, header
3 etc.

Google will pay a lot of attention to the text contained within headers
displayed within a webpage. You should think very carefully about what text to
include within your headers, and find as many opportunities as possible to
include important keywords and phrases within your headers.

Do not be tempted to stuff the headers with a list of keywords or phrases. You
should always use natural sounding text within your headers.

If you are using a web editing tool such as Dreamweaver, you will find it is
very easy to mark text as headers. Normally you will simply click within the
text that you wish to mark is a header and then click on a ‘heading level’
button within the program.



Graphic files are stored separately:
If you are used to using a word processor such as Microsoft Word, then you can
insert words and pictures into your document and when you save the document both
the words and pictures are all saved within a single file.




SAMPLE
It is important to realise the HTML files only contain text. When you save an HTML
file it will only contain text not pictures.

When you use a program such as Dreamweaver to create web pages, if you insert a
picture, when you save the webpage, the text will be saved within the webpage, while
the pictures will be saved as separate individual files.

Within the webpage are instructions that tell a Web browser that a particular picture
file should be displayed within the webpage at a specific place, using a particular
physical shape and size.

Because each webpage uses the system of pointers to display graphics it is possible
for the pointers to become corrupted, or to point to the wrong place, in which case a
graphic will not be displayed correctly.

You should always check new or edited web pages to make sure that any graphics
are displayed correctly. Ideally you should do this visually, as well as using software
that can automatically check for broken links.


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If Google finds broken graphics links within your website, it can have an adverse
effect the listing of your website within the search engine results.




SAMPLE
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WHITE HAT SEO

Google webmaster guidelines:
Google does not produce specific guidelines on how to optimise your website
to achieve maximum search engine visibility. What it does do, is to issue a
series of guidelines that you should read and absorb.

In simple terms if you do what Google asks you to do then your website will
do better within the search engine results.

Google also warns you against using practices that it considers attempts to
spam its index of search results. If you engage in practices that go against the
terms of service published by Google, you cannot be surprised that eventually
your website may be penalised by Google and your website position within
the search engine will suffer.

There are a number of Google blogs that you can subscribe to, so you can
keep up to date with search engine optimisation trends and techniques.



Content is king:
Google is on record as saying it wishes to see high-quality websites doing
well on the Internet, rather than low-quality, spam driven websites that are
purely designed to sell advertising.

Simply having good content and ignoring basic SEO aspects is not enough.
You need both. Combining quality up to date content with professional SEO
techniques means that in the long term your website should do well and show
up well within search engine results.




SAMPLE
The higher the quality of your website content is, the more likely it is that
others will link to your website, without you having to ask them. The more
links you have and the higher the quality of links to your website the better.
Quality links are important SEO factor.



Freshness:
An important component to the site ranking algorithm from Google, is what is
called freshness. Basically freshness relates to new website content. If
Google sees that you are regularly changing or adding new content to the
website, it will take more interest in that website, and all things being equal
the website will rank more highly within the search engine results.

This does not mean you have to make changes every single day but it is
advisable to add new content on a fairly regular basis. At the end of the day,


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Google is looking to reward high-quality websites with a high listing in the
search engine results.


Loading speed:
In the early days of the Web, website designers used all sorts of tricks in order
to help speed the loading of each webpage. These days the majority of
people accessing the Web will have access to some form of broadband
connection, so you should find that even graphic heavy websites will load
quite fast.

However you should be aware that Google lists the loading speed of a
webpage as one of the important factors in determining the position of a Web
page within the search results.

There are numerous programs available to help you measure the loading
speed of your pages and you should pay particular attention to your
homepage, index.html.

Typically the sorts of things that will slow down the loading of a Web page
include items such as large pictures, large flash files and video or audio files.

You should avoid having a very large home page containing lots of text and
pictures. If you think your homepage looks too large, consider moving some
content to existing pages or create new pages and link to these from the
home page.


Quality back links:
A very important factor within your SEO efforts is securing as many back links
as possible to your website. Ideally these back links should be one way links
from other websites to your website.




