CHANGING TIMES CHANGING VALUES by Wm0bIZ

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									Recent Population Trends in                                                                                                      Gallatin Annual Pop. Change

the Bozeman Area
                                                                                                        3,000

                                                                                                        2,500
                                                                                                                                                                                        2,222
Population growth in three-county area centered around                                                                                                      2,140
Bozeman is heavily concentrated in Gallatin County itself.                                              2,000
Gallatin’s population saw gradual growth in the ‘80s,
                                                                                                        1,500     1,322
increasing from 43,000 to 51,000 people, an increase of
18%. The rate of growth increased significantly in the early                                            1,000
‘90s. By 2000 Gallatin’s population stood at 68,000 – an
increase of 34% over the decade. Growth was fueled by a                                                  500
sharp increase in net migration.
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               Population Trends in the 3-County Area                                                   -500
 80,000

                                                                                               73,328
 70,000
                                                                                        68,291
                                                                                                                         Gallatin Pop. Change by Component
 60,000                                                                 '95                             12,000


 50,000                                          50,811                                                 10,000                                9,553
                                 48,994
            43,120                                                                                                                                                               Natural
 40,000
                                                                                                         8,000                                                                   change
 30,000                                                                                                                                                            5,642
                                                                                                         6,000
                                                                                                                   4,714                                                         Net
 20,000                                                                                                                                 3,965                                    migration
                                                                                                         4,000
                                                                                                                          2,884
 10,000                                                                                                                                                     2,200
                                                                                                         2,000
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                                 BEA, U.S. Com m erce (July 1 est.)                                                  '80-'90             '90-'99             '00-'04
                                                                                                                                  U.S. Census Bureau
                                   Gallatin             Park        Madison
                                                                                             Annual Percent Pop. Change
Future Population at Present                                      5.0%


Rates of Growth                                                   4.0%                                                       3.8%

                                                                              3.0%                                                                         3.1%
In percentage terms, Gallatin County grew at an annual rate       3.0%
of 2 to 3% in the early ‘80s, before actually losing population
in 1987 and 1988. Growth accelerated in the early ‘90s to         2.0%
nearly 4% annual growth in 1992, 1993, and 1994. The
pace of growth then fell back to less than 2% in 1996 before      1.0%

increasing again, rising above a 3% growth rate again more
recently. The most recent estimate places Gallatin’s              0.0%

population at 75,637 in July, 2004.




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                                                                  -1.0%

Population for the county is projected into the future at 2.2%
to 3.0% a year. At these rates, the county’s population will
                                                                                  Gallatin Co. Past & Projected Population:
reach 95,000 to 105,000 people by 2015. The current
                                                                                         2.2% to 3.0% Annual Growth
projection by the National Planning Association (NPA) for         120,000
Gallatin is a population of 86,120 by 2015. However, area
growth is relatively fast and this growth should continue,                                                                                               104,548
although overall growth will largely hinge upon what              100,000
                                                                                                                                                          95,210
happens in area net migration in future years. Migration
patterns are now driving population trends throughout the          80,000
western United States.
                                                                                                                                68,291
                                                                   60,000                                           60,644

                                                                                             48,994     50,811
                                                                                 43,120
                                                                   40,000



                                                                   20,000



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                                         Gallatin Co. Population by Single Age: 1990 vs. 2000
Gallatin’s                       2,400


Population by                    2,000

Single Ages:
1990 vs. 2000
                                 1,600


                                 1,200
The upper chart shows the
population of Gallatin County
in 1990 and ten years later in    800
2000. Showing population in
this way allows one to see        400
where population change
occurred within age groupings
                                    0
of the population. The lower
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chart then shows population              8
change by single age during                                       1990   2000
the period.

Growth is heavily focused                 Gallatin Co. Pop. Change by Single Age: 1990 - 2000
                                  800
among persons between their
early 40s and late 50s (“baby     700

boomers”), as well as among       600
persons in their teens and        500
early to mid 20s (“boomer
                                  400
echoes”).
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                                 -100

                                 -200
The Missoula Co. Pop. in 1990 versus 2000 by Single Ages
 The chart shows population change in Missoula County by single age for 1990 versus 2000.
Population growth is concentrated among adults at ages between their early 40s and early 60s,
  as well as among older children. Growth among persons in the early 20s primarily reflects
                          University of Montana enrollment growth.


                                                                                    Missoula Co. Population by Single Ages

                2800


                2400


                2000
   Population




                1600

                1200


                800


                400


                  0
                       Under 1
                                 Age 3
                                         Age 6
                                                 Age 9
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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Age 84
                                                                                                                                          1990              2000
   The Flathead Population in 1990 versus 2000 by Single Ages
The chart below shows where population growth in the Flathead has been the greatest over the last
decade. Population growth is focused among adults at ages between their early or mid-40’s to mid-60s.
Among the younger population, growth is focused among the high-school age population, or persons
between 12 and 18.

                              Population by Single-Year Age in Flathead County

      1,600

      1,400

      1,200

      1,000

       800

       600

       400

       200

          0
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          Ag 9

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                                                    1990   2000
                                     Park Co. Population by Single Age: 1990 vs. 2000
Population                   400


Change by                    350


Single Age in
                             300



Park and
                             250

                             200

Madison                      150

Counties                     100

                              50
Both Park and Madison
Counties are seeing only       0
small population change,
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but the composition of the      8
                                                          1990   2000
population by age is
shifting. Even without
much population change,            Madison Co. Population by Single Age: 1990 vs. 2000
there is considerable        160
growth in population of
                             140
both counties in their 40s
and 50s.                     120

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                                                          1990   2000
Trends in the                                       Annual Births by County of Residences in Montana
Number of
                              2,100
                                                          1,990

Births in                     1,800                                                                                               1,790


Gallatin Co.
                                                                                                 1,596
                              1,500


With the populations of       1,200
                                                                                                                                   1147
many areas steadily
                                                                                                              992
aging, median ages have        900
risen and birth rates have
fallen. This has tended to     600
slow growth in many
areas and increase the         300
role of net migration in           80

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ultimately determining
overall population trends.                             YELLOWSTONE           MISSOULA               CASCADE
                                                       FLATHEAD              GALLATIN               LEWIS & CLARK
As shown in the top chart
the number of births in
                                                   Annual Births by Gallatin Co. Residents, 1980 - 2003
most of Montana’s more        1,100
populated counties have
been falling since the mid-   1,000                                                                                                1014
‘80s. This has resulted in
declining elementary           900
school enrollment in most
                               800
of these areas, sometimes                           788
resulting in the closure of
                               700
schools. However, birth                                                         658
counts have begun to           600
increase in most counties.
In Gallatin, birth numbers     500
have steadily risen since
the mid-‘90s, after some       400
                                      '80 '81 '82 '83 '84 '85 '86 '87 '88 '89 '90 '91 '92 '93 '94 '95 '96 '97 '98 '99 '00 '01 '02 '03
earlier declines.
                                                                                                            Personal Income Shares by Source
Changing Age and Income                                                                     100%
                                                                                            90%
                                                                                                            10.1%               11.6%               8.9%

Composition in Gallatin Co.
                                                                                                                                                                       Transfer
                                                                                            80%             23.6%                                   25.5%              payments
                                                                                                                                27.0%
                                                                                            70%                                                                        inc
With population growth focused among persons in their 40s                                   60%
and 50s, the median age of the area’s population has                                        50%
                                                                                                                                                                       Investment
                                                                                                                                                                       income
gradually increased, rising from 25 in 1980 to 31 in 2000 in                                40%
Gallatin, from 33 to 41 in Park, and from 34 to 43 in                                                       66.3%               61.4%               65.7%
                                                                                            30%
Madison. Areas with aging population tend to have faster                                    20%                                                                        Labor
income growth among non-labor sources – investment                                          10%                                                                        earnings
income and transfer payments. However, this isn’t occurring                                   0%
in Gallatin because of fast growth in labor earnings.                                                         '80                '90                 '00



                  Changes in Median Age                                                                     Income Growth by Source in Gallatin
 50                                                                                         $1,600


 45                             43                                                          $1,400
                      41                                                                                                                                                     $1,347
 40                                        38                                               $1,200




                                                                 Millions of 2000 Dollars
                           34                         35
 35              33
           31                                   30
                                                                                            $1,000
                                     29
 30
      25                                                                                     $800
                                                           '80
 25
                                                           '90                               $600
 20                                                                                                                                   $542
                                                           '00
                                                                                             $400
 15

 10                                                                                          $200


  5                                                                                            $0
                                                                                                     '80     '82    '84   '86   '88     '90   '92   '94    '96   '98   '00   '02
  0
                                                                                                                                BEA, U.S. Com m erce
      Gallatin    Park     Madison        MT         US
                                                                                                           Labor earnings         Invest. Inc.        Transfer Paymts.
Overall Employment Trends in                                                                                                  50,000
                                                                                                                                              Employment by Private vs. Public

Gallatin County
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  46,985
                                                                                                                              45,000




                                                                                             All fu ll- and p art-time jobs
                                                                                                                              40,000
There are two major categories of employment – wage                                                                           35,000
and salary employment and proprietor or self-                                                                                 30,000
employment. The chart below shows trends in both of                                                                           25,000
these. Employment growth accelerated in the early ‘90s.                                                                       20,000                                 21,349
Wage and salary employees account for about three-                                                                            15,000
fourths of all employment. The chart in the upper right                                                                       10,000
shows employment by private vs public or government.                                                                                                                 6,619
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   8,264
                                                                                                                               5,000
Employment growth is heavily focused in the private
sector. Private employment accounted for 79% of all
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non-farm employment in 2000, up from 68% in 1980.




