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An ankle monitor (also known as a tether) is a device that individuals under
house arrest or parole are often required to wear. At timed intervals, the ankle
monitor sends a radio frequency signal containing location and other information to
a receiver. If an offender moves outside of an allowed range, the police will be
notified. Ankle monitors are designed to be tamper-resistant and can alert
authorities to removal attempts, such as cutting the conductive band causing a
The most common configuration is a radio-frequency transmitter unit that sends a
signal to a fixed location receiving unit in the offender's residence. The residence
unit uses either a land line or a cellular network to relay information to a service
center computer. If the offender is not at the residence at times stipulated, an alert
message is sent to the service center, and then relayed to the supervising probation
or parole officer. GPS units are similar in design, but the offender also carries a
GPS cell phone unit that receives a signal from the ankle unit, or both functions
may be combined into one ankle unit.
Electronic monitoring was originally developed by a small group of researchers at
Harvard University in the 1960s, headed by R. Kirkland Schwitzgebel and his twin A woman wearing an ankle monitor at the
brother, Robert Schwitzgebel (family name shortened to "Gable" in 1983). In 1983, beach.
Judge Jack Love in Albuquerque, New Mexico, inspired by a Spider-Man comic
strip,  initiated the first judicially sanctioned program using monitoring devices. These were produced by Michael T. Goss, a
former Honeywell computer sales representative. Shortly thereafter, programs began in Florida using a cuff invented by
Thomas Moody. Within six years, at least 16 manufacturers were listed in the Journal of Offender Monitoring. In 2007, an
estimated 130,000 units were deployed daily in the United States. They also gained popularity in the United Kingdom, but
adoption in the rest of the EU was a little slower. A collection of early equipment and a written summary, with photographs, of
the history of commercial devices in the United States  is housed at the Archives of the History of American Psychology,
University of Akron, Akron, Ohio, USA.
The effectiveness of monitoring in reducing crime is uncertain. There is probably a reduction of criminal behavior while the
offender is actually being monitored,  however a thorough and comprehensive review of research literature has indicated
that, over a period of three years, monitoring did not reduce crime more than other prison diversion programs.  The
inventors, Kirkland and Robert Gable, who are now emeritus Professors of Psychology at California Lutheran University and
the Claremont Graduate University, have been strongly advocating the use of positive incentives in monitoring programs. 
Continuous transdermal alcohol monitoring is capable of monitoring alcohol consumption in individuals.  The National
Highway Traffic Safety Administration produced a favorable report on the use of electronic monitoring of DUI offenders, with
lower recidivism rates and less cost compared to jail. 
1. ^ Cronin, Brian. "Comic Book Urban Legends Revealed #38! " Comic Book Resources, 16 February 2006.
2. ^ Robert S. Gable, An Informal History of the Beginning of Electronic Monitoring of Offenders, Dec. 8, 2009
3. ^ See Kathy S. Padgett, et al., Under Surveillance: An Empirical Test of the Effectiveness and Consequences of Electronic
Monitoring, Criminology and Public Policy,2006, vol. 5, pp. 61-92
4. ^ See Marc Renzema & Evan Mayo-Wilson, Can Electronic Monitoring Reduce Crime for Moderate to High-risk Offenders?
Journal of Experimental Criminology, 2005, vol 1, pp. 1-23.
5. ^ Ralph Kirkland Gable & Robert S. Gable, Electronic Monitoring: Positive Intervention Strategies, Federal Probation, 2005, vol 69,
pp. 21-25, at http://www.uscourts.gov/fedprob/jun2005/intervention.html
6. ^ Marques, Paul R.; A. Scott McKnight (November 2007). "Evaluating Transdermal Alcohol Measuring Devices" . National
Highway Traffic Safety Administration. Retrieved 30 March 2012.
7. ^ http://www.nhtsa.dot.gov/people/injury/enforce/PromisingSentence/pages/PSP6.htm NHTSA article
via Ankle monitor