SAMPLE
Reciprocal links are where you share links with another website so that they
will link to your website in exchange for a link from your website to their
website. Reciprocal links are far less valuable than one way links.

Even more important than the number of links, is the quality of the links from
other websites, to your website. A link from a website with a high PageRank is
much more valuable than many links from websites with a PageRank of one
or two.




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BLACK HAT SEO TECHNIQUES:

What is ‘black hat SEO’?
There are many different techniques that some companies use in an attempt
to spam the search engine results.


Hiding keywords in text at the bottom of a page:
A common example some years ago was to have text with the same colour as
the background repeated over and over again at the bottom of the page. For
instance, if the website was promoting ‘car auctions’ then the text ‘car auction’
and variations of this phrase could be repeated over and over, using white
text on a white background.

Google quickly caught on to this spam technique and if you use this type of
trick, you will be caught, and it will negatively affect your search engine
ranking.


Hiding keywords within picture alt tags at the bottom of a page:
A spamming technique involving the creation of hundreds of tiny graphics files
which were displayed at the bottom of page quite often these were square
one pixel sized graphics with the same colour as a Web page background so
that nobody noticed them. However each graphic would have alternative text
tags, repeated over and over again, in an attempt to spam the search
engines.

These days this sort of spamming activity will be detected and your search
ranking will be harmed as a result.




SAMPLE
Excessive doorway pages:
Another technique beloved of Internet spammers is the creation of vast
numbers of doorway pages. These doorway pages are written solely to get
Google's attention, and each one will be packed with keywords promoting a
particular product or service.

Google warns against promoting doorway pages solely for the sake of SEO
and states that you should write website pages for the benefit of your visitors,
not for the benefit of your SEO position.

While you might get away with a few doorway pages, excessive use will be
detected, and may harm your on-site marketing activities.


Duplicate content:
If you create a large number of pages containing duplicate content, this may
be detected, and you can be penalised for it. This applies to creating multiple

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pages with similar content within the same website or creating multiple
websites with similar content.

Excessive duplication will be viewed as an attempt to spam the search
engines.


Autoblogs and syndicated content
Many websites have been set up recently which use syndicated content,
which is sucked onto a website automatically from various sources across the
web.

Most of these sites are covered in advertising and have very low value
content. Often articles used within auto blogs are very poorly written,
derivative and can be widely copied over thousands of different websites.

These are the sort of websites that Google is trying to eliminate from its
search engine results. It is best to stay away from syndicated content, unless
you are confident of the quality and continued reliability of the content. By
writing your own content it will be unique and quality content is what Google is
looking for. Good content will boost your SEO efforts.



Google penalties:
There are many examples of companies that have been banned by Google or
have had their website listings demoted in the search engine results. For
instance at one point BMW in Germany was banned altogether by Google.

You should investigate Google's terms of service for yourselves and read what
Google has to say about how to write websites and how to promote websites. If you
play by the rules your website will be listed by Google without any trouble and if you
use careful SEO techniques, over time you should see your website listing rise within
the search engine results.




SAMPLE
If you go against any of the terms of service listed by Google, or if you employ an
SEO company that in turn uses black hat techniques, you may find that your search
engine position listing is impaired or in extreme cases, your website may be banned
from Google altogether until you stop trying to spam their index.

Try searching for information about Google search engine penalties and you will find
numerous examples of companies, large and small, that have fallen foul of Google's
terms of service. Make sure you are not one of these as if you are banned from
Google you may find being re-listed is a long and tedious process.

The bottom line is, stick to the rules outlined by Google, and you should be okay.




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NEGATIVE FACTORS AFFECTING YOUR
WEBSITE SEO:

Some SEO activities can negatively affect your Google listing:
As we have seen, there are lots of factors that will positively affect how your
website is displayed within the Google search results.

It is also important to realise that there are other factors that can negatively
affect your search engine ranking. A lot of these factors are common sense.