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                                                                                                                                                                   BEA, U.S. Com m erce

                                                                                                                                                      Private                                  Government
                                           Employment by Major Type
                                45,000
                                                                                    41,462
                                40,000                                                                                                        Private and Public Shares of Area
                                35,000
                                                                                                                                                   Nonfarm Labor Earnings
 All full- and part-time jobs




                                                                                                                         100%
                                30,000                                                                                        90%                                                   21%
                                                                                                                                          32%                   27%
                                25,000                                                                                        80%                                                                      Government
                                20,000                   20,910                                                               70%
                                                                                                                              60%
                                15,000                                              14,954
                                                                                                                              50%                                                                      Private non-
                                10,000                                                                                                                                                                 farm
                                                         8,223                                                                40%                                                   79%
                                                                                                                                          68%                   73%
                                 5,000                                                                                        30%

                                    0                                                                                         20%
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                                                      BEA, U.S. Com m erce
                                                                                                                                              '80               '90                  '00
                                         Wage & salary emp.       Proprietor emp.
Accelerating
Growth in
Population,
Employment,                                        80%
                                                                Accelerating Growth in Gallatin County

and Income                                         70%
                                                                                                         72%

While conventional wisdom in                                                        61%
many areas of Montana were                         60%
that the economy had slumped
in the last decade, in reality,
                                  Percent Change
                                                   50%                        47%
growth in many areas actually                                                                      43%
accelerated. In Gallatin                           40%                                                           '80-'90
County, population expanded                                    34%
by 34% in the ‘90s as                              30%
                                                                                                                 '90-'00
compared to 18% in the ‘80s.
Employment growth increased                        20%   18%
from 47% in the ‘80s to 61% in
the ‘90s. And this expansion
                                                   10%
translated into the income
base of the area growing by
                                                   0%
more than 70% in inflation-
adjusted dollars, as compared                            Population       Total employment     Personal income
to 43% growth in the ‘80s.

The Bozeman area economy
clearly moved more firmly into
a growth mode during the last
decade and this growth is
continuing.
                                                                                            Employment Change by Major Sector: Gallatin
Sector Employment                                                     18,000
                                                                                                                                                                              Services


Change in Gallatin                                                    16,000                                                                                                  Retail tr

                                                                                                                                                                              F.I.R.E.

Co.
                                                                      14,000
                                                                                                                                                                              Manufacturing
                                                                      12,000




                                             full & part-time jo bs
                                                                                                                                                                              Local govt
There are 13 major sectors of the
economy and employment trends for                                     10,000                                                                                                  Construction

each of these are shown in the upper                                                                                                                                          T.P.U.
chart. The services sector is the largest                              8,000
                                                                                                                                                                              Wholesale tr
sector of employment and it has                                        6,000                                                                                                  State govt
accounted for much of the area’s growth
in employment over the last twenty                                                                                                                                            Fed.
                                                                       4,000
                                                                                                                                                                              Civil/Military
years. This pattern of employment                                                                                                                                             Farm
change is the same as for Montana as a                                 2,000
                                                                                                                                                                              Ag services
whole and for the larger Rocky Mountain
                                                                          0                                                                                                   Mining
West region.                                                                    '80 '81 '82 '83 '84 '85 '86 '87 '88 '89 '90 '91 '92 '93 '94 '95 '96 '97 '98 '99 '00
                                                                                                             BEA, U.S. Com m erce
With its growing prominence, services
now account for about 30% of all area
employment, up from just over 20% in                                                            Changing Sector Shares of Employment
                                                   35%
1980. Retail trade is the second largest                                       30%
                                                   30%
area of employment, accounting for                 25%                                21%
about 21%. Next is state government                20%
                                                                                                                                                                                               '80
employment, which would include                    15%
                                                                                                                                                                                               '90
employment by Montana State University             10%                                                                                                                                         '00
and other state entities with employees in                       5%
the area. The fourth largest sector for                          0%
employment is construction – about 9%.
                                                                          .




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                                                                                                                             d.
                                                                                                                           Fe
Consolidation and Decline in
Area Longstanding Industries
                                                                                                                                              Trends in Area Income Growth
                                                                                                                           $1,800
                                                                                                                                                                                     $1,717
                                                                                                                           $1,600
The chart below shows labor income trends for four
longstanding area industries – agriculture, as measured by                                                                 $1,400                                                             All personal
                                                                                                                                                                                              income




                                                                                                     Income (Mil. $2000)
net farm earnings; lumber and wood products                                                                                $1,200
manufacturing; mining of all types; and railroads. Labor                                                                   $1,000                                                             All w orkplace
earnings for all of these industries are then combined in the                                                                                              $928                               income
                                                                                                                            $800
upper right chart and compared to area labor earnings and
personal income overall. Since 1990, labor earnings of                                                                      $600                           $610                               All 4
these industries have gradually fallen from $39 million to $31                                                                                                                                longstanding
                                                                                                                            $400
                                                                                                                                                                                              industries
million. Meanwhile, growth in labor earnings from all
                                                                                                                            $200
sources and total personal income has accelerated. This is
                                                                                                                                 $0                       $39                        $31
steadily reducing area dependency on these traditional
                                                                                                                                   '80 '82 '84 '86 '88 '90 '92 '94 '96 '98 '00
sectors of the economy.
                                                                                                                                                  BEA, U.S. Com m erce

                                             Longstanding Area Industries
                               $35
                                                                                                                                            Industries Shares of Area Income
                                                                                                     10%
                               $30
                                                                                                             9%
 Labor earnings (Mil. $2000)




                               $25                                                                           8% 7%
                                                                                                             7%
                               $20
                                                                                                             6%
                                                                                                                                 5%
                               $15                                                                           5%
                                                                                                             4%
                               $10                                                                                                                                                                      3%
                                                                                                             3%
                                                                                                                                                                                                         2%
                               $5                                                                            2%
                                                                                                             1%
                               $0                                                                            0%
                                 '80   '82    '84   '86    '88   '90   '92   '94   '96   '98   '00
                                                                                                                             0


                                                                                                                                        2


                                                                                                                                              4


                                                                                                                                                    6


                                                                                                                                                           8


                                                                                                                                                                    0


                                                                                                                                                                           2


                                                                                                                                                                                 4


                                                                                                                                                                                       6


                                                                                                                                                                                                8


                                                                                                                                                                                                        0
                                                                                                                           '8


                                                                                                                                      '8


                                                                                                                                            '8


                                                                                                                                                  '8


                                                                                                                                                         '8


                                                                                                                                                                  '9


                                                                                                                                                                         '9


                                                                                                                                                                               '9


                                                                                                                                                                                     '9


                                                                                                                                                                                              '9


                                                                                                                                                                                                      '0
                                                          BEA, U.S. Com m erce
                                                                                                                                    Share of All Workplace Earnings       Share of All Personal Income
Gallatin’s Struggling Ag Sector                                                                                                    $70
                                                                                                                                                 Gallatin Ag Cash Marketing Receipts

By examining income and expenses for area agriculture                                                                              $60




                                                                                                        Millions of 2000 Dollars
over a long period of time, you can see how difficult financial
                                                                                                                                   $50
conditions are for ag producers. The chart below shows
annual cash marketing receipts in relation to cash                                                                                 $40
production expenses. Area producers have steadily reduced                                                                          $30
expenditures. But every reduction has been matched by
                                                                                                                                   $20
reductions in cash marketings. Other sources of farm
income, including farm program payments and off-farm                                                                               $10
income, are sometimes the margin of difference between net                                                                         $0
losses and net gains.                                                                                                                '80   '82    '84   '86   '88   '90   '92   '94    '96   '98    '00    '02

                                                                                                                                                        Livestock cash mktgs          Crop cash mktgs
                                  Gallatin's Ag Sector: Total Receipts/Expenses
                           $120


                           $100                                                                                                                         Gallatin Net Farm Income
                                                                                                                                    $30
Millions of 2000 Dollars




                           $80
                                                                                                                                    $25

                                                                                                                                    $20
                           $60




                                                                                                        Millions of 2000 Dollars
                                                                                                                                    $15
                           $40
                                                                                                                                    $10

                           $20                                                                                                       $5

                                                                                                                                     $0
                            $0
                                                                                                                                       0

                                                                                                                                             2

                                                                                                                                                    4

                                                                                                                                                          6

                                                                                                                                                                8

                                                                                                                                                                      0

                                                                                                                                                                            2

                                                                                                                                                                                  4

                                                                                                                                                                                        6

                                                                                                                                                                                               8

                                                                                                                                                                                                     0

                                                                                                                                                                                                            2
                                                                                                                                     '8

                                                                                                                                           '8

                                                                                                                                                  '8

                                                                                                                                                        '8

                                                                                                                                                              '8

                                                                                                                                                                    '9

                                                                                                                                                                          '9

                                                                                                                                                                                '9

                                                                                                                                                                                      '9

                                                                                                                                                                                             '9

                                                                                                                                                                                                   '0

                                                                                                                                                                                                          '0
                                                                                                                                    -$5
                               0

                                      2

                                            4

                                                   6

                                                         8

                                                                0

                                                                      2

                                                                            4

                                                                                  6

                                                                                        8

                                                                                              0

                                                                                                    2
                             '8

                                    '8

                                          '8

                                                 '8

                                                       '8

                                                              '9

                                                                    '9

                                                                          '9

                                                                                '9

                                                                                      '9

                                                                                            '0

                                                                                                  '0




                                                             BEA, U.S. Com m erce                                                  -$10

                                                Total cash mktg recpts          Total production exp.                              -$15
                                                Govt. farm paymts               Other farm income
                                                                                                                                                        Without Other Income          With Other Income
Ag Trends in Park and Madison
                                                                                                        However, the same is not the case in Madison County. With
                                                                                                        the exception of the late ‘80s and early ‘90s, net farm
Counties                                                                                                income has been negative in Madison County, with and
                                                                                                        without other income.
Cash receipts for livestock and crop marketings in nearby
Park and Madison Counties ordinarily lag behind production
expenses. And farm program payments to ag producers are                                                                                   Madison's Ag Sector: Total Recpts/Expenses
fairly limited in both counties. This makes financial                                                                               $80

conditions for farmers and ranchers precarious. In Park                                                                             $70
County, income from “other” sources to ag producers has




