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Presidential Powers

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					Hail to the Chief
  Demographic Characteristics of U.S.
                Presidents
• 100% male            • 70% politicians
• 97% Caucasian        "Washington outsiders" (i.e., the 18
                         presidents who never served in
Barack Obama is the first African             Congress) are: Washington, J.
   American to be elected president of        Adams, Jefferson, Taylor, Grant,
   the United States. He was also born
   in Hawaii, making him the first            Arthur, Cleveland, T. Roosevelt,
   president not born in the continental      Taft, Wilson, Coolidge, Hoover, F.
   United States.                             Roosevelt, Eisenhower, Carter,
                                              Reagan, Clinton, and G. W. Bush.
• 97% Protestant                           served as Vice Presidents: J. Adams,
• 81% British ancestry                        Jefferson, Van Buren, Tyler,
                                              Fillmore, A. Johnson, Arthur, T.
8 were born British subjects:                 Roosevelt, Coolidge, Truman,
   Washington, J. Adams,                      Nixon, L. Johnson, Ford, and
   Jefferson, Madison,                        George H.W. Bush.
   Monroe, J. Q. Adams,                    • 64% lawyers
   Jackson, and W. Harrison.
           Demographic Characteristics of U.S.
                     Presidents
• 79% college educated                         • >50% from the top 3%
                                                 wealth and social class
•   NINE PRESIDENTS never attended
    college: Washington, Jackson, Van
    Buren, Taylor, Fillmore, Lincoln, A.       • 1% born into poverty
    Johnson, Cleveland, and Truman.
•   The college that has the most presidents
    as alumni (six in total) is Harvard: J.    • 70% elected from large
    Adams, J. Q. Adams, T. Roosevelt, F.         states
    Roosevelt, Kennedy, G. W. Bush
    (business school), and Barack Obama
    (law school). Yale is a close second,      • Average age 50-59.
    with five presidents as alumni: Taft,
    Ford (law school), G.H.W. Bush,            Oldest was Reagan (age 69); the youngest
    Clinton (law school), and G. W. Bush.         was Kennedy (age 43). Theodore
                                                  Roosevelt, however, was the youngest
                                                  man to become president—he was 42
                                                  when he succeeded McKinley, who had
                                                  been assassinated.
                     Other Random Tidbits
• THE TALLEST president was Lincoln at 6'4"; at 5'4", Madison was the
  shortest.

• EIGHT LEFT-HANDED PRESIDENTS: James A. Garfield, Herbert
  Hoover, Harry S. Truman, Gerald Ford, Ronald Reagan, George H.W.
  Bush, Bill Clinton, and Barack Obama.

• EIGHT PRESIDENTS died in office: W. Harrison (after having served
  only one month), Taylor, Lincoln, Garfield, McKinley, Harding, F.
  Roosevelt, and Kennedy.

• JAMES BUCHANAN was the only president never to marry. Five
  presidents remarried after the death of their first wives—two of whom,
  Tyler and Wilson, remarried while in the White House. Reagan was the
  only divorced president. Six presidents had no children. Tyler—father of
  fifteen—had the most.
      What makes a good
           POTUS?
• Take out your homework from yesterday.

• What were the “qualities” of current and past
  presidents that made them memorable/good
  representatives of our country?
                      Fortunate Son
          Recorded by Creedence Clearwater Revival
                                  (1969)
Some folks are born made to           Some folks are born silver
   wave the flag,                        spoon in hand,
Ooh, they’re red, white and           Lord, don’t they help
   blue.                                 themselves, oh.
And when the band plays,              But when the taxman comes to
   “Hail to the Chief,”                  the door,
Ooh, they point the cannon at         Lord, the house looks like a
   you, lord,                            rummage sale, yes,
It ain’t me, it ain’t me, I ain’t     It ain’t me, it ain’t me, I ain’t
   no senator’s son, son.                no millionaire’s son, son.
It ain’t me, it ain’t me, I ain’t     It ain’t me, it ain’t me, I ain’t
   no fortunate one, no.                 no fortunate one, no.
                    Fortunate Son
       Recorded by Creedence Clearwater Revival
                       (1969)

                                   It ain’t me, it ain’t me, I ain’t
Some folks inherit star spangled      no military son, son.
  eyes,
                                   It ain’t me, it ain’t me, I ain’t
Ooh, they send you down to            no fortunate one, one.
  war, lord,
And when you ask them, “How
                                   It ain’t me, it ain’t me, I ain’t
  much should we give?”
                                      no fortunate son, son.
Ooh, they only answer more!
                                   It ain’t me, it ain’t me, I ain’t
  more! more! yo,
                                      no fortunate son, no, no, no.
Constitutional Qualifications

 Must be at least 35
  years old

 Must have lived in
  the United States for
  14 years

 Must be a natural
  born citizen
Presidential Benefits
 $400,000 tax-free salary
 $50,000/year expense
  account
 $100,000/year travel
  expenses
 The White House
 Secret Service
  protection
 Camp David country
  estate
 Air Force One personal     Christmas at the White House, 2004
  airplane
 Staff of 400-500
Presidential Roles
 The POTUS has to wear many hats!
                 Head of State
                                           Queen Elizabeth and President Reagan, 1983




President Kennedy speaks at Berlin Wall,
                1963
          Chief Executive