Broken links:
If you visit a website that contains numerous broken links, you will not be very
impressed with the website. In the same way if Google finds lots of broken
links on your website it will mark you down, your web page search engine
ranking will be adversely affected.

There is no excuse for broken links and you should regularly check for broken
links on your website and fix them immediately. If you have lots of links to
external websites is even more important that you check that these work
okay.


Bad web coding:
If the code behind your website is badly written, and does not conform to
widely accepted standards, then Google may mark down your website. Again,
there are numerous websites where you can check the validity of the code
used to display your web pages.




SAMPLE
Links to, or from, bad websites:
Many organisations have been tempted to use third-party companies that
provide links to their websites in exchange for payment. Google specifically
states that this is against their terms of service and you may find that if you
purchase links to help increase the visibility of your website within the search
engines you are penalised by Google, and end up being harder rather than
easier to find in Google.

Google disapproves of any websites that charge other companies for back-
links, as well as websites that have a reputation for spamming or spreading
forms of malware.


Take care with reciprocal links:
You should be especially careful with the websites that you link to. If you have
engaged in reciprocal link exchanges with other websites, check very carefully
prior to adding a link to someone else's website. Google maintains a

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database of websites it considers undesirable, you can be heavily penalised
simply by linking to a site that Google disapproves of.



Spelling:
Incorrect spelling and bad punctuation may also harm your Google listing.
There is no excuse for spelling errors within a website, as all website design
programs have built-in spelling checkers. To illustrate the point, a number of
years ago I was checking out the website of a major British bank and found to
my amusement they repeatedly misspelt the word ‘mortgage’. It did not
convey a very professional image.




SAMPLE
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KEYWORDS:

Thinking about keywords:
When you first design a website you need to sit down and draw up a list of
keywords and phrases that you expect your visitors to use when searching for
your website.

It is important that you involve non-experts in the creation of your keyword list.

For instance, if you have a technical understanding of your particular product
or service, you may be tempted to use a technical term within the search
phrase. Many of your customers may use search phrases you did not expect
them to use. It is important to do as much research as possible, ask your
customers what sort of phrases they would use when searching for your
product or service on the web.

You should always ask as many members of staff as possible for their input
and ideas relating to what keywords or phrases are important for your
website.


Competitor keywords:
You should investigate the websites belonging to your competitors.

If you display a competitor website and then right click on the website, you
should see a popup command such as ‘view source’ displayed. Once the
source code for a competitor's website is displayed on your screen take a look
at the list of keywords that is displayed within the keyword section towards the
top of the HTML code.




SAMPLE
You might wish to copy and paste this into a Word document and then repeat
the process by looking at many other competitor websites. You may find that
some of your competitors have thought of keywords or phrases that you have
not thought of, you can use these to help optimise your own website for better
search engine results.


Keyword research using Google AdWords:
Google provides a free research tool as part of a Google AdWords service.
You can use this to help investigate which keywords are important for your
website. Best of all the service is totally free.

To use the service, simply search Google using a phrase such as ‘Google
keyword tool’ and you should see the relevant pages displayed. It is worth
creating a Google account, which again is free, and will make the use of the
Google keyword tool easier for you.



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Let's say you run a small bicycle repair business in Sydney. You can enter
the phrase “bicycle repair Sydney” into the search box and when you click
on the Search button you will see the results displayed.

In the example shown, as you can see, approximately 320 local searches
were made within the previous month. In this context, ‘local’ means within
Australia as the program was set up to use Australian defaults.




More importantly, if you scroll down the results section, you will find that the
program has also displayed the number of searches that are made using
similar, related, keyword phrases. As you can see in this example 5400
searches were made using the phrase ‘bicycle shop Sydney’.




SAMPLE
What this is telling you is that, rather than simply concentrating on the phrase
‘bicycle repair Sydney’, you should maybe consider other keywords in
phrases which will attract more visitors to your website, some of which may be
specifically interested in bicycle repair.

You should spend a lot of time exploring the full capabilities of this program as
it can really help you focus and home in on the important keywords which are
not always the keywords that you initially thought were important.