                                                                                                         Millions of 2000 Dollars
                                                                                                                                    $60
increased substantially in recent years (these other sources
are not identified specifically and can only be speculated                                                                          $50
about). This outside income has resulted in positive net
                                                                                                                                    $40
income for ag producers in Park County.
                                                                                                                                    $30

                                  Park's Ag Sector: Total Receipts and Expenses                                                     $20
                            $45
                                                                                                                                    $10
                            $40
 Millions of 2000 Dollars




                            $35                                                                                                     $0




                                                                                                                                       0

                                                                                                                                             2

                                                                                                                                                   4

                                                                                                                                                         6

                                                                                                                                                               8

                                                                                                                                                                      0

                                                                                                                                                                            2

                                                                                                                                                                                  4

                                                                                                                                                                                         6

                                                                                                                                                                                               8

                                                                                                                                                                                                     0

                                                                                                                                                                                                           2
                            $30




                                                                                                                                     '8

                                                                                                                                           '8

                                                                                                                                                 '8

                                                                                                                                                       '8

                                                                                                                                                             '8

                                                                                                                                                                    '9

                                                                                                                                                                          '9

                                                                                                                                                                                '9

                                                                                                                                                                                       '9

                                                                                                                                                                                             '9

                                                                                                                                                                                                   '0

                                                                                                                                                                                                         '0
                            $25                                                                                                                                    BEA, U.S. Com m erce

                            $20                                                                                                                    Total cash mktg recpts             Total production exp.
                            $15                                                                                                                    Govt. farm paymts                  Other farm income

                            $10

                            $5

                            $0
                                                                                                                        With little profitability currently in area agriculture and with
                               0

                                      2

                                            4

                                                   6

                                                         8

                                                                0

                                                                      2

                                                                            4

                                                                                  6

                                                                                        8

                                                                                              0

                                                                                                    2
                             '8

                                    '8

                                          '8

                                                 '8

                                                       '8

                                                              '9

                                                                    '9

                                                                          '9

                                                                                '9

                                                                                      '9

                                                                                            '0

                                                                                                  '0




                                                             BEA, U.S. Com m erce
                                                                                                                        continuing area population growth, it can be expected that
                                                                                                                        ag land will continue to face pressure for conversion through
                                                Total cash mktg recpts          Total production exp.                   some type of development.
                                                Govt. farm paymts               Other farm income
Areas of Concentrated Growth                                                                                                                                   Travel & Tourism Related Sectors
in the Bozeman Area Economy
                                                                                                                                               $45

                                                                                                                                               $40                                                        Eating & drinking
There are three important areas of concentrated growth in                                                                                                                                                 places




                                                                                                                 Labor earnings (Mil. $2000)
                                                                                                                                               $35
the Gallatin economy. The influx of more people to the area
                                                                                                                                               $30
has spurred construction and real estate development                                                                                                                                                      Amusement &
activity (as shown below). And virtually all aspects of the                                                                                    $25                                                        recreation serv

area economy affected by travel and tourism are growing                                                                                        $20
(as shown in the upper right). But more fundamentally, the                                                                                     $15                                                        Hotels & other
services led expansion in the economy can be seen in more                                                                                                                                                 lodging
                                                                                                                                               $10
detail in the lower right chart. Three of the most important
sub-sectors within services more generally – health care,                                                                                      $5                                                         Auto dealers &
business services, and engineering, management, and legal                                                                                      $0
                                                                                                                                                                                                          service stat.
services – are all growing rapidly, as are financial services                                                                                        '80 '82   '84 '86 '88   '90 '92 '94 '96   '98 '00
and insurance within the large F.I.R.E. sector.                                                                                                                     BEA, U.S. Com m erce


                                      Construction & Real Estate Development                                                                                   Professional Services and F.I.R.E.
                              $80                                                                                                              $90
                                                                                                   General
                                                                                                                                               $80                                                          Health
                              $70                                                                  bldg                                                                                                     services
                                                                                                   contractors
                                                                                                                                               $70



                                                                                                                 Labor earnings (Mil. $2000)
                              $60
Labor earnings (Mil. $2000)




                                                                                                   Heavy                                                                                                    Business
                                                                                                   const.                                      $60                                                          services
                              $50
                                                                                                   contractors
                                                                                                                                               $50
                              $40
                                                                                                   Special                                                                                                  Engineering,
                                                                                                   trade
                                                                                                                                               $40                                                          manage-
                              $30                                                                                                                                                                           ment & legal
                                                                                                   contractors
                                                                                                                                               $30                                                          serv
                              $20                                                                                                                                                                           FIRE,
                                                                                                   Real estate
                                                                                                                                               $20                                                          depositories
                              $10
                                                                                                                                               $10
                                                                                                                                                                                                            Other FIRE,
                               $0                                                                                                                                                                           less real est.
                                                                                                                                                $0
                                  0

                                        2

                                              4

                                                    6

                                                           8

                                                                 0

                                                                       2

                                                                             4

                                                                                   6

                                                                                         8

                                                                                               0




                                                                                                                                                      '80 '82 '84    '86 '88 '90 '92 '94    '96 '98 '00
                                '8

                                      '8

                                            '8

                                                  '8

                                                         '8

                                                               '9

                                                                     '9

                                                                           '9

                                                                                 '9

                                                                                       '9

                                                                                             '0




                              -$10
                                                        BEA, U.S. Com m erce                                                                                         BEA, U.S. Com m erce
Area Manufacturing Trends                                                                                                    $21
                                                                                                                                                Trends in Durables Manufacturing

Most areas of the United States are seeing little growth, if                                                                                                                                 Wood prod
                                                                                                                             $18
not decline, in their manufacturing sectors, largely because
of increasing global competition. However, one of the                                                                                                                                        Furniture, etc.
                                                                                                                             $15
significant features of recent economic expansion in the
Bozeman area is growth in manufacturing. The chart below                                                                                                                                     Stone, clay, & glass
                                                                                                                             $12
shows labor earnings by those employed in area durable                                                                                                                                       prod

and nondurable manufacturing. Growth is focused in                                                                                                                                           Indust. Mach./equipt
                                                                                                                             $9
durables manufacturing and important sub-sectors of this
are shown in the upper right. Sub-sectors within nondurable                                                                                                                                  Electronic & other
                                                                                                                             $6
manufacturing are shown in the lower right.                                                                                                                                                  elec. equipt

                                                                                                                                                                                             Instruments &
                                                                                                                             $3
                                                                                                                                                                                             related products
                                      Trends in Gallatin's Manufacturing Sector                                                                                                              Miscel.
                       $100                                                                                                  $0
                                                                                                                                                                                             manufacturing
                                                                                                                                   '87 '88 '89 '90 '91 '92 '93 '94 '95 '96 '97 '98 '99 '00
                              $90
                                                                                                                     $87.7
                              $80
Labor earnings (Mil. $2000)




                                                                                                                                            Trends in Nondurables Manufacturing
                              $70
                                                                                                                             $10
                              $60
                                                                                                                              $9                                                                  Food &
                              $50                                                                                                                                                                 kindred
                                                                                                                              $8                                                                  products
                              $40
                                                                                                                              $7                                                                  Apparel &
                              $30                                                                                                                                                                 other textiles
                                                                                                                              $6
                                                                                                                     $24.3
                              $20         $22.1
                                                                                                                              $5
                                          $13.3                                                                                                                                                   Printing &
                              $10                                                                                                                                                                 publishing
                                                                                                                              $4
                              $0                                                                                              $3
                                    '87    '88    '89   '90   '91    '92   '93   '94   '95   '96   '97   '98   '99   '00                                                                          Rubber &
                                                                                                                              $2                                                                  misc. plastics
                                                                    BEA, U.S. Com m erce
                                                                                                                                                                                                  prod
                               Durable goods                                                                                  $1

                               Nondurable goods                                                                               $0
                                                                                                                                   '87 '88 '89 '90 '91 '92 '93 '94 '95 '96 '97 '98 '99 '00
                                                                                              Wholesale Tr., Trucking, Air, Communications
Other Areas of Growth                                                                 $70
                                                                                                                                                           Wholesale
                                                                                      $60                                                                  trade
As the Bozeman economy has grown and




                                                        Labor earnings (Mil. $2000)
restructured, it has also seen significant growth in                                  $50
                                                                                                                                                           Trucking &
wholesale trade. This sector has seen expansion                                                                                                            w arehousi
almost since the early ‘80s, which is quite unusual.                                  $40                                                                  ng
The communications sector has been somewhat                                                                                                                Air
                                                                                      $30
erratic. And trucking and warehousing and air                                                                                                              transport.
transportation have seen small but steady growth.                                     $20
                                                                                                                                                           Communica
Among governmental sectors, state government,                                         $10                                                                  tions
including Montana State University, has expanded
                                                                                       $0
considerably, with labor earnings by employees rising                                        '80   '82   '84   '86 '88 '90 '92 '94     '96    '98   '00
from $90 million in 1990 to over $170 million more                                                              BEA, U.S. Com m erce
recently. Local government, including public
education, is growing at a gradual rate. Labor
earnings by persons employed by the federal civilian                                           Federal, State & Local Govt. in Gallatin Co.
government in the area are growing as well.                                           $180
                                                                                                                                                    $170
                                                                                      $160

                                                                                      $140

                                                        Labor Earnings (Mil. $2000)
                                                                                                                                             $139          Fed civilian
                                                                                                                                                           govt.
                                                                                      $120

                                                                                      $100                                                                 State govt
                                                                                                                       $90                          $86
                                                                                      $80
                                                                                                                                             $70
                                                                                      $60                                                                  Local govt

                                                                                      $40                              $43

                                                                                      $20

                                                                                       $0
                                                                                             '80 '82 '84 '86 '88 '90 '92 '94 '96 '98 '00 '02
                                                                                                           BEA, U.S. Com m erce
The Bozeman area economy         Rapidly Growing and Declining Sub-sectors in
is undergoing constant
change. In the last decade,
                                 Gallatin County
there was great change and
restructuring in the economy,
with growth focused in many
service, trade, financial, and
construction sub-sectors and
decline concentrated in
several more traditional
industries. The greatest
decline was in agriculture,
where net farm earnings fell
by $3.7 million or 20%
between 1990 and 2000.