President Clinton with Janet Reno,   President Bush holds cabinet meeting
the first female Attorney General,             in October, 2005
           February, 1993
Commander-in-Chief




President Johnson decorates a soldier
      in Vietnam, October, 1966



                                        President Bush aboard U.S.S.
                                             Lincoln, May, 2003
           Chief Legislator
                                         President Clinton delivers the State
                                             of the Union Address, 1997




President Roosevelt signs into law the
      Social Security Act, 1935
Political Party Leader




 President Reagan & Vice-President Bush accepting their party’s
                     nomination in 1980
              Crisis Manager

                                  President Bush at Ground Zero after 9-11




Vice-President Johnson sworn in
     aboard Air Force One
   after President Kennedy’s
       assassination, 1963
              Moral Persuader




President Lincoln during the Civil   President Roosevelt and the “Bully
            War, 1862                          Pulpit,” 1910
FORMAL POWERS OF THE
 PRESIDENT:

     Why formal?
Formal Powers of the
President

 Constitutional or enumerated powers of the
  presidency



 Found primarily in Article II of the Constitution
Formal Powers:
   Commander-in-Chief
 Commander in Chief of the Army & Navy

 Commander in Chief of the state militias (now
  the National Guard)

 Commission all officers

 Examples: FDR C-in-C during WWII,
  G.W. Bush deploys National Guard Reserves to
  Operation Iraqi Freedom
 Formal Powers:
    Chief Executive
 “Faithfully execute” the laws
 Require the opinion of heads of executive
  departments (Washington created the Cabinet)
 Grant pardons for federal offenses except for
  cases of impeachment (Ford pardons Nixon ‘74)
 Nominate judges of the Supreme Court and all
  other officers of the U.S. with consent of the
  Senate
 Fill vacancies that may happen during recess of
  the Senate
Formal Powers:
   Foreign Affairs

 Appoint ambassadors, ministers and consuls
 Make treaties subject to Senate confirmation
 Receive ambassadors from other nations
Formal Powers:
   Chief Legislator

 Give State of the Union address to Congress
 Recommend “measures” to the Congress
 Upon “extraordinary occasions” convene both
  houses of Congress
Formal Powers:
   Chief Legislator (cont.)
 Presidential Veto
    Veto Message within 10 days of passing the House of
     origin
    Pocket Veto - President does not sign within 10 days
    Congress can override with 2/3 majority from both
     Houses
 Veto Politics
    Congressional override is difficult (only 4%)
    Threat of veto can cause Congress to make changes in
     legislation
       Informal Powers
• Those powers not explicitly written in the
  Constitution
• Similar to “necessary and proper” powers
  of Congress
• In the modern era (since 1933), the
  President’s informal powers may be
  significantly more powerful than his
  formal powers
            Homework!
• Students will read the handout:
  Informal Powers of the President.

• Answer all six questions for tomorrow.
        Executive Orders
• Orders issued by the
  President that carry the force
  of law
• Clinton’s “Don’t ask don’t
  tell” gays in the military
  policy
• FDR’s internment of
  Japanese Americans
• GWB trying suspected
  terrorists in military tribunals
                                Notice for Japanese “relocation,” 1942
      Executive Agreements
• International agreements, usually related to trade, made
  by a president that has the force of a treaty; does NOT
  need Senate approval
• Jefferson’s purchase of Louisiana in 1803
• GWB announced cuts in
  the nuclear arsenal, but
  not in a treaty; usually
  trade agreements between
     US and other nations
        Executive Privilege
• Claim by a president that he has the right to decide
  that the national interest will be better served if
  certain information is withheld from the public,
  including the Courts and Congress
• United States v. Nixon
  (1973) – presidents do
  NOT have unqualified
  executive privilege (Nixon
  Watergate tapes)
Presidential Quotations
1. Interpret the quote i.e. what is the
president saying?

2. What seems to be the president’s
attitude toward his job?

3. What powers and/or roles of the
POTUS apply to the quote?

4. What message or wisdom can be
gleaned from the quote?
President Harry S. Truman
                                  "I sit here all day
                                  trying to persuade
                                  people to do the things
                                  they ought to have the
                                  sense to do without my
                                  persuading them.
                                  That's all the powers
                                  of the President
                                  amount to."
Truman, 33rd President, 1945-53
President John F. Kennedy

“No easy problem
ever comes to the
President of the
United States. If
they are easy to
solve, somebody else
has solved them.”
                       President Kennedy’s nationally televised
                       address during the Cuban Missile Crisis,
                                    October, 1962
President Lyndon B. Johnson

                             “The presidency has
                             made every man who
                             occupied it, no matter
                             how small, bigger than
                             he was; and no matter
                             how big, not big enough
                             for its demands.”



     President Johnson,
   36th President, 1963-69
 President Richard M. Nixon
"Under the doctrine of
the separation of
powers, the manner in
which the president
personally exercises his
assigned executive
powers is not subject to
questioning by another
branch of                  In the aftermath of the Watergate scandal,
government."                President Nixon departs the White House
                                 after his resignation, Aug., 1974
President George W. Bush
“To those of you who
received honors,
awards, and
distinctions, I say 'Well
done.' And to the C
students, I say 'You, too,
can be president of the
United States.'”
President George W. Bush, speaking
at Yale University's 300th
commencement ceremony
                                     President Bush, 43rd President,
                                              2001-present

				
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