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At the end of the day what matters is what people are actually searching for,
not what you thought they might be searching for. Remember these figures
are provided by Google itself.

There are numerous examples of websites which are very keenly focused on
a particular keyword or phrase, but unfortunately upon detailed analysis it
turns out that the wrong keywords or phrases have been chosen and a lot of
effort has been wasted.

Before you do any SEO work, spend time investigating relevant keywords and
phrases, make sure you pick the right ones before you do anything else.



Using keywords within a website:
We will see elsewhere within this course that once you have defined important
keywords or phrases, there are numerous opportunities within the code
behind your webpage to promote these particular keywords and phrases.

Common areas which can be used to promote keywords and phrases include:
   The web page title.
   The web page description.
   The keyword section.
   Inside headers.
   Inside comments.
   Inside Alt tags.
   Inside file and folder names.
   Inside the URL.




SAMPLE
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LINKS:

Reciprocal links:
A reciprocal link is when a website has included a link to your website in
exchange for you including a link from your website to their website.



Link Issues:
It is important that somewhere on each page within your website you have a
text link to other pages within your website. This link should include links to
your homepage and the site-map page.

Many websites use special technologies such as Flash or Java as part of their
menu navigation systems. In some cases the search engines will not
understand these menu navigation systems and you might find that while the
home page is listed within the search engine, no other pages are listed. The
search engine does not recognise the technology involved in linking to other
pages on your site. This is why you should always have at least a few plain
text links on every page in your website.



Internal links vs. External links:
Internal links as the name implies, are links between pages within the same
website. On the other hand, external links are links to pages on other
websites or links from pages on other sites.

Google likes to see linking between the pages of the website and you should
always make sure that none of your pages contain blind alley pages which do
not allow a visitor to jump to another page, or return to the home page. At the




SAMPLE
very least, you should put a link to your home page on every single page,
normally at the top, bottom or side of the page.

In addition it is a good idea to have links to all the main pages within your
website from each page. Alternatively, consider a link to a site map page on
every page. By doing this, when Google examines the structure of your
website, it will see a complicated structure with interconnecting links that will
look far more interesting than a site with fewer internal links.



Investigating inbound external links:
It is important to know how many other websites are linking to your website
and also where those links are originating from. This is easy to do with many
search engines.



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For instance within Google to find out how many links are to a particular
website you would type in the word “link”, followed by a colon, followed by the
address of the website. An example is shown below.


link:www.cctglobal.com


In this example you will see the results are displayed as below, in this case
there are 68 links to that particular website.




Buying in links:
Google specifically warns you against buying links from third-party suppliers.
Google is constantly looking for companies that offer links for sale, when it
finds these it may often devalue the links or may nullify the value of the links




SAMPLE
altogether. You should read the advice that Google makes available to
Webmasters and verify for yourself that buying links could well harm rather
than help your website SEO efforts.


Using directories, blogs and specialist websites:
There are numerous directories, blogs and specialist websites where you can
add information about your website including a link back to your website. You
should take the time to search out directories or blogs that relate to your
product or service, and then approach these websites so they publish
information about your website, including a back-link.

Many websites will accept articles written by third parties. You may wish to
consider producing articles on a regular basis, submitting these to websites
that specialise in publishing and syndicating articles.




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When choosing an article submission website one of the factors you should
take into account is the PageRank of the home page of the article submission
website. The higher the PageRank the better.

You will see a list of directories and article submission services below.