There are 76 sub-sectors of
the economy and the very
fastest growing one is
“business services,” which
grew by over $43 million and
186% during the period.
The Missoula economy is     Rapidly Growing and Declining Sub-Sectors
undergoing constant
restructuring and change    In Missoula County
with growth focused in
many service, trade,
financial, and
construction sub-sectors
and decline concentrated
in traditional industries
like lumber and wood
products manufacturing,
other manufacturing, and
agriculture.

Many of these fast-
growing sub-sectors can
only grow and thrive in
largely urban-based
economies.
The Flathead economy is
                            Rapidly Growing and Declining Sub-Sectors
undergoing significant      In Flathead County
restructuring and change
with growth focused in
many service, trade and
construction sub-sectors
and decline concentrated
in traditional industries
including primary metals
manufacturing, wood
products, railroads and
agriculture.
Recent Improvements in
                                                                                               Trends in Area Per Capita Income, 2000 Dollars
                                                                        $28,000
                                                                                                                                                                         $25,792

Area Economic Well-
                                                                                                                                                               $25,139

                                                                        $24,000

being                                                                   $20,000
                                                                                                                      $19,604
                                                                                                                                           $21,187


                                                                                                  $17,422
The 1980s were a difficult time economically
for the area. Per capita income grew only                               $16,000

slowly, median family incomes fell, and poverty
rates rose. However, this changed                                       $12,000

considerably in the 1990s, where by nearly
every measure, area economic well-being                                  $8,000

improved considerably. In Gallatin County, per
                                                                         $4,000
capita income has risen fairly aggressively in
recent years.
                                                                            $0
                                                                                  '80 '81 '82 '83 '84 '85 '86 '87 '88 '89 '90 '91 '92 '93 '94 '95 '96 '97 '98 '99 '00 '01 '02 '03

                    Changing Median Family Income                                                                   Gallatin    Park    Madison
                 $60,000

                                                                                                      Changing Area Poverty Rates
                 $50,000        $47,824
                                                                         20%                                            18.4%
                           $41,116           $41,591                     18%         17.1%
                                        $38,883                                                                                          16.1%
                 $40,000                                $36,439          16%                          15.2%
                                                                                                                    14.6%                   14.6%
 2000 Do llars




                                                   $33,036                        13.2% 12.8%                                                            13.1%
                                                                  '79    14%                                                                          12.4% 12.4%
                                                                                                                            12.1%      12.3%
                 $30,000                                          '89                                       11.4%
                                                                         12%                                                                                                '79
                                                                                                   9.7%
                                                                  '99    10%                                                                                                '89
                 $20,000                                                  8%
                                                                                                                                                                            '99
                                                                          6%
                 $10,000                                                  4%
                                                                          2%
                     $0                                                   0%
                             Gallatin       Park       Madison                      Gallatin           Park           Madison              MT               US
                                     U.S. Census Bureau                                                        U.S. Census Bureau
Bozeman Regional Center "Peers" in the West
                                               National   Region Core County          Multi-County READ
     READ Region        core counties           Parks                                 Region Totals
                           names         ST.     cos        '90 Pop.       '04           '90 Pop.         '04
     Flagstaff, AZ       COCONINO        AZ       x             96,591      122,754           96,591       122,754
     Kingman, AZ           MOHAVE        AZ       x             93,497      179,981           93,497       179,981
       Ukiah, CA         MENDOCINO       CA                     80,345       88,551          130,976       152,997
     Missoula, MT         MISSOULA       MT                     78,687       99,018          139,270       183,990
    Great Falls, MT       CASCADE        MT                     77,691       79,849           98,129       100,046
       Bend, OR          DESCHUTES       OR                     74,958      134,479          102,745       175,771
    Cheyenne, WY           LARAMIE       WY                     73,142       85,296          132,851       144,489
    Idaho Falls, ID      BONNEVILLE      ID       x             72,207       89,653          130,480       164,477
    Jonesboro, AR        CRAIGHEAD       AR                     68,956       86,191          137,161       159,861
    Muskogee, OK         MUSKOGEE        OK                     68,078       70,626          129,846       146,759
    Manhattan, KS           RILEY        KS                     67,139       63,069          125,528       113,286
     Pocatello, ID        BANNOCK        ID                     66,026       75,672          136,466       156,238
    Aberdeen, WA       GRAYS HARBOR      WA       x             64,175       70,338           83,057        91,584
     Stillwater, OK        PAYNE         OK                     61,507       69,675           72,552        80,908
      Casper, WY         NATRONA         WY                     61,226       69,010           78,499        89,182
      Gallup, NM         MCKINLEY        NM                     60,686       72,425           60,686        72,425
    Coos Bay, OR           COOS          OR                     60,273       63,739           79,600        85,839
    Bismarck, ND         BURLEIGH        ND                     60,131       72,585          123,183       129,722
     Kalispell, MT       FLATHEAD        MT       x             59,218       81,217           76,699       100,318
       Minot, ND           WARD          ND                     57,921       56,224           85,643        79,781
     Altamont, OR        KLAMATH         OR       x             57,702       65,098           64,888        72,480
        Enid, OK         GARFIELD        OK                     56,735       57,282           76,895        75,279
   Port Angeles, WA       CLALLAM        WA       x             56,464       67,867           76,610        95,977
     Twin Falls, ID     TWIN FALLS       ID                     53,580       67,935          122,552       146,508
    Bozeman, MT          GALLATIN        MT       x             50,463       75,637           71,014        98,507
       Salina, KS            SALINE      KS                     49,301       53,943          124,288       131,439
    Farmington, MO       ST. FRANCOIS    MO                     48,904       60,724           70,757        83,001
     St. George, UT      WASHINGTON      UT       x             48,560      109,924           78,498       156,814
      Helena, MT       LEWIS AND CLARK   MT                     47,495       57,972           60,571        75,336
     Mason City, IA     CERRO GORDO      IA                     46,733       45,029          133,103       127,820
    Russellville, AR          POPE       AR                     45,883       55,933           64,104        79,646
        Paris, TX            LAMAR       TX                     43,949       49,710           64,108        70,667
     Ardmore, OK            CARTER       OK                     42,919       47,087           72,003        76,669
     Burlington, IA       DES MOINES     IA                     42,614       40,857          112,119       109,973
      Clovis, NM             CURRY       NM                     42,207       45,662           79,595        83,243
     Mcalester, OK        PITTSBURG      OK                     40,581       43,950           74,689        80,567
     Fort Dodge, IA        WEBSTER       IA                     40,342       39,288           98,247        94,340
       Bozeman "Peers": Core Population Growth
                                Total County Populations               Core Population Growth Net Migration by Period             Net m igr change
Rank       READ Region                Census Pops.             Est.    1990 - 2004                     core county only             in base pop
                               '80        '90         '00      '04                             '80-'90     '90-'99      '00-'04      1990 - 2004
 #1      St. George, UT **    26,065     48,560     90,354   109,924     61,364      126.4%    16,688      28,867       14,778        89.9%
 #2       Kingman, AZ **      55,865     93,497    155,032   179,981     86,484       92.5%    34,580      38,633       25,488        68.6%
 #3          Bend, OR         62,142     74,976    115,367   134,479     59,503       79.4%      8,052     31,384       16,894        64.4%
 #4      Bozeman, MT **       42,865     50,484     67,831    75,637     25,153       49.8%      2,884      9,553        5,642        30.1%
 #5       Kalispell, MT **    51,966     59,218     74,471    81,217     21,999       37.1%      2,808     10,934        5,577        27.9%
 #6       Flagstaff, AZ **    75,008     96,591    116,320   122,754     26,163       27.1%      6,378      5,072         890         6.2%
 #7        Twin Falls, ID     52,927     53,580     64,284    67,935     14,355       26.8%     -3,713      6,520        2,248        16.4%
 #8        Missoula, MT       76,016     78,687     95,802    99,018     20,331       25.8%     -4,670      6,234        1,365        9.7%
 #9       Jonesboro, AR       63,239     68,956     82,148    86,191     17,235       25.0%      2,189      6,147        2,290        12.2%
#10      Farmington, MO       42,600     48,904     55,641    60,724     11,820       24.2%      5,081      6,606        5,120        24.0%
#11      Idaho Falls, ID **   65,980     72,207     82,522    89,653     17,446       24.2%     -4,580      1,166        3,320        6.2%
#12         Helena, MT        43,039     47,495     55,716    57,972     10,477       22.1%       351       4,369        1,511        12.4%
#13       Russellville, AR    39,021    45,883     54,469    55,933      10,050       21.9%        4,000      4,210       659          10.6%
#14     Port Angeles, WA **   51,648    56,210     64,525    67,867      11,657       20.7%        2,410      9,156      4,697         24.6%
#15        Bismarck, ND       54,811    60,131     69,416    72,585      12,454       20.7%        -885       3,528      1,953          9.1%
#16          Gallup, NM       56,449    60,686     74,798    72,425      11,739       19.3%       -9,722     -4,682     -5,954        -17.5%
#17       Cheyenne, WY        68,649    73,142     81,607    85,296      12,154       16.6%       -3,785       183       1,554          2.4%
#18        Pocatello, ID      65,421    66,026     75,565    75,672       9,646       14.6%       -8,539       832      -3,262         -3.7%
#19        Stillwater, OK     62,435    61,507     68,190    69,675       8,168       13.3%       -5,211      1,003       417           2.3%
#20           Paris, TX       42,156    43,949     48,499    49,710       5,761       13.1%         459       1,316       851           4.9%
#21       Altamont, OR **     59,117    57,702     63,775    65,098       7,396       12.8%       -5,197      3,662      1,083          8.2%
#22         Casper, WY        71,856    61,226     66,533    69,010       7,784       12.7%      -19,644     -1,774      1,286         -0.8%
#23          Ukiah, CA        66,738    80,345     86,265    88,551       8,206       10.2%        8,722      1,239      1,310          3.2%
#24        Ardmore, OK        43,610    42,919     45,621    47,087       4,168        9.7%       -2,580      1,069      1,317          5.6%
#25      Aberdeen, WA **      66,314    64,175     67,194    70,338       6,163        9.6%       -5,491      1,692      3,300          7.8%
#26          Salina, KS       48,905    49,301     53,597    53,943       4,642        9.4%       -2,961      -283       -774          -2.1%
#27          Clovis, NM       42,019    42,207     45,044    45,662       3,455        8.2%       -5,878     -4,390     -1,258        -13.4%
#28       Mcalester, OK       40,524    40,950     43,953    43,950       3,000        7.3%        -509       2,874       437           8.1%
#29        Coos Bay, OR       64,047    60,273     62,779    63,739       3,466        5.8%       -6,166      2,270      2,109          7.3%
#30       Muskogee, OK        66,939    68,078     69,451    70,626       2,548        3.7%       -2,371      -156        546           0.6%
#31       Great Falls, MT     80,696    77,691     80,357    79,849       2,158        2.8%      -10,958     -4,071     -1,572         -7.3%
#32           Enid, OK        62,820    56,735     57,813    57,282        547         1.0%      -10,466     -1,066      -981          -3.6%
#33       Fort Dodge, IA      45,953    40,342     40,235    39,288      -1,054       -2.6%       -7,268     -1,714     -1,029         -6.8%
#34          Minot, ND        58,392    57,921     58,795    56,224      -1,697       -2.9%       -9,134     -4,876     -4,092        -15.5%
#35       Mason City, IA      48,458    46,733     46,447    45,029      -1,704       -3.6%       -3,795     -1,737     -1,218         -6.3%
#36        Burlington, IA     46,203    42,614     42,351    40,857      -1,757       -4.1%       -5,201     -1,539     -1,798         -7.8%
#37       Manhattan, KS       63,505    67,139     62,843    63,069      -4,070       -6.1%       -6,310    -11,676     -4,349        -23.9%
       Bozeman "Peers": Region Population Growth
                                Populations - READ region               Region Pop Growth     Net Migration by Period          Net m igr change
Rank       READ Region                Census Pops.                       1990 - 2004          read region total                  in base pop
                                '80        '90        '00       '04                             '80-'90     '90-'99   '00-'04     1990 - 2004
 #1      St. George, UT **     51,111     78,498    134,914   156,814     78,316      99.8%       16,867      34,182    14,541      62.1%
 #2       Kingman, AZ **       55,865     93,497    155,032   179,981     86,484      92.5%       34,580      38,633    25,488      68.6%
 #3          Bend, OR          86,832    102,763    153,558   175,771     73,008      71.0%        8,795      36,289    19,300      54.1%
 #4      Bozeman, MT **        61,182     70,988     90,376    98,507     27,519      38.8%        4,390      11,564     6,090      24.9%
 #5        Missoula, MT       132,615    139,270    175,320   183,990     44,720      32.1%       -4,140      22,964     6,380      21.1%
 #6       Kalispell, MT **     69,718     76,699     93,308   100,318     23,619      30.8%          955      11,937     5,889      23.2%
 #7       Flagstaff, AZ **     75,008     96,591    116,320   122,754     26,163      27.1%        6,378        5,072      890       6.2%