Australian Business Directory Sites:

http://au.linkedin.com                           LinkedIn: Add you personal and
                                                 business profile.
http://www.hotfrog.com.au                        Hot Frog : An Australian Business
                                                 directory
http://www.dmoz.org                              DMOZ: You should always submit
                                                 your site here as it can have a very
                                                 positive effect on your search engine
                                                 optimisation.
http://www.aussiesrus.com.au                     Aussiesrus : Australian Business
                                                 Directory (PR 6)
http://directory.com.au                          Australian Business Directory
                                                 :Australian directory (PR 3)
http://www.shopseek.com.au                       Shop Seek : Add your URL (PR 3)

http://bloo.com.au                               A useful site to submit your website

https://biz.yelp.com                             Yelp Add your business listing:

http://www.nationwide.com.au                     Nationwide: Promote your business
                                                 for free.
http://www.ausdict.org                           Ausdict: Add your web site free.

http://www.startlocal.com.au                     Start Local: Australian business




SAMPLE
                                                 search engine.
http://www.truelocal.com.au                      True Local: Ideal for local links.

http://www.ozbizlinks.com/submit.php              OZ Biz Links: Reciprocal links
                                                 required for free listing.
http://www.downunderindex.com                     Down Under Index: A guide to
                                                 Australian Websites (PR 4)




Article Submission web sites:
Here is a list to get you started.

   www.Technorati.com                               www.Promotionworld.com
   www.Thefreelibrary.com                           www.Selfseo.com
   www.Examiner.com                                 www.Site-reference.com

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www.Associatedcontent.com                      www.Triond.com
www.Ehow.com                                   www.Webworldindex.com
www.Seekingalpha.com                           www.Amazines.com
www.Thewhir.com                                www.Articlealley.com
www.Squidoo.com                                www.Articlebiz.com
www.Articlesbase.com                           www.Articleblast.com
www.Helium.com                                 www.Articleclick.com
www.Hubpages.com                               www.Articlecube.com
www.Brighthub.com                              www.Articlerich.com
www.Ezinearticles.com                          www.Articlesfactory.com
www.Gather.com                                 www.Articlesphere.com
www.Selfgrowth.com                             www.Ezinemark.com
www.Web-source.net                             www.Ideamarketers.com
www.Articledashboard.com                       www.Infobarrel.com
www.Articleslash.net                           www.Pubarticles.com
www.Articletrader.com                          www.seonews.com
www.Articlecity.com                            www.wrytestuff.com
www.Bukisa.com                                 www.Snipsly.com
www.Businessknowhow.com                        www.Sooperarticles.com
www.Buzzle.com                                 www.Upublish.info
www.Evancarmichael.com                         www.Contentdesk.com
www.Isnare.com                                 www.Goarticles.com
                                               www.Excellentguide.com




SAMPLE
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LOCALISED SEARCH ISSUES:

Localising a search to a suburb or city:
When you are searching for a product or service, often you are looking for a
local company. For instance, if you are looking for a company to clean your
windows, and you live in Perth Western Australia, you have very little interest
in viewing the details of companies that specialise in the northern suburbs of
Sydney.

For this reason many people when searching, will include the name of the
nearest city or suburb in the search phrase that they enter. For instance,
someone might enter the phrase ‘window cleaner Perth’ and hope to find
only local companies displayed.


Use local place names in the keywords:
If you are interested in attracting local customers you should make sure that
your website pages display the name of your town, city or local suburb that
you're interested in. If you are interested in state-wide business make sure the
name of the state is listed within the website.

Remember that if you do not specify the locations you are interested in selling
to, Google will not know what geographical areas you wish to sell to, and you
will not show up well within the search engines when people perform local
searches.


Google Local Page:
A facility that many companies overlook is the creation of the Google places
page for your business. When people perform local searches within Google,
increasingly Google will display a small number of localised results that




SAMPLE
Google believes matches the search criteria.

In many cases the local search results are shown at the top of the page
ahead of the rest of the organic search results. It is vitally important that you
optimise your company so that it shows up in local search results. An example
is shown below and illustrates the local results that are displayed when using
the search phrase ‘SEO Joondalup’.




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Normally a map is also displayed, indicating the physical location of local
businesses matching in the search criteria.




SAMPLE
The actual Google places page will look something like the illustration below.




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If you carefully examine the Google places page, you will find that you can
include numerous items of information about your company, apart from just
the physical address. You can also link the Google places page to photos and
YouTube videos.




SAMPLE
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                       SEO Essentials Seminar




         END OF FREE PREVIEW




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