 #8      Idaho Falls, ID **   118,614    130,480    150,883   164,477     33,997      26.1%       -8,275          118    4,661       3.7%
 #9     Port Angeles, WA **    67,613     76,616     90,478    95,977     19,361      25.3%        6,148      15,699     6,843      29.4%
#10         Helena, MT         55,489     60,571     72,082    75,336     14,765      24.4%          165        7,267    2,521      16.2%
#11       Russellville, AR     56,444     64,104     77,250    79,646     15,542      24.2%        4,513        6,975    1,137      12.7%
#12        Twin Falls, ID     122,222    122,552    142,415   146,508     23,956      19.5%      -12,006        9,032       20       7.4%
#13         Gallup, NM         56,449    60,686     74,798     72,425      11,739     19.3%      -9,722      -4,682     -5,954     -17.5%
#14      Farmington, MO        64,409    70,757     78,138     83,001      12,244     17.3%       4,976       7,990      5,199      18.6%
#15         Ukiah, CA         103,104   130,976    144,574    152,997      22,021     16.8%      23,110       7,354      8,005      11.7%
#16       Jonesboro, AR       134,076   137,159    155,671    159,861      22,702     16.6%      -1,771       9,061      2,043       8.1%
#17        Pocatello, ID      136,533   136,466    154,007    156,238      19,772     14.5%     -19,602       3,651     -4,112      -0.3%
#18        Casper, WY          92,625    78,499     85,660     89,182      10,683     13.6%     -25,169        -443      2,140       2.2%
#19       Muskogee, OK        124,195   129,846    143,220    146,759      16,913     13.0%         193       7,278      2,304       7.4%
#20      Altamont, OR **       66,649    64,888     71,197     72,480       7,592     11.7%      -6,077       3,565      1,073       7.1%
#21       Stillwater, OK       74,008    72,552     79,601     80,908       8,356     11.5%      -6,131       1,232        183       2.0%
#22      Aberdeen, WA **       83,551    83,057     88,178     91,584       8,527     10.3%      -3,921       4,145      4,144      10.0%
#23          Paris, TX         64,198    64,108     69,168     70,667       6,559     10.2%      -1,568       1,242      1,086       3.6%
#24       Cheyenne, WY        136,464   132,851    142,156    144,489      11,638      8.8%     -18,118      -4,844       -565      -4.1%
#25       Coos Bay, OR         81,039    79,600     83,916     85,839       6,239      7.8%      -4,121       4,991      3,809      11.1%
#26       Mcalester, OK        74,885    75,058     80,191     80,567       5,509      7.3%      -1,513       4,181        997       6.9%
#27        Ardmore, OK         74,296    72,003     75,575     76,669       4,666      6.5%      -4,344       2,145      1,428       5.0%
#28         Salina, KS        126,213   124,288    132,122    131,439       7,151      5.8%      -6,260       2,878       -972       1.5%
#29       Bismarck, ND        124,566   123,183    128,682    129,722       6,539      5.3%     -12,933        -437        165      -0.2%
#30         Clovis, NM         79,329    79,595     83,233     83,243       3,648      4.6%      -8,920      -6,902     -2,869     -12.3%
#31       Great Falls, MT     102,656    98,129    101,525    100,046       1,917      2.0%     -13,844      -4,561     -2,388      -7.1%
#32        Burlington, IA     120,254   112,119    112,922    109,973      -2,146     -1.9%     -12,200      -1,689     -3,669      -4.8%
#33          Enid, OK          85,187    76,895     76,607     75,279      -1,616     -2.1%     -12,981      -1,694     -1,428      -4.1%
#34       Mason City, IA      145,657   133,103    130,991    127,820      -5,283     -4.0%     -16,242      -3,361     -2,352      -4.3%
#35       Fort Dodge, IA      113,091    98,247     97,197     94,340      -3,907     -4.0%     -17,172      -2,108     -2,388      -4.6%
#36         Minot, ND          90,598    85,643     83,414     79,781      -5,862     -6.8%     -14,452      -7,136     -4,840     -14.0%
#37       Manhattan, KS       124,489   125,528    117,060    113,286     -12,242     -9.8%     -16,345     -22,866     -9,596     -25.9%
       Bozeman "Peers": Core Personal Income & Employment Growth
                              Total Personal Income   Core Income Growth                              Total Employment       Core Emp Growth
Rank       READ Region        2000 Dollars (Mil.)     1990 - 2002        Rank      READ Region                              1990 - 2002
                                  '90           '02                                                      '90       '02
#1       St. George, UT **       $775        $1,928     $1,153   149%     #1     St. George, UT **       21,442    51,319      29,877   139%
#2           Bend, OR           $1,794       $3,423     $1,629   91%      #2         Bend, OR            45,894    78,607      32,713   71%
#3       Bozeman, MT **          $996        $1,850      $854    86%      #3     Bozeman, MT **          31,992    54,751      22,759   71%
#4        Kingman, AZ **        $1,804       $3,186     $1,382   77%      #4      Kingman, AZ **         37,269    58,612      21,343   57%
#5        Flagstaff, AZ **      $1,710       $2,845     $1,135   66%      #5      Kalispell, MT **       33,287    50,964      17,677   53%
#6        Kalispell, MT **      $1,184       $1,916      $731    62%      #6      Flagstaff, AZ **       49,012    72,497      23,485   48%
#7         Missoula, MT         $1,577       $2,539      $961    61%      #7       Missoula, MT          48,046    70,584      22,538   47%
#8         Twin Falls, ID       $1,036       $1,570      $535    52%      #8       Bismarck, ND          40,932    57,310      16,378   40%
#9        Jonesboro, AR         $1,231       $1,863      $632    51%      #9     Idaho Falls, ID **      39,517    54,577      15,060   38%
#10       Farmington, MO         $754        $1,140      $386    51%     #10       Twin Falls, ID        31,570    43,577      12,007   38%
#11        Bismarck, ND         $1,340       $2,010      $670    50%     #11       Pocatello, ID         31,101    42,506      11,405   37%
#12         Gallup, NM           $730        $1,089      $359    49%     #12      Jonesboro, AR          40,144    52,420      12,276   31%
#13         Helena, MT          $1,009      $1,499      $490      49%    #13        Helena, MT           30,127    39,131       9,004   30%
#14       Cheyenne, WY          $1,749      $2,485      $735      42%    #14      Farmington, MO         20,606    26,584       5,978   29%
#15         Pocatello, ID       $1,177      $1,669      $492      42%    #15      Cheyenne, WY           44,537    55,849      11,312   25%
#16       Russellville, AR       $826       $1,167      $341      41%    #16      Russellville, AR       25,425    31,818       6,393   25%
#17     Port Angeles, WA **     $1,265      $1,723      $457      36%    #17       Stillwater, OK        35,760    44,551       8,791   25%
#18       Mcalester, OK          $648        $881       $232      36%    #18      Muskogee, OK           32,489    40,416       7,927   24%
#19      Idaho Falls, ID **     $1,569      $2,125      $556      35%    #19         Gallup, NM          21,793    27,102       5,309   24%
#20         Casper, WY          $1,639      $2,218      $580      35%    #20    Port Angeles, WA **      26,558    32,804       6,246   24%
#21          Clovis, NM          $772       $1,042      $270      35%    #21       Ardmore, OK           23,494    28,766       5,272   22%
#22       Altamont, OR **       $1,060      $1,430      $370      35%    #22          Paris, TX          23,372    28,507       5,135   22%
#23        Stillwater, OK       $1,089      $1,466      $378      35%    #23         Ukiah, CA           42,655    51,766       9,111   21%
#24          Ukiah, CA          $1,703      $2,280      $577      34%    #24         Salina, KS          32,679    39,459       6,780   21%
#25       Muskogee, OK          $1,125      $1,481      $355      32%    #25        Casper, WY           38,320    46,097       7,777   20%
#26           Paris, TX          $826       $1,071      $245      30%    #26         Minot, ND           33,917    40,254       6,337   19%
#27          Minot, ND          $1,195      $1,540      $345      29%    #27         Clovis, NM          19,817    23,348       3,531   18%
#28       Mason City, IA        $1,011      $1,247      $236      23%    #28       Mcalester, OK         17,996    21,197       3,201   18%
#29        Coos Bay, OR         $1,180      $1,449      $269      23%    #29      Altamont, OR **        28,667    32,799       4,132   14%
#30        Ardmore, OK           $843       $1,031      $188      22%    #30       Mason City, IA        29,650    33,769       4,119   14%
#31       Great Falls, MT       $1,682      $2,043      $361      21%    #31      Manhattan, KS          30,523    34,671       4,148   14%
#32        Fort Dodge, IA        $817        $992       $175      21%    #32      Great Falls, MT        43,530    49,197       5,667   13%
#33      Aberdeen, WA **        $1,270      $1,526      $256      20%    #33       Coos Bay, OR          28,038    30,612       2,574    9%
#34          Salina, KS         $1,221      $1,445      $224      18%    #34       Fort Dodge, IA        22,883    24,980       2,097    9%
#35        Burlington, IA        $935       $1,099      $164      18%    #35          Enid, OK           31,920    34,406       2,486    8%
#36           Enid, OK          $1,225      $1,406      $181      15%    #36       Burlington, IA        26,664    28,719       2,055    8%
#37       Manhattan, KS         $1,266      $1,450      $184      15%    #37     Aberdeen, WA **         30,593    31,829       1,236    4%
       Bozeman "Peers": Core Per Capita Income
                               P.C.I.                                 P.C.I.                                 P.C.I.   P.C.I. Growth
Rank       READ Region                  Rank      READ Region                  Rank      READ Region                  1990 - 2002           Rank
                                '90                                    '00                                    '02
 #1         Casper, WY        $26,738    #1       Casper, WY         $33,301    #1        Casper, WY        $32,891     $6,153        23%
 #2          Salina, KS       $24,706    #2        Salina, KS        $28,885    #2      Cheyenne, WY        $29,924     $6,020        25%
 #3       Cheyenne, WY        $23,904    #3      Cheyenne, WY        $28,547    #3      Bismarck, ND        $28,334     $6,114        28%
 #4          Bend, OR         $23,589    #4      Bismarck, ND        $27,586    #4      Mason City, IA      $27,517     $5,905        27%
 #5     Port Angeles, WA **   $22,385    #5      Mason City, IA      $26,832    #5         Bend, OR         $27,259     $3,670        16%
 #6       Bismarck, ND        $22,220    #6        Bend, OR          $26,594    #6         Minot, ND        $27,020     $6,350        31%
 #7        Burlington, IA     $21,913    #7      Burlington, IA      $26,549    #7         Salina, KS       $26,807     $2,101         9%
 #8       Great Falls, MT     $21,626    #8        Minot, ND         $25,685    #8        Helena, MT        $26,543     $5,341        25%
 #9      Idaho Falls, ID **   $21,615    #9       Helena, MT         $25,623    #9       Burlington, IA     $26,533     $4,620        21%
#10           Enid, OK        $21,612   #10        Ukiah, CA         $25,301   #10    Port Angeles, WA **   $26,066     $3,681        16%
#11       Mason City, IA      $21,612   #11     Bozeman, MT **       $25,139   #11         Ukiah, CA        $26,054     $4,993        24%
#12         Helena, MT        $21,202   #12      Great Falls, MT     $25,106   #12     Bozeman, MT **       $25,999     $6,395        33%
#13         Ukiah, CA         $21,062   #13       Fort Dodge, IA     $24,782   #13       Missoula, MT       $25,934     $5,986        30%
#14         Minot, ND         $20,670   #14       Missoula, MT       $24,696   #14      Great Falls, MT     $25,666     $4,040        19%
#15       Fort Dodge, IA      $20,258   #15    Port Angeles, WA **   $24,553   #15     Idaho Falls, ID **   $24,960     $3,345        15%
#16        Missoula, MT       $19,948   #16          Enid, OK        $23,896   #16      Fort Dodge, IA      $24,895     $4,637        23%
#17       Kalispell, MT **    $19,889   #17      Kalispell, MT **    $23,859   #17      Kalispell, MT **    $24,735     $4,846        24%
#18      Aberdeen, WA **      $19,721   #18      Manhattan, KS       $23,732   #18          Enid, OK        $24,601     $2,989        14%
#19        Ardmore, OK        $19,648   #19     Idaho Falls, ID **   $23,670   #19       Twin Falls, ID     $23,992     $4,746        25%
#20      Bozeman, MT **       $19,604   #20          Paris, TX       $22,741   #20      Flagstaff, AZ **    $23,730     $6,122        35%
#21       Coos Bay, OR        $19,520   #21       Ardmore, OK        $22,569   #21      Manhattan, KS       $23,569     $4,733        25%
#22        Twin Falls, ID     $19,246   #22      Flagstaff, AZ **    $22,526   #22         Clovis, NM       $23,189     $4,957        27%
#23       Kingman, AZ **      $18,895   #23       Coos Bay, OR       $22,201   #23      Coos Bay, OR        $23,144     $3,624        19%
#24       Manhattan, KS       $18,837   #24     Aberdeen, WA **      $21,959   #24       Ardmore, OK        $22,378     $2,730        14%
#25           Paris, TX       $18,760   #25      Jonesboro, AR       $21,952   #25      Jonesboro, AR       $22,240     $4,493        25%
#26      Altamont, OR **      $18,290   #26       Twin Falls, ID     $21,644   #26     Altamont, OR **      $22,240     $3,950        22%
#27          Clovis, NM       $18,232   #27      Altamont, OR **     $21,527   #27     Aberdeen, WA **      $22,224     $2,503        13%
#28      Russellville, AR     $17,864   #28       Stillwater, OK     $21,206   #28       Pocatello, ID      $22,000     $4,241        24%
#29        Pocatello, ID      $17,760   #29        Pocatello, ID     $21,081   #29          Paris, TX       $21,849     $3,089        16%
#30       Jonesboro, AR       $17,747   #30      Russellville, AR    $20,944   #30      Muskogee, OK        $21,200     $4,690        28%
#31        Stillwater, OK     $17,707   #31         Clovis, NM       $20,698   #31     Russellville, AR     $21,113     $3,249        18%
#32       Flagstaff, AZ **    $17,608   #32      Muskogee, OK        $20,537   #32       Stillwater, OK     $20,910     $3,204        18%
#33       Muskogee, OK        $16,509   #33      Farmington, MO      $19,015   #33     Farmington, MO       $20,074     $4,694        31%
#34       Mcalester, OK       $15,821   #34       Mcalester, OK      $18,985   #34      Mcalester, OK       $19,952     $4,132        26%
#35      St. George, UT **    $15,767   #35     St. George, UT **    $18,864   #35     St. George, UT **    $19,394     $3,628        23%
#36      Farmington, MO       $15,381   #36      Kingman, AZ **      $18,688   #36      Kingman, AZ **      $19,254      $360          2%
#37          Gallup, NM       $11,889   #37         Gallup, NM       $13,193   #37         Gallup, NM       $14,792     $2,903        24%
       Bozeman "Peers": Mean Annual Earnings, Median Family Income, and Poverty
                             Median Annual Earnings                                 Median Family Inc.                                Poverty Rate for
Rank      READ Region        Males       Females       Rank      READ Region        2000 Dollars         Rank      READ Region        Individuals
                             '99         '99                                        '89        '99                                      '89     '99
 #1     Idaho Falls, ID **       $39,729     $23,086    #1       Bismarck, ND          $46,280    $53,408 #1      Bismarck, ND         10.0     7.8
 #2       Pocatello, ID          $36,972     $24,194    #2         Bend, OR            $40,786    $49,632 #2      Mason City, IA        8.9     8.5
 #3     Aberdeen, WA **          $36,860     $24,878    #3     Idaho Falls, ID **      $45,100    $49,441 #3         Salina, KS        12.0     8.8
 #4    Port Angeles, WA **       $36,352     $25,254    #4        Helena, MT           $42,294    $47,954 #4      Cheyenne, WY         10.6     9.1
 #5       Burlington, IA         $35,766     $23,102    #5     Bozeman, MT **          $39,198    $47,824 #5         Bend, OR          10.9     9.3
 #6      Bismarck, ND            $35,636     $23,044    #6      Cheyenne, WY           $42,750    $47,718 #6      Fort Dodge, IA       11.8    10.0
 #7         Bend, OR             $34,935     $25,706    #7      Manhattan, KS          $37,403    $47,670 #7     Idaho Falls, ID **     9.9    10.1
 #8        Casper, WY            $34,376     $21,917    #8         Salina, KS          $40,707    $47,540 #8       Burlington, IA      11.3    10.7
 #9        Helena, MT            $34,366     $24,570    #9      Mason City, IA         $41,192    $47,270 #9         Minot, ND         12.7    10.8
#10         Ukiah, CA            $33,969     $24,378   #10      Flagstaff, AZ **       $40,206    $47,038 #10       Helena, MT         11.8    10.9
#11      Coos Bay, OR            $33,335     $23,091   #11        Casper, WY           $42,595    $46,733 #11    St. George, UT **     13.3    11.2
#12      Flagstaff, AZ **        $33,045     $25,691   #12       Burlington, IA        $42,107    $46,234 #12       Casper, WY         11.6    11.8
#13     Altamont, OR **          $32,866    $22,951    #13       Missoula, MT         $39,827   $46,005   #13   Port Angeles, WA **    12.5    12.5
#14      Kalispell, MT **        $32,718    $21,143    #14    Port Angeles, WA **     $39,948   $45,508   #14      Twin Falls, ID      13.6    12.7
#15      Mason City, IA          $32,597    $22,334    #15        Pocatello, ID       $41,618   $45,314   #15    Bozeman, MT **        17.1    12.8
#16      Cheyenne, WY            $32,448    $25,026    #16       Fort Dodge, IA       $37,741   $44,884   #16     Kalispell, MT **     14.5    13.0
#17       Missoula, MT           $32,408    $22,272    #17         Ukiah, CA          $41,030   $43,239   #17     Great Falls, MT      13.7    13.5
#18         Salina, KS           $32,309    $22,607    #18     St. George, UT **      $36,326   $42,908   #18      Pocatello, ID       13.8    13.9
#19     St. George, UT **        $32,069    $21,386    #19         Minot, ND          $35,743   $42,392   #19     Kingman, AZ **       14.2    13.9
#20      Stillwater, OK          $31,923    $21,649    #20       Stillwater, OK       $37,842   $41,860   #20         Enid, OK         14.1    13.9
#21      Fort Dodge, IA          $31,836    $23,627    #21      Kalispell, MT **      $37,478   $41,736   #21      Missoula, MT        17.0    14.8
#22     Bozeman, MT **           $31,650    $21,872    #22      Jonesboro, AR         $35,641   $41,721   #22    Farmington, MO        16.9    14.9
#23         Paris, TX            $31,315    $21,631    #23      Great Falls, MT       $36,603   $40,964   #23     Coos Bay, OR         16.5    15.0
#24      Jonesboro, AR           $31,137    $21,645    #24       Twin Falls, ID       $36,595   $40,899   #24    Russellville, AR      15.4    15.2
#25       Twin Falls, ID         $30,821    $21,354    #25          Enid, OK          $37,019   $40,885   #25     Jonesboro, AR        17.0    15.4
#26       Ardmore, OK            $30,780    $21,407    #26     Aberdeen, WA **        $37,070   $40,718   #26        Ukiah, CA         14.2    15.9
#27     Farmington, MO           $30,722    $19,905    #27      Russellville, AR      $34,485   $40,047   #27    Aberdeen, WA **       16.4    16.1
#28         Enid, OK             $30,681    $21,319    #28          Paris, TX         $34,665   $39,333   #28        Paris, TX         20.1    16.4
#29     Russellville, AR         $30,674    $19,797    #29      Altamont, OR **       $36,327   $39,141   #29      Ardmore, OK         19.7    16.6
#30     Great Falls, MT          $29,729    $21,503    #30       Coos Bay, OR         $34,620   $39,006   #30    Altamont, OR **       16.7    16.8
#31      Muskogee, OK            $29,398    $20,977    #31      Farmington, MO        $32,855   $38,213   #31     Mcalester, OK        19.6    17.2
#32     Kingman, AZ **           $29,229    $21,156    #32       Ardmore, OK          $35,448   $37,662   #32     Muskogee, OK         21.9    17.9
#33      Mcalester, OK           $29,193    $20,391    #33      Kingman, AZ **        $35,434   $37,233   #33     Flagstaff, AZ **     23.1    18.2
#34        Minot, ND             $28,691    $20,334    #34       Mcalester, OK        $30,556   $36,084   #34       Clovis, NM         19.2    19.0
#35        Gallup, NM            $27,648    $21,548    #35      Muskogee, OK          $32,999   $35,677   #35      Stillwater, OK      21.7    20.3
#36      Manhattan, KS           $27,538    $24,440    #36         Clovis, NM         $31,649   $34,761   #36     Manhattan, KS        21.2    20.6
#37        Clovis, NM            $25,723    $20,019    #37         Gallup, NM         $23,431   $27,487   #37       Gallup, NM         43.5    36.1
       Bozeman "Peers": Educational Attainment
                                                          Total     Percent             College     High  Total W/O H.S.       Adult Pop.
Rank       READ Region        College Grad   Bachelor   College     College    Some      Asso.     School  Diploma              used in
                                Degree        Degree    Educated   Educated   College   Degree    Diploma                      estimates
#1       Bozeman, MT **          5,208        11,385     16,593      41.0%    10,500     2,083     8,594    2,691       6.7%    40,461
#2        Manhattan, KS          5,546         6,350     11,896      40.5%     7,421     1,642     6,591    1,808       6.2%    29,358
#3         Stillwater, OK        5,731         7,002     12,733      34.2%     8,180     1,437     9,946    4,941      13.3%    37,237
#4         Missoula, MT          6,366        13,084     19,450      32.8%    15,870     2,901    15,733    5,344       9.0%    59,298
#5          Helena, MT           3,788         7,799     11,587      31.6%     9,316     1,874    10,742    3,171       8.6%    36,690
#6        Flagstaff, AZ **       7,442       12,316     19,758      29.9%     17,344    3,891     14,279    10,704     16.2%    65,976
#7        Bismarck, ND           3,240        9,570     12,810      28.7%     10,661    5,193     10,560    5,412      12.1%    44,636
#8       Idaho Falls, ID **      4,293        8,381     12,674      26.1%     12,936    4,142     12,831    5,919      12.2%    48,502
#9           Bend, OR            6,145       13,325     19,470      25.0%     22,274    5,984     21,178    9,075      11.6%    77,981
#10        Pocatello, ID         3,693        7,106     10,799      24.9%     12,715    3,163     11,217    5,391      12.5%    43,285
#11       Cheyenne, WY           4,292        8,146     12,438      23.4%     15,916    4,868     14,053    5,766      10.9%    53,041
#12       Kalispell, MT **       3,166        7,971     11,137      22.4%     13,588    3,454     15,197    6,272      12.6%    49,648
#13          Minot, ND           1,926        6,030      7,956      22.1%      9,829    3,229     10,397    4,546     12.6%     35,957
#14       Great Falls, MT        3,489        7,750     11,239      21.5%     13,360    3,538     17,448    6,748     12.9%     52,333
#15      St. George, UT **       3,646        7,222     10,868      21.0%     16,540    4,145     13,847    6,442     12.4%     51,842
#16       Jonesboro, AR          3,867        6,757     10,624      20.9%     10,178    1,793     16,615    11,515    22.7%     50,725
#17     Port Angeles, WA **      3,600        5,890      9,490      20.8%     13,170    3,723     12,696    6,632     14.5%     45,711
#18          Salina, KS          2,127        4,931      7,058      20.4%      9,110    2,025     11,979    4,508     13.0%     34,680
#19       Mason City, IA         1,920        4,405      6,325      20.3%      7,159    3,371     10,385    3,975     12.7%     31,215
#20          Ukiah, CA           4,526        6,979     11,505      20.2%     15,427    4,236     14,812    10,906    19.2%     56,886
#21         Casper, WY           2,819        5,719      8,538      20.0%     12,208    3,847     13,057    5,006     11.7%     42,656
#22           Enid, OK           2,513        4,930      7,443      19.6%      8,449    1,851     13,552    6,772     17.8%     38,067
#23       Russellville, AR       2,134        4,379      6,513      19.0%      7,365    1,184     11,501    7,734     22.6%    34,297
#24       Fort Dodge, IA         1,324        3,059      4,383      16.9%      5,470    2,465      9,569    4,094     15.8%    25,981
#25        Twin Falls, ID        2,080        4,257      6,337      16.0%     10,653    3,145     12,006    7,403     18.7%    39,544
#26        Burlington, IA        1,485        3,050      4,535      16.0%      6,214    2,468     11,173    4,035     14.2%    28,425
#27       Altamont, OR **        2,239        4,414      6,653      15.9%     10,569    2,591     14,275    7,745     18.5%    41,833
#28       Muskogee, OK           2,231        4,664      6,895      15.4%      9,727    2,767     14,304    11,197    24.9%    44,890
#29          Clovis, NM          1,486        2,546      4,032      15.3%      7,202    2,098      7,371    5,700     21.6%    26,403
#30        Ardmore, OK           1,440        3,126      4,566      15.1%      6,440    1,145     11,097    6,947     23.0%    30,195
#31        Coos Bay, OR          2,553        4,159      6,712      15.0%     12,950    3,041     13,727    8,237     18.4%    44,667
#32           Paris, TX          1,581        2,987      4,568      14.5%      7,237    1,824     10,501    7,482     23.7%    31,612
#33       Mcalester, OK          1,342        2,550      3,892      12.9%      6,020    2,068     11,017    7,165     23.8%    30,162
#34      Aberdeen, WA **         2,130        3,516      5,646      12.7%     11,830    3,372     15,308    8,432     18.9%    44,588
#35          Gallup, NM          2,077        2,585      4,662      12.0%      7,616    2,274     10,858    13,578    34.8%    38,988
#36      Farmington, MO          1,420        2,390      3,810      10.2%      7,790    2,436     12,911    10,289    27.6%    37,236
#37       Kingman, AZ **         3,906        6,949     10,855      9.9%      29,644    6,125     38,127    24,596    22.5%    109,347
        Keys Propositions in Bozeman’s Economic Future
Cities as Economic “Engines” Cities in Montana have become the settings if not the engines of
economic growth, diversification, and advancement, as is the case in the larger region. They are
growing centers of education, health care, entertainment, culture, business and finance. The greatest
growth and prosperity will center and expand in cities of quality. Tend to and plan well for this growth.

Fast-growing Larger Region The larger Rocky Mountain West region – Western Montana, Idaho,
Utah, Wyoming, Colorado – is one of the fastest growing regions in North America. Quality cities in
this region with quality businesses and quality workers will likewise grow and prosper.

Nearby Highly-valued Amenities Open lands, mountains, forest lands, free-flowing streams, and
similar amenities help support a high quality of life for area residents and have become “magnets” to
new migrants in the region. These amenities are all defining features of surrounding and nearby
landscapes of Bozeman. They have become key economic assets.

Human-Resource Based Economy While natural resource based segments of the region’s
economy remain important, growth is increasingly focused in areas such as health care, financial
services, business and professional services, construction and real estate. The economy is more and
more “human-resource based”. Well-designed, well-funded, adaptive systems for education and work
force development in the city and region are essential for continuing economic advancement.


Build new structures and networks for public-private leadership development and
interaction. Look forward. Anticipate and position yourself for future change.
Become a learning community. Become a more aware, adaptive and successful
community. Pursue opportunity.
          Bozeman’s Primary Economic Opportunity and Challenge
Area economic restructuring has been difficult for many areas of the West, particularly areas with small populations
that have not seen recent population growth. In the Bozeman area, this restructuring is being accompanied by
fairly rapid population and income growth that is translating into growth in many important areas of the economy.
A new economy is emerging in Bozeman as a result of this growth and change. The primary opportunity lies in
using this growth as a “bridge” in the continuing process of re-tooling and transitioning the area’s economy, better
positioning Bozeman and area communities for future economic prosperity.

The primary challenge lies in not permitting the very qualities that bring more and more people and businesses to
the Bozeman area to be irreparably degraded and lost as this growth continues. In order for growth to be
sustained and in order for growth to provide both quantitative and qualitative gains for the area, it must be
managed and guided.
 Framework for Community and Regional Economic Positioning
Pursue Economic Improvement at Sub-State Levels To be successful, economic development initiatives must
reflect underlying and emerging area strengths and weaknesses. So, economic development strategies and
approaches must vary from place to place. Don’t look for “one-size-fits-all” state-wide approaches.

Get your “region” right Pursuing economic development city-by-city or county-by-county is difficult. Influencing area
economic conditions and trends in positive ways requires capacity, best achieved at the regional level, by people,
businesses, and communities occupying common sub-state economic regions working together.

Know that Economic Development is more than Business Development It’s more than business retention,
expansion, and sometimes recruitment – all traditional focuses of ED. But it also entails strategic decisions and plans
regarding infrastructure and housing, workforce development and education more generally, and area planning.

Build Structures and Networks for Public-Private Leadership Interaction and Development Build and nurture a
network of people and organizations, cutting across private and public spheres, to sustain discussions about economic
development and to sustain efforts and initiatives coming from these discussions. The Big Table

Regionally Develop Healthy Urban-Rural, Community-to-Community Partnerships Within real economic regions,
the economy does not recognize bounds of urban and rural. It operates across them. Partnerships for area economic
improvement also must cross lines of urban and rural, while respecting and recognizing important differences in each.
Build around areas of mutual need and benefit. Build trust by working together.

Become a “Learning Community” and a “Learning Region” Area economic development is never finally attained. It
can only be pursued. It is a constant matter of attempting to position yourself – your businesses, organizations, workers,
families, schools, etc. – for future change. Positioning for change requires constant learning, systematically pursued by
key area leadership and the larger community.

Agree upon a Compelling and Realistic Vision for the Future Imagine where you want to be in the future, taking stock
of where you are today and where you were in the past. Visualize what you want your community and region to look like.
Identify steps and measures lying between where you are now and where you want to be in the future and pursue them in
deliberative, inter-coordinated and sustained ways. Make course corrections as necessary.
                Framework for Economic Success in the Bozeman Area
Project Bozeman into the larger region See yourself as an emerging city in he fast-growing Rocky Mountain West.
Project this vision forward.

Attend to Key Foundations for Future Economic Success Key elements for economic success extend beyond
business development and assistance. To be competitive with other cities in the region, you must have:

        - Quality Infrastructure: streets, water, sewer, schools, parks, neighborhoods, office buildings and
        complexes, business centers, educational facilities, downtown, etc., develop a “vision” for what you want
        the city to be and put it into place

        - Quality Workforce: adaptive well-stratified workforce, with access to good training and education
        programming – tailored to the particular needs and opportunities of area employers. The area COT and
        MSU-B working in tandem with area workforce training programs.

Adapt to Changing Area Age Demographics Recognize the “ebbs and flow” of population growth across differing
age groups and factor these into plans for housing, health care, school enrollment, workforce development, etc.

“Twin” Strategies for Business Development and Workforce Development using Clusters Stratify current and
potential employers in the area into “clusters” and customize strategies for each cluster.

Chart and Assess Your Progress using “Peers” Understanding change in your own community requires
understanding change in the larger region and among cities and regions like yours.

Establish an “Economic Development Roundtable” – Key leadership in the community extending across business
assistance, education, workforce development, infrastructure, and city planning must regularly meet in order that
this type of multi-faceted approach can be developed and pursued.

Build Healthy Urban-Rural Partnerships for Progress in the Region The futures of Bozeman and its surrounding
communities are inextricably linked. You are not competitors. You are allies.
Total Tax Revenues in
Montana

In actual dollars or dollars
unadjusted for inflation, state and
local tax revenues from all
sources have steadily risen over
time, as shown in the top chart.

This rise is much less
pronounced when these dollar
amounts are adjusted for
inflation, as shown in the lower
chart.




Source: 1998 – 2000 Biennial Report,
Montana Dept. of Revenue
            Montana Tax Revenues as a Share of Income
Actual tax collections as a share of total             Tax revenues as a share of income
personal income reflect the size of the state’s        Have steadily fallen from as high as 10.24% in
tax burden in relation to the size of Montana’s        1985 to a low of 7.78% in 2002. State revenues
economy.                                               are not growing as fast as are incomes.




                         Source: 2000-2002 Biennial Report, MT Department of Revenue
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   W e     N rida
      as v
           h ad
       W i ngt a
           yo o n
                m
                   in
                     g
    W
        as
             hi




                                                                       $1,200
                                                                                                  $1,500
                                                                                                           $1,800
                                                                                                                    $2,100




                            $0
                                 $300
                                               $600
                                                      $900
                ng
             N to n
                ev
     D H ada
        is aw
           t.
               o a
         Lo f C i i
              ui ol
                  si .
              F an
         W l or a
             yo ida
                   m
             Ar ing
                  iz
    C T on
       on e a

                                                                                         $1,400
     Te n ec xas
    N nne ticu
       ew s t
              M se
         Ar ex e
              ka i co
   So Co ns
      u t lo as
          h ra
              D d
         C ak o
             a o
        M li fo ta
            in rn
               n
         N e s ia
                                                                                $1,232




             ew o t
   U                Yo a
     ni
        t e U rk
            d ta
               St h
                    a
      M Geo tes
          iss rg
               is ia
                                                                       $1,151




             Ka sip p
   R               ns i
     ho Il as
   W      d e lino
      e s Is is
           t V la
                i nd
           M rgin
               iss ia
   N Ala ou
     or b ri
         th a
              D m
         N ak a
             eb o t
       W ra a
     N i sco ska
        ew n
                                                              $1,073




               J sin
          M ers
       O ich e y
           kl iga
              ah n
  N                om
    or
       th I a
            C ow
               a
          Ke rol a
               n t ina
                   uc
                M ky
                    ai
                                                                                                                             Gen. & Selective Sales Taxes Per Capita, 2001-02




                       ne
           Ve Oh
          M o   rm io
              ar n
   Pe V yl a t
       n n irg nd
             sy ini
                 lv a
              In ani
 So               di a
                     a
 M u th Id n a
   as C ah
      sa o     ar o
           ch lin
N
                                                       $877




  ew            us a
                     e
      H Ala tts
          am s
                      k
         D psh a
             el ir
                aw e
           M a
               on re
             O ta n
                re a
                    go
                        n
                                        $415
      D
        is Ala




                                                                                           $12,000
                                                                                                     $15,000




                                 $3,000
                                          $6,000
                                                                                $9,000




                            $0
          t. sk
         N of C a
            ew o
         W Y l.
            y o
         C om rk
    W ali ing
        a s for
            h n
        M i ng ia




                                                                                  $8,780
           in to
              ne n
    C O so
 M on re ta
   as n go
      sa ec n
          ch tic
               us ut
     N H etts
        ew aw
              J ai
   R De erse i
     ho la y
         d e wa
                      r
         C Isla e
       W olo nd
          i s rad
              c o
   U Ne ons
     ni br in
        te a
           d sk
              St a
                   at
                      e
                  O s
   Pe                h
       n n Il li io
                                                                       $7,280



 So
     u t syl no i
        h va s
           C n
              a i
          M ro li a
             ich n a
    N N iga
       ew ev n
             M ada
                 ex
                     ic
                        o
          Ve Uta
               rm h
                     o
               M n
   W Ma ai t
      e s ry ne
          t V la
               i rg nd
   N                in
     or
  N th Io ia
    or D w
       th a a
                   k
      Te Car o ta
          nn ol i
               e n
                                                              $6,527




          Al sse a
             ab e
            G am
               eo a
                   r
              T g ia
          M e xa
              on s
            Ka ta n
                 n a
             F sa
                                                                                                               State & Local Govt. Expenditures Per Capita, 2001-02




                                                         $6,226




         Lo l or s
             ui ida
                 s
            Vi ian
         Ke rg i a
              n t ni a
                  uc
      M Ariz ky
         iss o
       O iss na
          kl ip
             ah pi
                  o
             In ma
          M dian
N             iss a
  ew               o
      H Id uri
   So am a
      u t ps ho
          h h
             D i
                                          $5,846




         Ar ak re
             ka ota
                  ns
                     as
                                                $5,663

								
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